Contents 1 Taxonomy 2 Living Environment 3 Adaptations to Environment 4 Phototrophy in Haloarchaea 5 Cellular Shapes 6 Haloarchaea as exophiles 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 9.1 Scientific journals 9.2 Scientific books 9.3 Scientific databases 10 External links

Taxonomy[edit] The extremely halophilic, aerobic members of Archaea are classified within the family Halobacteriaceae, order Halobacteriales in Class III. Halobacteria of the phylum Euryarchaeota (International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Halobacteriaceae). As of May 2016, the family Halobacteriaceae comprises 50 genera 213 species. Domain : Archaea Euryarchaeota Halobacteria Halobacteriales Halobacteriaceae Haladaptatus [Hap.] Haladaptatus cibarius Haladaptatus litoreus Haladaptatus pallidirubidus Haladaptatus paucihalophilus (Type species) Halalkalicoccus [Hac.] Halalkalicoccus jeotgali Halalkalicoccus paucihalophilus Halalkalicoccus tibetensis (Type species) "Halanaeroarchaeum" ["Haa".] "Halanaeroarchaeum sulfurireducens" (Type species) (IJSEM, in press) Halapricum [Hpr.] Halapricum salinum (Type species) Halarchaeum [Hla.] Halarchaeum acidiphilum (Type species) Halarchaeum grantii Halarchaeum nitratireducens Halarchaeum rubridurum Halarchaeum salinum Halarchaeum solikamskense Haloarchaeobius [Hab.] Haloarchaeobius amylolyticus Haloarchaeobius baliensis Haloarchaeobius iranensis (Type species) Haloarchaeobius litoreus Haloarchaeobius salinus Haloarcula [Har.] Haloarcula amylolytica Haloarcula argentinensis Haloarcula hispanica Haloarcula japonica Haloarcula marismortui Haloarcula quadrata Haloarcula salaria Haloarcula tradensis Haloarcula vallismortis (Type species) Halobacterium [Hbt.] (Type genus) Halobacterium jilantaiense Halobacterium noricense "Halobacterium piscisalsi" (subjective junior synonym of Halobacterium salinarum)[3] Halobacterium ruburm Halobacterium salinarum (Type species) Halobaculum [Hbl.] Halobaculum gomorrense (Type species) Halobaculum magnesiiphilum Halobellus [Hbs.] Halobellus clavatus (Type species) Halobellus inordinatus Halobellus limi Halobellus litoreus Halobellus ramosii Halobellus rarus Halobellus rufus Halobellus salinus Halobiforma [Hbf.] Halobiforma haloterrestris (Type species) Halobiforma lacisalsi Halobiforma nitratireducens Halocalculus [Hcl.] Halocalculus aciditolerans (Type species) Halococcus [Hcc.] Halococcus agarilyticus Halococcus dombrowskii Halococcus hamelinensis Halococcus morrhuae (Type species) Halococcus qingdaonensis Halococcus saccharolyticus Halococcus salifodinae Halococcus sediminicola Halococcus thailandensis Haloferax [Hfx.] Haloferax alexandrinus Haloferax chudinovii Haloferax denitrificans Haloferax elongans Haloferax gibbonsii Haloferax larsenii Haloferax lucentense Haloferax mediterranei Haloferax mucosum Haloferax prahovense Haloferax sulfurifontis Haloferax volcanii (Type species) Halogeometricum [Hgm.] Halogeometricum borinquense (Type species) Halogeometricum limi Halogeometricum pallidum Halogeometricum rufum