Contents 1 Structure 2 Function 3 Clinical significance 4 History 4.1 Etymology 5 Additional images 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Structure[edit] Grey matter refers to unmyelinated neurons and other cells of the central nervous system. It is present in the brain, brainstem and cerebellum, and present throughout the spinal cord. Grey matter is distributed at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres (cerebral cortex) and of the cerebellum (cerebellar cortex), as well as in the depths of the cerebrum (thalamus; hypothalamus; subthalamus, basal ganglia – putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens; septal nuclei), cerebellar (deep cerebellar nuclei – dentate nucleus, globose nucleus, emboliform nucleus, fastigial nucleus), brainstem (substantia nigra, red nucleus, olivary nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei). Grey matter in the spinal cord is known as the grey column which travels down the spinal cord distributed in three grey columns that are presented in an "H" shape. The forward-facing column is the anterior grey column, the rear-facing one is the posterior grey column and the interlinking one is the lateral grey column. The grey matter on the left and right side is connected by the grey commissure. The grey matter in the spinal cord consists of interneurons, as well as cell bodies. Diagram of a spinal vertebra. The grey matter is in the central part of the spinal cord. Cross-section of spinal cord with grey matter labelled. Grey matter undergoes development and growth throughout childhood and adolescence.[3]

Function[edit] Grey matter contains most of the brain's neuronal cell bodies. The grey matter includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control, and sensory perception such as seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, speech, decision making, and self-control.[4] The grey matter in the spinal cord is split into three grey columns: The anterior grey column contains motor neurons. These synapse with interneurons and the axons of cells that have travelled down the pyramidal tract. These cells are responsible for the movement of muscles. The posterior grey column contains the points where sensory neurons synapse. These receive sensory information from the body, including fine touch, proprioception, and vibration. This information is sent from receptors of the skin, bones, and joints through sensory neurons whose cell bodies lie in the dorsal root ganglion. This information is then transmitted in axons up the spinal cord in spinal tracts, including the dorsal column-medial lemniscus tract and the spinothalamic tract. The lateral grey column is the third column of the spinal cord. The grey matter of the spinal cord can be divided into different layers, called Rexed laminae. These describe, in general, the purpose of the cells within the grey matter of the spinal cord at a particular location. Interneurons present in the grey matter of the spinal cord Rexed laminae groups the grey matter in the spinal cord according to its function.

Clinical significance[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2017) High alcohol consumption has been correlated with significant reductions in grey matter volume.[5][6] Short-term cannabis use (30 days) is not correlated with changes in white or grey matter.[7] However, several cross-sectional studies have shown that repeated long-term cannabis use is associated with smaller grey matter volumes in the hippocampus, amygdala, medial temporal cortex, and prefrontal cortex, with increased grey matter volume in the cerebellum.[8][9][10] Long-term cannabis use also alters white matter integrity in an age-dependent manner,[11] with heavy cannabis use during adolescence and early adulthood causing the greatest amount of damage.[12] Meditation has been shown to change grey matter structure.[13][14][15][16][17] Habitual playing of action video games has been reported to promote a reduction in grey matter.[18][19] It has been shown that pregnancy renders substantial changes in brain structure, primarily reductions in gray matter volume in regions subserving social cognition. The gray matter reductions endured for at least 2 years post-pregnancy. [20]

History[edit] Etymology[edit] In the current edition[21] of the official Latin nomenclature, Terminologia Anatomica, substantia grisea is used for English grey matter. The adjective grisea for grey is however not attested in classical Latin.[22] The adjective grisea is derived from the French word for grey, gris.[22] Alternative designations like substantia cana [23] and substantia cinerea [24] are being used alternatively. The adjective cana, attested in classical Latin,[25] can mean grey,[22] or greyish white.[26] The classical Latin cinerea means ash-coloured.[25]

Additional images[edit] Human brain right dissected lateral view Schematic representation of the chief ganglionic categories (I to V).

