Contents 1 Description 2 Feeding and habits 3 Reproduction 4 Populations 5 Sexual size dimorphism 5.1 Male size selection 5.2 Mating behavior selection 5.3 Differences in sexual dimorphism seen in other bird species 6 In culture 7 Species 8 References 8.1 Footnotes 8.2 General 9 External links

Description[edit] Grouse are heavily built like other Galliformes such as chickens. They range in length from 31 to 95 cm (12 to 37 in), and in weight from 0.3 to 6.5 kg (0.66 to 14.33 lb). Males are bigger than females—twice as heavy in the western capercaillie, the biggest member of the family. Grouse have feathered nostrils. Their legs are feathered to the toes, and in winter the toes, too, have feathers or small scales on the sides, an adaptation for walking on snow and burrowing into it for shelter. Unlike other Galliformes, they have no spurs.[6]

Feeding and habits[edit] These birds feed mainly on vegetation—buds, catkins, leaves, and twigs—which typically accounts for over 95% of adults' food by weight. Thus, their diets vary greatly with the seasons. Hatchlings eat mostly insects and other invertebrates, gradually reducing their proportion of animal food to adult levels. Several of the forest-living species are notable for eating large quantities of conifer needles, which most other vertebrates refuse. To digest vegetable food, grouse have big crops and gizzards, eat grit to break up food, and have long intestines with well-developed caeca in which symbiotic bacteria digest cellulose.[6] Forest species flock only in autumn and winter, though individuals tolerate each other when they meet. Prairie species are more social, and tundra species (ptarmigans, Lagopus) are the most social, forming flocks of up to 100 in winter. All grouse spend most of their time on the ground, though when alarmed, they may take off in a flurry and go into a long glide.[6] Most species stay within their breeding range all year, but make short seasonal movements; many individuals of the ptarmigan (called rock ptarmigan in the US) and willow grouse (called willow ptarmigan in the US) migrate hundreds of kilometers.[6]

Reproduction[edit] In all but one species (the willow ptarmigan), males are polygamous. Many species have elaborate courtship displays on the ground at dawn and dusk, which in some are given in leks. The displays feature males' brightly colored combs and in some species, brightly colored inflatable sacs on the sides of their necks. The males display their plumage, give vocalizations that vary widely between species, and may engage in other activities, such as drumming or fluttering their wings, rattling their tails, and making display flights. Occasionally, males fight.[6] The nest is a shallow depression or scrape on the ground, often in cover, with a scanty lining of plant material. The female lays one clutch, but may replace it if the eggs are lost. She begins to lay about a week after mating and lays one egg every day or two; the clutch comprises five to 12 eggs. The eggs have the shape of hen's eggs and are pale yellow, sparsely spotted with brown. On laying the second-last or last egg, the female starts 21 to 28 days of incubation. Chicks hatch in dense, yellow-brown down and leave the nest immediately. They soon develop feathers and can fly shortly before they are two weeks old. The female (and the male in the willow grouse) stays with them and protects them until their first autumn, when they reach their mature weights (except in the male capercaillies). They are sexually mature the following spring, but often do not mate until later years.[6]