Halogranum [Hgn.] Halogranum amylolyticum Halogranum gelatinilyticum Halogranum rubrum (Type species) Halogranum salarium Halohasta [Hht.] Halohasta litorea (Type species) Halohasta litchfieldiae Halolamina [Hlm.] Halolamina pelagica (Type species) Halolamina rubra Halolamina salifodinae Halolamina salina Halolamina sediminis Halomarina [Hmr.] Halomarina oriensis (Type species) Halomicroarcula [Hma.] Halomicroarcula limicola Halomicroarcula pellucida (Type species) Halomicroarcula salina Halomicrobium [Hmc.] Halomicrobium katesii Halomicrobium mukohataei (Type species) Halomicrobium zhouii Halonotius [Hns.] Halonotius pteroides (Type species) "Haloparvum" ["Hpv".] "Haloparvum sedimenti" (Type species) (IJSEM, in press) Halopelagius [Hpl.] Halopelagius inordinatus (Type species) Halopelagius fulvigenes Halopelagius longus Halopenitus [Hpt.] Halopenitus malekzadehii Halopenitus persicus (Type species) Halopenitus salinus Halopiger [Hpg.] Halopiger aswanensis Halopiger salifodinae Halopiger xanaduensis (Type species) Haloplanus [Hpn.] Haloplanus aerogenes Haloplanus litoreus Haloplanus natans (Type species) Haloplanus ruber Haloplanus salinus Haloplanus vescus Haloquadratum [Hqr.] Haloquadratum walsbyi (Type species) Halorhabdus [Hrd.] Halorhabdus tiamatea Halorhabdus utahensis (Type species) "Halorhabdus rudnickae" (Syst Appl Microbiol., in press) Halorientalis [Hos.] Halorientalis brevis Halorientalis persicus Halorientalis regularis (Type species) Halorubellus [Hrb.] Halorubellus litoreus Halorubellus salinus (Type species) Halorubrum [Hrr.] Halorubrum aquaticum Halorubrum aidingense Halorubrum alkaliphilum Halorubrum arcis Halorubrum californiense Halorubrum chaoviator Halorubrum cibi Halorubrum coriense Halorubrum distributum Halorubrum ejinorense Halorubrum ezzemoulense Halorubrum gandharaense Halorubrum halodurans Halorubrum halophilum Halorubrum kocurii Halorubrum lacusprofundi Halorubrum laminariae Halorubrum lipolyticum Halorubrum litoreum Halorubrum luteum Halorubrum orientale Halorubrum persicum Halorubrum rubrum "Halorubrum rutilum" (Arch Microbiol.,2015, 197(10):1159-1164) Halorubrum saccharovorum (Type species) Halorubrum salinum Halorubrum sodomense Halorubrum tebenquichense Halorubrum terrestre Halorubrum tibetense Halorubrum trapanicum Halorubrum vacuolatum Halorubrum yunnanense Halorubrum xinjiangense Halorussus [Hrs.] Halorussus amylolyticus Halorussus rarus Halorussus ruber "Halosiccatus" ["Hsc".] "Halosiccatus urmianus" (Type species) (IJSEM, in press) Halosimplex [Hsx.] Halosimplex carlsbadense (Type species) Halosimplex litoreum Halosimplex pelagicum Halosimplex rubrum Halostagnicola [Hst.] Halostagnicola alkaliphila Halostagnicola bangensis Halostagnicola kamekurae Halostagnicola larsenii (Type species) "Halostella" ["Hsl".] "Halostella salina" (Type species) (IJSEM, in press) Haloterrigena [Htg.] Haloterrigena daqingensis Haloterrigena hispanica Haloterrigena jeotgali Haloterrigena limicola Haloterrigena longa Haloterrigena saccharevitans Haloterrigena salina Haloterrigena