See also[edit] Grey matter heterotopia

References[edit] ^ Purves, Dale; George J. Augustine; David Fitzpatrick; William C. Hall; Anthony-Samuel LaMantia; James O. McNamara; Leonard E. White (2008). Neuroscience (4th ed.). Sinauer Associates. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-87893-697-7.  ^ Kolb & Whishaw: Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology (2003) page 49 ^ Sowell, E. R.; Thompson, P. M.; Tessner, K. D.; Toga, A. W. (2001). "Mapping continued brain growth and gray matter density reduction in dorsal frontal cortex: Inverse relationships during postadolescent brain maturation". The Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (22): 8819–29. PMID 11698594.  ^ Miller, A. K. H.; Alston, R. L.; Corsellis, J. A. N. (1980). "Variation with Age in the Volumes of Grey and White Matter in the Cerebral Hemispheres of Man: Measurements with an Image Analyser". Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 6 (2): 119–32. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.1980.tb00283.x. PMID 7374914.  ^ Yang, Xun; Tian, Fangfang; Zhang, Handi; Zeng, Jianguang; Chen, Taolin; Wang, Song; Jia, Zhiyun; Gong, Qiyong (2016). "Cortical and subcortical gray matter shrinkage in alcohol-use disorders: A voxel-based meta-analysis". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 66: 92–103. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.034. PMID 27108216.  ^ Xiao, Peirong; Dai, Zhenyu; Zhong, Jianguo; Zhu, Yingling; Shi, Haicun; Pan, Pinglei (2015). "Regional gray matter deficits in alcohol dependence: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 153: 22–8. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.05.030. PMID 26072220.  ^ Thayer, Rachel E.; YorkWilliams, Sophie; Karoly, Hollis C.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Ewing, Sarah Feldstein; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E. "Structural Neuroimaging Correlates of Alcohol and Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Adults". Addiction: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/add.13923. ISSN 1360-0443.  ^ Lorenzetti, Valentina; Lubman, Dan I.; Whittle, Sarah; Solowij, Nadia; Yücel, Murat (September 2010). "Structural MRI findings in long-term cannabis users: what do we know?". Substance Use & Misuse. 45 (11): 1787–1808. doi:10.3109/10826084.2010.482443. ISSN 1532-2491. PMID 20590400.  ^ Matochik, John A.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Cadet, Jean-Lud; Bolla, Karen I. (2005-01-07). "Altered brain tissue composition in heavy marijuana users". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 77 (1): 23–30. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.06.011. ISSN 0376-8716. PMID 15607838.  ^ Yücel, Murat; Solowij, Nadia; Respondek, Colleen; Whittle, Sarah; Fornito, Alex; Pantelis, Christos; Lubman, Dan I. (June 2008). "Regional brain abnormalities associated with long-term heavy cannabis use". Archives of General Psychiatry. 65 (6): 694–701. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.65.6.694. ISSN 1538-3636. PMID 18519827.  ^ Jakabek, David; Yücel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia (October 2016). "An MRI study of white matter tract integrity in regular cannabis users: effects of cannabis use and age". Psychopharmacology. 233 (19-20): 3627–3637. doi:10.1007/s00213-016-4398-3. ISSN 1432-2072. PMID 27503373.  ^ Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Muetzel, R. L.; Luciana, M. (December 2015). "Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use". Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 16: 23–35. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.10.004. ISSN 1878-9307. PMC 4691379 . PMID 26602958.  ^ Black, David S.; Kurth, Florian; Luders, Eileen; Wu, Brian (2014). "Brain Gray Matter Changes Associated with Mindfulness Meditation in Older Adults: An Exploratory Pilot Study using Voxelbased Morphometry". Neuro. 1 (1): 23–26. doi:10.17140/NOJ-1-106. PMC 4306280 . PMID 25632405.  ^ Hölzel, Britta K.; Carmody, James; Vangel, Mark; Congleton, Christina; Yerramsetti, Sita M.; Gard, Tim; Lazar, Sara W. (2011). "Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density". Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. 191 (1): 36–43. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006. PMC 3004979 . PMID 21071182.  ^ Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W.; Luders, Eileen (2015). "Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 10 (1): 55–61. doi:10.1093/scan/nsu029. PMC 4994843 . PMID 24643652.  ^ Fox, Kieran C.R.; Nijeboer, Savannah; Dixon, Matthew L.; Floman, James L.; Ellamil, Melissa; Rumak, Samuel P.; Sedlmeier, Peter; Christoff, Kalina (2014). "Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 43: 48–73. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.016. PMID 24705269.  ^ Hölzel, Britta K.; Carmody, James; Evans, Karleyton C.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Dusek, Jeffery A.; Morgan, Lucas; Pitman, Roger K.; Lazar, Sara W. (2010). "Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 5 (1): 11–7. doi:10.1093/scan/nsp034. PMC 2840837 . PMID 19776221.  ^ ^ ^ Hoekzema, Elseline; Barba-Müller, Erika; Pozzobon, Cristina; Picado, Marisol; Lucco, Florencio; García-García, David; Soliva, Juan Carlos; Tobeña, Adolf; Desco, Manuel; Crone, Eveline A.; Ballesteros, Agustín; Carmona, Susanna; Vilarroya, Oscar (2016). "Pregnancy leads to long-lasting changes in human brain structure". Nature Neuroscience. 20: 287. doi:10.1038/nn.4458. PMID 27991897.  ^ Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme ^ a b c Triepel, H. (1910). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Mit einem Anhang: Biographische Notizen.(Dritte Auflage). Wiesbaden: Verlag J.F. Bergmann. ^ Triepel, H. (1910). Nomina Anatomica. Mit Unterstützung von Fachphilologen. Wiesbaden: Verlag J.F. Bergmann. ^ Schreger, C.H.Th.(1805). Synonymia anatomica. Synonymik der anatomischen Nomenclatur. Fürth: im Bureau für Literatur. ^ a b Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ^ Stearn, W.T. (1983). Botanical Latin. History, grammar, syntax, terminology and vocabulary. (3rd edition). Newton Abbot London: David Charles.