Populations[edit] A ruffed grouse in Canada Grouse make up a considerable part of the vertebrate biomass in the Arctic and Subarctic. Their numbers may fall sharply in years of bad weather or high predator populations—significant grouse populations are a major food source for lynx, foxes, martens, and birds of prey. However, because of their large clutches, they can recover quickly. The three tundra species have maintained their former numbers. The prairie and forest species have declined greatly because of habitat loss, though popular game birds such as the red grouse and the ruffed grouse have benefited from habitat management. Most grouse species are listed by the IUCN as "least concern" or "near threatened", but the greater and lesser prairie chicken are listed as "vulnerable" and the Gunnison grouse is listed as "endangered". Some subspecies, such as Attwater's prairie chicken and the Cantabrian capercaillie, and some national and regional populations are also in danger.[6]

Sexual size dimorphism[edit] Male size selection[edit] The phenotypic difference between males and females is called sexual dimorphism.[7] Male grouse tend to be larger than female grouse,[7] which seems to hold true across all the species of grouse, with some difference within each species in terms of how drastic the size difference is.[7] The hypothesis with the most supporting evidence for the evolution of sexual dimorphism in grouse is sexual selection.[7] Sexual selection favors large males; stronger selection for larger size in males leads to greater size dimorphism.[7] Female size will increase correspondingly as male size increases, and this is due to heredity (but not to the extent of the male size).[7] This is because females that are smaller will still be able to reproduce without a substantial disadvantage, but this is not the case with males.[7] The largest among the male grouse (commonly dubbed 'Biggrouse') attract the greatest numbers of females during their mating seasons, Mating behavior selection[edit] Male grouse display lekking behavior, which is when many males come together in one area and put on displays to attract females.[8] Females selectively choose among the males present for traits they find more appealing.[8] Male grouse exhibit two types: typical lekking and exploded lekking.[7] In typical lekking, males display in small areas, and in exploded lekking, displays are done in areas that do not have many resources for females.[7] Male grouse can also compete with one another for access to female grouse through territoriality, in which a male defends a territory which has resources that females need, like food and nest sites.[7] These differences in male behavior in mating systems account for the evolution of body size in grouse.[7] Males of territorial species were smaller than those of exploded lekking species, and males of typical lekking species were the largest overall.[7] The male birds that exhibit lekking behavior, and have to compete with other males for females to choose them, have higher sexual size dimorphism.[9] This supports the hypothesis of sexual selection affecting male body size and also gives an explanation for why some species of grouse have a more drastic difference between male and female body size than others. Differences in sexual dimorphism seen in other bird species[edit] Sexual size dimorphism can manifest itself differently between grouse and other birds. In some cases, the female is dominant over the male in breeding behavior, which can result in females that are larger than the males.[10]

In culture[edit] Grouse are game, and hunters kill millions each year for food, sport, and other uses. In the United Kingdom, this takes the form of driven grouse shooting. The male black grouse's tail feathers are a traditional ornament for hats in areas such as Scotland and the Alps. Folk dances from the Alps to the North American prairies imitate the displays of lekking males.[6]