thermotolerans Haloterrigena turkmenica (Type species) Halovarius [Hvr.] Halovarius luteus (Type species) Halovenus [Hvn.] Halovenus aranensis (Type species) Halovenus rubra Halovenus salina Halovivax [Hvx.] Halovivax asiaticus (Type species) Halovivax cerinus Halovivax limisalsi Halovivax ruber Natrialba [Nab.] Natrialba aegyptia Natrialba asiatica (Type species) Natrialba chahannaoensis Natrialba hulunbeirensis Natrialba magadii Natrialba taiwanensis Natribaculum [Nbl.] Natribaculum breve (Type species) Natribaculum longum Natrinema [Nnm.] Natrinema altunense Natrinema ejinorense Natrinema gari Natrinema pallidum Natrinema pellirubrum (Type species) Natrinema salaciae Natrinema versiforme Natronoarchaeum [Nac.] Natronoarchaeum mannanilyticum (Type species) Natronoarchaeum philippinense Natronoarchaeum rubrum Natronobacterium [Nbt.] Natronobacterium gregoryi (Type species) Natronobacterium texcoconense Natronococcus [Ncc.] Natronococcus amylolyticus Natronococcus jeotgali Natronococcus occultus (Type species) Natronococcus roseus Natronolimnobius [Nln.] Natronolimnobius baerhuensis (Type species) Natronolimnobius innermongolicus Natronomonas [Nmn.] Natronomonas gomsonensis Natronomonas moolapensis Natronomonas pharaonis (Type species) Natronorubrum [Nrr.] Natronorubrum aibiense Natronorubrum bangense (Type species) Natronorubrum sediminis Natronorubrum sulfidifaciens Natronorubrum texcoconense Natronorubrum tibetense Salarchaeum [Sar.] Salarchaeum japonicum (Type species) Salinarchaeum [Saa.] Salinarchaeum laminariae (Type species) Salinigranum [Sgn.] Salinigranum rubrum (Type species) Salinirubrum [Srr.] Salinirubrum litoreum (Type species) non-valid "Halorubrum sfaxense" "Candidatus Halobonum tyrrellensis[4]。 "Candidatus Haloectosymbiotes riaformosensis"[5]。 "Halopiger djelfamassiliensis sp"[6]。 "Halopiger goleamassiliensis"[7]。 "Haloferax namakaokahaiae"'[8]。 "Halorubrum tropicale"[9]。 "Haloarcula rubripromontorii"[10]。 "Halobacterium hubeiense"[11]。 Classification of Gupta et al.[12][13] Halobacteriales Halobacteriaceae (Type genera: Halobacterium)   Haladaptatus, Halalkalicoccus, Haloarchaeobius, Halarchaeum, Halobacterium, Halocalculus, Halorubellus, Halorussus, "Halosiccatus", Halovenus, Natronoarchaeum, Natronomonas, Salarchaeum. Haloarculaceae (Type genera: Haloarcula)   Halapricum, Haloarcula, Halomicroarcula, Halomicrobium, Halorientalis, Halorhabdus, Halosimplex. Halococcaceae (Type genera: Halococcus)   Halococcus. Haloferacales Haloferacaceae (Type genera: Haloferax)   Halabellus, Haloferax, Halogeometricum, (Halogranum), Halopelagius, Haloplanus, Haloquadratum, Halosarcina. Halorubraceae (Type genera: Halorubrum)   Halobaculum, (Halogranum), Halohasta, Halolamina, Halonotius, Halopenitus, Halorubrum, Salinigranum. Natrialbales Natrialbaceae (Type genera: Natrialba)   Halobiforma, Halopiger, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, Halovarius, Halovivax, Natrialba, Natribaculum, Natronobacterium, Natronococcus, Natronolimnobius, Natronorubrum, Salinarchaeum.

Living Environment[edit] Salt ponds with pink colored Haloarchaea Haloarchaea require salt concentrations in excess of 2 M (or about 10%) to grow, and optimal growth usually occurs at much higher concentrations, typically 20–25%. However, Haloarchaea can grow up to saturation (about 37% salts).[14] Haloarchaea are found mainly in hypersaline lakes and solar salterns. Their high densities in the water often lead to pink or red colourations of the water (the cells possessing high levels of carotenoid pigments, presumably for UV protection).[15]

Adaptations to Environment[edit] Haloarchaea can grow at an aw close to 0.75, yet a water activity (aw) lower than 0.90 is inhibitory to most microbes.[16] The number of solutes causes osmotic stress on microbes, which can cause cell lysis, unfolding of proteins and inactivation of enzymes when there is a large enough imbalance.[17] Haloarchaea combat this by retaining compatible solutes such as potassium chloride (KCl) in their intracellular space to allow them to balance osmotic pressure.[18] Retaining these salts is referred to as the “salt-in” method where the cell accumulates a high internal concentration of potassium.[19] Because of the elevated potassium levels, haloarchaea have specialized proteins which have a highly negative surface charge to tolerate high potassium concentrations.[20] Haloarchaea have adapted to use glycerol as a carbon and energy source in catabolic processes, which is often present in high salt environments due to Dunaliella species that produce glycerol in large quantities.[21] [22]

Phototrophy in Haloarchaea[edit] Bacteriorhodopsin is used to absorb light, which provides energy to transport protons (H+) across the cellular membrane. The concentration gradient generated from this process can then be used to synthesize ATP. Many haloarchaea also possess related pigments, including halorhodopsin, which pumps chloride ions in the cell in response to photons, creating a voltage gradient and assisting in the production of energy from light. The process is unrelated to other forms of photosynthesis involving electron transport however, and haloarchaea are incapable of fixing carbon from carbon dioxide.[23]

Cellular Shapes[edit] Haloarchaea are often considered pleomorphic, or able to take on a range of shapes—even within a single species. This makes identification by microscopic means difficult, and it is now more common to use gene sequencing techniques for identification instead. One of the more unusually shaped Haloarchaea is the "Square Haloarchaeon of Walsby." It was classified in 2004 using a very low nutrition solution to allow growth along with a high salt concentration, square in shape and extremely thin (like a postage stamp). This shape is probably only permitted by the high osmolarity of the water, permitting cell shapes that would be difficult, if not impossible, under other conditions.

Haloarchaea as exophiles[edit] Haloarchaea have been proposed as a kind of life that could live on Mars; since the Martian atmosphere has a pressure below the triple point of water, freshwater species would have no habitat on the Martian surface.[24]

See also[edit] Life on Mars

References[edit] ^ See the NCBI webpage on Halobacteria. Data extracted from the "NCBI taxonomy resources". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2007-03-19.  ^ Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sharma, Divya; Gulati, Sneha; Singh, Surender; Dey, Rinku; Pal, Kamal Krishna; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar (2015-07-28). "Haloarchaea Endowed with Phosphorus Solubilization Attribute Implicated in Phosphorus Cycle". Scientific Reports. 5. doi:10.1038/srep12293. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4516986 . PMID 26216440.  ^ Minegishi, H., Echigo, A., Shimane, Y., Kamekura, M., Tanasupawat, S., Visessanguan, W., Usami, R. (2012) "Halobacterium piscisalsi Yachai et al. 2008 is later heterotypic synonym of Halobacterium salinarum Elazari-Volcani 1957." Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 62: 2160-2162 ^ Ugalde JA, Narasingarao P, Kuo S, Podell S, Allen EE. (2013) Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Halobonum tyrrellensis" Strain G22, Isolated from the Hypersaline Waters of Lake Tyrrell, Australia. Genome Announc. 