Species[edit] Genus Falcipennis Siberian grouse, Falcipennis falcipennis Spruce grouse, Falcipennis canadensis Franklin's grouse, Falcipennis (canadensis) franklinii Genus Dendragapus Dusky grouse, Dendragapus obscurus Sooty grouse, Dendragapus fuliginosus Genus Lagopus – ptarmigans Willow ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus Red grouse, Lagopus (lagopus) scoticus Rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta White-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucura Genus Tetrao – black grouse Black grouse, Tetrao tetrix Caucasian grouse, Tetrao mlokosiewiczi Western capercaillie, Tetrao urogallus Cantabrian capercaillie, Tetrao urogallus cantabricus Black-billed capercaillie, Tetrao urogalloides Genus Tetrastes Hazel grouse, Tetrastes bonasia Chinese grouse, Tetrastes sewerzowi Genus Bonasa Ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus Genus Centrocercus – sage grouse Sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus Gunnison grouse, Centrocercus minimus Genus Tympanuchus – prairie grouse Sharp-tailed grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus Columbian sharp-tailed grouse, T. phasianellus columbianus Greater prairie chicken, Tympanuchus cupido Attwater's prairie chicken, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri Heath hen, Tympanuchus cupido cupido (extinct, 1932) Lesser prairie chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus

References[edit] Footnotes[edit] ^ Gutiérrez, R. J.; Barrowclough, G. F.; Groth, J. G. (2000). "A classification of the grouse (Aves: Tetroninae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences" (PDF). Wildlife Biology. 6 (4): 205–212.  ^ "AOU Checklist of North and Middle American Birds". American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2014-03-13.  ^ "Tetraoninae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2013-03-13.  ^ Boyd, John. "Phasianidae: Turkeys, Grouse, Pheasants, Partridges". Aves – A taxonomy in flux. Retrieved 2014-03-13.  ^ Rands, Michael R.W. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph, ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. p. 91. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Storch, Ilse; Bendell, J. F. (2003). "Grouse". In Perrins, Christopher. The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. pp. 184–187. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Drovetski, S. V.; Rohwer, S.; Mode, N. A. (2006). "Role of sexual and natural selection in evolution of body size and shape: a phylogenetic study of morphological radiation in grouse". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 19 (4): 1083–1091. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2006.01097.x. PMID 16780509.  ^ a b Fiske, Peder; Rintamaki, Pekka; ≈Karvonen, Eevi (1998). "Mating success in lekking males: a meta-analysis". Behavioral Ecology. 9 (4): 328–338. doi:10.1093/beheco/9.4.328.  ^ Soulsbury, Carl D; Kervinen, Matti; Lebigre, Christophe (2014). "Sexual size dimorphism and the strength of sexual selection in mammals and birds". Evolutionary Ecology Research. 16: 63–76.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ Mueller, H.C. ". The Evolution of Reversed Sexual Dimorphism in Owls: An Empirical Analysis of Possible Selective Factors". The Wilson Bulletin. 98 (3): 387–406.  General[edit] De Juana, E. (1994). "Family Tetraonidae (Grouse)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 376–411. ISBN 84-87334-15-6.  "What Do Grouse Eat?". The Upland Hunter. 1 September 2017. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tetraoninae. Grouse videos on the Internet Bird Collection Johnsgard, P. (1982). "Etho-Ecological Apects of Hybridization in the Tetraonidae". World Pheasant Association Journal. VII: 42–57.   "Grouse". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  v t e Birds (class: Aves) Anatomy Bird anatomy Flight Eggs Feathers Plumage Beak Vision Dactyly Preen gland Behaviour Singing Intelligence Migration Sexual selection Lek mating Seabird breeding Incubation Brood parasites Nesting Hybrids Evolution Origin of birds Origin of flight Evolution of birds Darwin's finches Seabirds Fossil birds Archaeopteryx Omnivoropterygiformes Confuciusornithiformes Enantiornithes Chaoyangiiformes Patagopterygiformes Ambiortiformes Songlingornithiformes Apsaraviformes Gansuiformes Ichthyornithiformes Hesperornithes Lithornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Gastornithiformes Human interaction Ringing Ornithology Bird collections Birdwatching Bird feeding Conservation Aviculture Waterfowl hunting Cockfighting Pigeon racing Falconry Pheasantry Egg collecting Ornithomancy Lists Families and orders