12;1(6). ^ Filker S, Kaiser M, Rosselló-Móra R, Dunthorn M, Lax G, Stoeck T. (2014) "Candidatu Haloectosymbiotes riaformosensis" (Halobacteriaceae), an archaeal ectosymbiont of the hypersaline ciliate Platynematum salinarum. Syst Appl Microbiol. 37(4):244-251. ^ Hassani II, Robert C, Michelle C, Raoult D, Hacène H, Desnues C. (2013) Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Halopiger djelfamassiliensis sp. nov.Stand Genomic Sci. 9(1):160-174. ^ Ikram HI, Catherine R, Caroline M, Didier R, Hocine H, Christelle D. (2014) Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Halopiger goleamassiliensis sp. nov.Stand Genomic Sci. 9(3):956-959. ^ McDuff S, King GM, Neupane S, Myers MR. (2016) Isolation and characterization of extremely halophilic CO-oxidizing Euryarchaeota from hypersaline cinders, sediments and soils, and description of a novel CO oxidizer, Haloferax namakaokahaiae Mke2.3T, sp. nov.FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 92(4). ^ Sánchez-Nieves R, Facciotti MT, Saavedra-Collado S, Dávila-Santiago L, Rodríguez-Carrero R, Montalvo-Rodríguez R. (2016) Draft genome sequence of Halorubrum tropicale strain V5, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Genom Data. 6;7:284-286. ^ Sánchez-Nieves R, Facciotti MT, Saavedra-Collado S, Dávila-Santiago L, Rodríguez-Carrero R, Montalvo-Rodríguez R. (2016) Draft genome of Haloarcula rubripromontorii strain SL3, a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Genom Data. 6;7:287-289. ^ Jaakkola ST, Pfeiffer F, Ravantti JJ, Guo Q, Liu Y, Chen X, Ma H, Yang C, Oksanen HM, Bamford DH.(2016) The complete genome of a viable archaeum isolated from 123-million-year-old rock salt. Environ Microbiol. 18(2):565-579. ^ Gupta, R.S., Naushad, S., Baker, S. (2015) CPhylogenomic analyses and molecular signatures for the class Halobacteria and its two major clades: a proposal for division of the class Halobacteria into an emended order Halobacteriales and two new orders, Haloferacales ord. nov. and Natrialbales ord. nov., containing the novel families Haloferacaceae fam. nov. and Natrialbaceae fam. nov.." Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 65: 1050-1069 ^ Gupta RS, Naushad S, Fabros R, Adeolu M. (2016) "A phylogenomic reappraisal of family-level divisions within the class Halobacteria: proposal to divide the order Halobacteriales into the families Halobacteriaceae, Haloarculaceae fam. nov., and Halococcaceae fam. nov., and the order Haloferacales into the families, Haloferacaceae and Halorubraceae fam nov." Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2016 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print] ^ Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sharma, Divya; Gulati, Sneha; Singh, Surender; Dey, Rinku; Pal, Kamal Krishna; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar (2015-07-28). "Haloarchaea Endowed with Phosphorus Solubilization Attribute Implicated in Phosphorus Cycle". Scientific Reports. 5. doi:10.1038/srep12293. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4516986 . PMID 26216440.  ^ DasSarma, Shiladitya (2007). "Extreme Microbes". American Scientist. 95 (3): 224–231. doi:10.1511/2007.65.1024. ISSN 0003-0996.  ^ Stevenson, Andrew; Cray, Jonathan A; Williams, Jim P; Santos, Ricardo; Sahay, Richa; Neuenkirchen, Nils; McClure, Colin D; Grant, Irene R; Houghton, Jonathan DR; Quinn, John P; Timson, David J; Patil, Satish V; Singhal, Rekha S; Antón, Josefa; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Hocking, Ailsa D; Lievens, Bart; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Voytek, Mary A; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Oren, Aharon; Timmis, Kenneth N; McGenity, Terry J; Hallsworth, John E (June 2015). "Is there a common water-activity limit for the three domains of life?". The ISME Journal. pp. 1333–1351. doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.219.  ^ Cheftel, J. Claude (1 August 1995). "Review : High-pressure, microbial inactivation and food preservation". Food Science and Technology International. pp. 75–90. doi:10.1177/108201329500100203.  ^ Costa, M. S. da; Santos, H.; Galinski, E. A. (1998). "An overview of the role and diversity of compatible solutes in Bacteria and Archaea". Biotechnology of Extremophiles. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 117–153. doi:10.1007/bfb0102291.  ^ Williams, Timothy; Allen, Michelle; Tschitschko, Bernhard; Cavicchioli, Ricardo. "Glycerol metabolism of haloarchaea". doi:10.1111/1462-2920.13580/full.  ^ Soppa, J.; Baumann, A.; Brenneis, M.; Dambeck, M; Hering, O.; Lange, C. "Genomics and functional genomics with haloarchaea".  ^ Williams, Timothy; Allen, Michelle; Tschitschko, Bernhard; Cavicchioli, Ricardo. "Glycerol metabolism of haloarchaea". doi:10.1111/1462-2920.13580/full.  ^ Williams, Timothy; Allen, Michelle; Tschitschko, Bernhard; Cavicchioli, Ricardo. "Glycerol metabolism of haloarchaea". doi:10.1111/1462-2920.13580/full.  ^ This paragraph taken directly from the Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias page on Halobacterium ^ DasSarma, Shiladitya. "Extreme Halophiles Are Models for Astrobiology" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-02-02. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 

Further reading[edit] Scientific journals[edit] Soppa J (March 2006). "From genomes to function: haloarchaea as model organisms". Microbiology. 152 (Pt 3): 585–90. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28504-0. PMID 16514139.  Cavalier-Smith, T (2002). "The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 1): 7–76. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-1-7. PMID 11837318.  Woese, CR; Kandler O; Wheelis ML (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87 (12): 4576–4579. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.4576W. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. PMC 54159 . PMID 2112744.  Cavalier-Smith, T (1986). "The kingdoms of organisms". Nature. 324 (6096): 416–417. Bibcode:1986Natur.324..416C. doi:10.1038/324416a0. PMID 2431320.  Scientific books[edit] Grant WD, Kamekura M, McGenity TJ, Ventosa A (2001). "Class III. Halobacteria class. nov.". In DR Boone, RW Castenholz. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 1: The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-387-98771-2.  Garrity GM, Holt JG (2001). "Phylum AII. Euryarchaeota phy. nov.". In DR Boone, RW Castenholz. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 1: The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-387-98771-2.  Scientific databases[edit] PubMed references for Halobacteria PubMed Central references for Halobacteria Google Scholar references for Halobacteria

External links[edit] NCBI taxonomy page for Halobacteria Search Tree of Life taxonomy pages for Halobacteria Search Species2000 page for Halobacteria MicrobeWiki page for Halobacteria LPSN page for Halobacteria An educational website on haloarchaea Mike Dyall-Smith's Homepage v t e Prokaryotes: Archaea classification Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) Euryarchaeota Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobi Archaeoglobales Halobacteria Halobacteriales Methanobacteria Methanobacteriales Methanococci Methanococcales Methanomicrobia Methanocellales Methanomicrobiales Methanosarcinales Methanopyri Methanopyrales Thermococci Thermococcales Thermoplasmata Thermoplasmatales DPANN Diapherotrites "Ca. Iainarchaeum" Parvarchaeota "Ca. Micrarchaeum"・ "Ca. Parvarchaeum" Aenigmarchaeota "Ca. Aenigmarchaeum" Nanohaloarchaea "Ca. Nanosalina"・ "Ca. Nanosalinarum" Nanoarchaeota Nanoarchaeum TACK+ASGARD TACK Crenarchaeota Thermoprotei Acidilobales Desulfurococcales Fervidicoccales Sulfolobales Thermoproteales Thaumarchaeota Nitrososphaeria Cenarchaeales "Nitrosopumilales" Nitrososphaerales Korarchaeota "Ca. Korarchaeum cryptofilum" Aigarchaeota "Ca. Caldiarchaeum subterraneum" Geoarchaeota Geoarchaeota Bathyarchaeota Bathyarchaeota ASGARD "Ca. Lokiarchaeum" Odinarchaeota Thorarchaeota Heimdallarchaeota v t e Salt History History of salt In the American Civil War International Salt Co. v. United States In Middlewich Old Salt Route In Chinese history Salt March Salt road Types Abraum Alaea Alberger Bittern Black lava Butter Celery Curing Cyclic Dairy Flake Fleur de sel Garlic Himalayan Iodised Kala