Genera Glossary of bird terms List by population Lists by region Recently extinct birds Late Quaternary prehistoric 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(mousebirds) Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals) Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller) Bucerotiformes (hornbills and hoopoes) Coraciiformes (kingfishers and rollers) Piciformes (woodpeckers and relatives) Category Portal Outline v t e Phasianidae Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Galliformes Phasianinae Pheasants Afropavo Congo peacock (A. congensis) Argusianus Great argus (A. argus) Double-banded argus (A. bipunctatus ) Catreus Cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichi) Chrysolophus Lady Amherst's pheasant (C. amherstiae) Golden pheasant (C. pictus) Crossoptilon Blue eared pheasant (C. auritum) White-eared pheasant (C. crossoptilon) Tibetan eared pheasant (C. harmani) Brown eared pheasant (C.mantchuricum) Ithaginis Blood pheasant (I. cruentus) Lophophorus Himalayan monal (L. impejanus) Chinese monal (L. lhuysii) Sclater's monal (L. sclateri) Lophura Bulwer's pheasant (L. bulweri) Siamese fireback (L. diardi) Edward's pheasant (L. edwardsi) Crestless fireback (L. erythrophthalma) Vietnamese pheasant (L. hatinhensis) Hoogerwerf's pheasant (L. hoogerwerfi) Crested fireback (L. ignita) Imperial pheasant (L. imperialis) Salvadori's pheasant (L. inornata) Kalij pheasant (L. leucomelanos) Silver pheasant (L. nycthemera) Swinhoe's pheasant (L. swinhoii) Phasianus Common pheasant (P. colchicus) Green pheasant (P. versicolor) Polyplectron Grey peacock-pheasant (P. bicalcaratum) Bronze-tailed peacock-pheasant (P. chalcurum) Palawan peacock-pheasant (P. emphanum) Germain's peacock-pheasant (P. germaini) Mountain peacock-pheasant (P. inopinatum) Hainan peacock-pheasant (P. katsumatae) Malayan peacock-pheasant (P. malacense) Bornean peacock-pheasant (P. schleiermacheri) Pucrasia Koklass pheasant (P. macrolopha) Rheinartia Crested argus (R. ocellata) Syrmaticus Elliot's pheasant (S. ellioti) Mrs. Hume's pheasant (S. humiae) Mikado pheasant (S. mikado) Copper pheasant (S. soemmerringi) Reeve's pheasant (S. reevesi) Tragopans Blyth's tragopan (T. blythii) Cabot's tragopan (T. caboti) Western tragopan (T. melanocephalus) Satyr tragopan (T. satyra) Temminck's tragopan (T. temminckii) Gallus Red junglefowl (G. gallus) Sri Lanka junglefowl (G. lafayetii) Grey junglefowl (G. sonneratii) Green junglefowl (G. varius) Pavo Indian peafowl (P. cristatus) Green peafowl (P. muticus) Meleagridinae Meleagris Wild turkey Ocellated turkey Meleagris californica Grouse (Tetraoninae) Falcipennis Siberian grouse Spruce grouse Dendragapus Dusky grouse Sooty grouse Lagopus Willow ptarmigan Red grouse Rock ptarmigan White-tailed ptarmigan Falcipennis Black grouse Caucasian grouse Western capercaillie Cantabrian capercaillie Black-billed capercaillie Tetrastes Hazel grouse Chinese grouse Bonasa Ruffed grouse Centrocercus Sage grouse Gunnison grouse Tympanuchus Sharp-tailed grouse Columbian sharp-tailed grouse Greater prairie chicken Heath Hen (extinct) Attwater's prairie chicken Lesser prairie chicken Perdicinae Partridges Ptilopachus Lerwa Tetraophasis Alectoris Ammoperdix Perdix Rhizothera Margaroperdix Melanoperdix Xenoperdix Arborophila Caloperdix Haematortyx Rollulus Bambusicola Old World quail Coturnix Anurophasis Perdicula Ophrysia Francolins Francolinus Peliperdix Dendroperdix Scleroptila Pternistis 100 living species in 32 genera v t e Meat Main articles Entomophagy Fish Game Livestock Meat Poultry Seafood Poultry and game Alligator Chicken Crocodile Duck Goose Grouse Kangaroo Monkey Ostrich Partridge Pheasant Bat Pigeon Quail Rabbit Seal Snake Turkey Turtle Venison Livestock and minilivestock Beef Bison Black soldier fly maggots Camel Cat Crickets Dog Elephant Frog Goat Grasshoppers Guinea pig Horse Lamb and mutton Llama Mealworm Silkworm Mopane worm Palm grub Pork Veal Yak Fish and seafood Abalone Anchovy Basa Bass Calamari Carp Catfish Cod Crab Crappie Crayfish Dolphin Eel Flounder Grouper Haddock