namak Kosher (Korean sea) LoSalt Calcium chloride Pickling Potassium chloride Potassium nitrate Sodium nitrate Onion Rock Sea salt Seasoned Sel gris Smoked Truffle Food usage Brining Salting Brined cheese Salt-cured meat Salted fish Health effects Salt and cardiovascular disease Commerce and industry Salt Industry Commission Evaporation pond Production Salt mining Open-pan salt making List of countries by salt production By region In Cheshire In Ghana In Syracuse, New York Culture Salt in the Bible Salting the earth Miscellaneous Mineral lick Smelling salts Ximenes Redoubt Category Food portal Retrieved from "" Categories: HalophilesEuryarchaeotaHalobacteriaHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformatsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2014

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HalobacteriumHalobacteriumTaxonomy (biology)ArchaeaEuryarchaeotaEuryarchaeotaOrder (biology)HalobacterialesSynonym (taxonomy)Class (biology)EuryarchaeotaWaterSaltArchaeaBacteriaArchaeaWikipedia:Citation NeededMicroorganismHalophileArchaeaExtremophilesCellular RespirationBiological MembraneBacteriorhodopsinRetinalRhodopsinPhotosynthesisEnlargeWater ActivityCompatible SolutesOsmotic PressureGlycerolDunaliellaBacteriorhodopsinProtonAdenosine TriphosphateHalorhodopsinPhotosynthesisCarbon FixationCarbon DioxidePleomorphism (microbiology)HaloquadratumPostage StampOsmolarityLife On Mars (planet)Triple PointLife On Mars (planet)National Center For Biotechnology InformationNational Center For Biotechnology InformationDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierSpringer VerlagInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-387-98771-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-387-98771-2Template:Archaea ClassificationTemplate Talk:Archaea ClassificationProkaryoteArchaeaDomain (biology)Template:Archaea ClassificationTemplate:Bacteria ClassificationTemplate:EukaryotaKingdom (biology)Template:Plant ClassificationTemplate:HacrobiaTemplate:HeterokontTemplate:AlveolataTemplate:RhizariaTemplate:ExcavataTemplate:AmoebozoaTemplate:Opisthokont ProtistsTemplate:AnimaliaTemplate:Fungi ClassificationEuryarchaeotaEuryarchaeotaArchaeoglobiArchaeoglobalesHalobacterialesMethanobacteriaMethanobacterialesMethanococciMethanococcalesMethanomicrobiaMethanomicrobialesMethanosarcinalesMethanopyriMethanopyralesThermococciThermococcalesThermoplasmataThermoplasmatalesDPANNDiapherotritesCandidatusParvarchaeotaAenigmarchaeotaNanohaloarchaeaNanoarchaeotaNanoarchaeumProteoarchaeotaTACKCrenarchaeotaThermoproteiAcidilobalesDesulfurococcalesFervidicoccalesSulfolobalesThermoprotealesThaumarchaeotaNitrososphaeriaCenarchaealesNitrosopumilalesNitrososphaeralesKorarchaeotaKorarchaeum CryptofilumAigarchaeotaCaldiarchaeum SubterraneumGeoarchaeotaGeoarchaeotaBathyarchaeotaBathyarchaeotaLokiarchaeumOdinarchaeotaThorarchaeotaHeimdallarchaeotaTemplate:Salt TopicsTemplate Talk:Salt TopicsSodium ChlorideHistory Of SaltSalt In The American Civil WarInternational Salt Co. V. United StatesHistory Of Salt In MiddlewichOld Salt RouteSalt In Chinese HistorySalt MarchSalt RoadList Of Edible SaltsAbraum SaltsAlaea SaltAlberger ProcessBittern (salt)Black Lava SaltButter SaltCelery SaltCuring SaltCyclic SaltDairy SaltFlake SaltFleur De SelGarlic SaltHimalayan SaltIodised SaltKala NamakKosher SaltKorean Sea SaltLoSaltCalcium ChloridePickling SaltPotassium ChloridePotassium NitrateSodium NitrateOnion PowderHaliteSea SaltSeasoned SaltSel GrisSmoked SaltTruffle SaltCategory:Salted FoodsBriningSalting (food)Brined CheeseSalt-cured MeatSalted FishHealth Effects Of SaltSalt And Cardiovascular DiseaseSalt Industry CommissionSalt Evaporation PondSalt MiningOpen-pan Salt MakingList Of Countries By Salt ProductionSalt In CheshireSalt Industry In GhanaSalt Industry In Syracuse, New YorkSalt In The BibleSalting The EarthMineral LickSmelling SaltsXimenes RedoubtCategory:Edible SaltPortal:FoodHelp:CategoryCategory:HalophilesCategory:EuryarchaeotaCategory:HalobacteriaCategory:Articles With 'species' MicroformatsCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From July 2014Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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