Halibut Herring Kingfish Lobster Mackerel Mahi Mahi Marlin Milkfish Mussel Octopus Orange roughy Oyster Pacific saury Perch 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Grouse (disambiguation)Early PlioceneSage GrouseTaxonomy (biology)EAnimalChordateBirdGalliformesPhasianidaeNicholas Aylward VigorsGeneraBonasaFalcipennisCentrocercusDendragapusLagopusTetraoTetrastesTympanuchusSynonym (taxonomy)Help:IPA/EnglishOrder (biology)GalliformesFamily (biology)PhasianidaeMitochondrial DNAAmerican Ornithologists' UnionITISTemperateSubarcticNorthern HemispherePine TreesMoorlandMountainRock PtarmiganGreenlandAttwater's Prairie ChickenTexasChickenWestern CapercaillieFeatherCatkinInvertebrateConiferVertebrateCrop (anatomy)GizzardIntestineCaecumSymbiosisCelluloseLagopusRock PtarmiganWillow GrouseBird MigrationLek (biology)Comb (anatomy)PlumageBird NestCapercaillieEnlargeBiomass (ecology)LynxFoxMartenBird Of PreyRed GrouseRuffed GrouseIUCNGreater Prairie ChickenLesser Prairie ChickenGunnison GrouseCantabrian CapercaillieSexual DimorphismLek MatingGame (food)Driven Grouse ShootingBlack GrouseScotlandAlpsFalcipennisSiberian GrouseSpruce GrouseFranklin's 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PheasantMrs. Hume's PheasantMikado PheasantCopper PheasantReeve's PheasantTragopansBlyth's TragopanCabot's TragopanWestern TragopanSatyr TragopanTemminck's TragopanGallus (biology)Red JunglefowlSri Lanka JunglefowlGrey JunglefowlGreen JunglefowlPeafowlIndian PeafowlGreen PeafowlMeleagridinaeMeleagrisWild TurkeyOcellated TurkeyMeleagris CalifornicaTetraoninaeFalcipennisSiberian GrouseSpruce GrouseDendragapusDusky GrouseSooty GrouseLagopusWillow PtarmiganRed GrouseRock PtarmiganWhite-tailed PtarmiganFalcipennisBlack GrouseCaucasian GrouseWestern CapercaillieCantabrian CapercaillieBlack-billed CapercaillieTetrastesHazel GrouseChinese GrouseBonasaRuffed GrouseCentrocercusSage GrouseGunnison GrouseTympanuchusSharp-tailed GrouseColumbian Sharp-tailed GrouseGreater Prairie ChickenHeath HenAttwater's Prairie ChickenLesser Prairie ChickenPerdicinaePartridgePtilopachusLerwaTetraophasisAlectorisAmmoperdixPerdixRhizotheraMargaroperdixMelanoperdixXenoperdixArborophilaCaloperdixHaematortyxRollulusBambusicolaOld World QuailCoturnixAnurophasisPerdiculaOphrysiaFrancolinFrancolinusPeliperdixDendroperdixScleroptilaPternistisTemplate:MeatTemplate Talk:MeatMeatEntomophagyFish As FoodGame (hunting)LivestockMeatPoultrySeafoodAlligator MeatChicken As FoodCrocodileDuck As FoodRoast GooseKangaroo MeatMonkey MeatCommon OstrichPartridgePheasantBat As FoodSquabQuails As FoodRabbitSeal MeatSnakeTurkey MeatTurtleVenisonFood MeatSeafood MeatEntomophagyBeefAmerican BisonHermetia IllucensCamelCat MeatCricket (insect)Dog MeatElephant MeatFrog LegsGoat MeatGrasshopperGuinea PigHorse MeatLamb And MuttonLlamaMealwormBombyx MoriGonimbrasia BelinaRhynchophorusPorkVealDomestic YakAbaloneAnchovies As FoodBasa FishBass (fish)Squid As FoodCarpCatfishCod As FoodCrab MeatCrappieCrayfish As FoodDolphinEel As FoodFlounderGrouperHaddockHalibutHerring As FoodKing MackerelLobsterMackerel As FoodMahi-mahiMarlinMilkfishMusselOctopus As FoodOrange RoughyOysterPacific SauryPerchEsoxCod As FoodSalmon As FoodSardines As FoodScallopShark MeatShrimp And Prawn As FoodSole (fish)Iridescent SharkSwordfishTilapiaTroutTunaSea UrchinWalleyeWhale MeatHanging (meat)BaconBarbecueBraisingPattyCharcuterieMeat ChopCorned BeefCuring (food Preservation)CutletDried MeatDum PukhtFillet (cut)Supreme (cookery)FryingHamKebabLiver (food)Lunch MeatMarinationMeatballMeatloafOffalPicklingPoaching (cooking)RoastingSalt-cured MeatSalumiSausageSmoked MeatSteakStewTandoorSteak TartareList Of Beef DishesList Of Chicken DishesList Of Countries By Meat ConsumptionList Of Fish DishesFood And Drink ProhibitionsList Of Goat DishesList Of Lamb DishesList Of Meatball DishesList Of Pork DishesList Of Ham DishesList Of Sausage DishesList Of SausagesList Of Seafood DishesList Of Smoked FoodsList Of Steak DishesList Of Veal DishesList Of Countries By Meat ConsumptionAnimal 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