External links[edit] Why Gray Matter is Gray v t e Nervous tissue CNS Tissue Types Grey matter White matter Projection fibers Association fiber Commissural fiber Lemniscus Funiculus Fasciculus Nerve tract Decussation Commissure Neuropil Meninges Cell Types Neuronal Pyramidal Purkinje Granule Glial insulating: Myelination: Oligodendrocyte other Astrocyte Radial glial cell Ependymal cells Tanycyte Microglia PNS General Dorsal Root Ganglion Ramus Ventral Root Ramus Ramus communicans Gray White Autonomic ganglion (Preganglionic nerve fibers Postganglionic nerve fibers) Connective tissues Epineurium Perineurium Endoneurium Nerve fascicle Neuroglia Myelination: Schwann cell Neurolemma Myelin incisure Node of Ranvier Internodal segment Satellite glial cell Neurons/ nerve fibers Parts Soma Axon hillock Axon Telodendron Axon terminals Axoplasm Axolemma Neurofibril/neurofilament Dendrite Nissl body Dendritic spine Apical dendrite/Basal dendrite Types Bipolar Unipolar Pseudounipolar Multipolar Interneuron Renshaw Afferent nerve fiber/ Sensory neuron GSA GVA SSA SVA fibers Ia or Aα Ib or Golgi or Aα II or Aβ and Aγ III or Aδ or fast pain IV or C or slow pain Efferent nerve fiber/ Motor neuron GSE GVE SVE Upper motor neuron Lower motor neuron α motorneuron β motorneuron γ motorneuron Termination Synapse Electrical synapse/Gap junction Chemical synapse Synaptic vesicle Active zone Postsynaptic density Autapse Ribbon synapse Neuromuscular junction Sensory receptors Meissner's corpuscle Merkel nerve ending Pacinian corpuscle Ruffini ending Muscle spindle Free nerve ending Nociceptor Olfactory receptor neuron Photoreceptor cell Hair cell Taste bud v t e The spinal cord General features Cervical enlargement Lumbar enlargement Conus medullaris Filum terminale Cauda equina Meninges Grey matter Posterior grey column Marginal nucleus Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando Nucleus proprius Spinal lamina V Spinal lamina VI Lateral grey column Intermediolateral nucleus Posterior thoracic nucleus Anterior grey column Interneuron Alpha motor neuron Onuf's nucleus Gamma motor neuron Other Rexed laminae Central gelatinous substance Gray commissure Central canal Terminal ventricle White matter Sensory Posterior Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway: Gracile Cuneate Lateral: Spinocerebellar dorsal ventral Spinothalamic lateral anterior Posterolateral Spinotectal Spinoreticular tract Spino-olivary tract Motor Lateral Corticospinal Lateral Extrapyramidal Rubrospinal Olivospinal Raphespinal Anterior Corticospinal Anterior Extrapyramidal Vestibulospinal Reticulospinal Tectospinal Both Anterior white commissure External features Ventral Anterior median fissure Anterolateral sulcus Dorsal Posterior median sulcus Posterolateral sulcus v t e Anatomy of the cerebral cortex of the human brain Frontal lobe Superolateral Prefrontal Superior frontal gyrus 4 6 8 Middle frontal gyrus 9 10 46 Inferior frontal gyrus: 11 47-Pars orbitalis Broca's area 44-Pars opercularis 45-Pars triangularis Superior frontal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcus Precentral Precentral gyrus Precentral sulcus Medial/inferior Prefrontal Superior frontal gyrus 4 6 Medial frontal gyrus 8 9 Paraterminal gyrus/Paraolfactory area 12 Straight gyrus 11 Orbital gyri/Orbitofrontal cortex 10 11 12 Ventromedial prefrontal cortex 10 Subcallosal area 25 Olfactory sulcus Orbital sulcus Precentral Paracentral lobule 4 Paracentral sulcus Both Primary motor cortex 4 Premotor cortex 6 Supplementary motor area 6 Supplementary eye field 6 Frontal eye fields 8 Parietal lobe Superolateral Superior parietal lobule 5 7 Inferior parietal lobule 40-Supramarginal gyrus 39-Angular gyrus Parietal operculum 43 Intraparietal sulcus Medial/inferior Paracentral lobule 1 2 3 5 Precuneus 7 Marginal sulcus Both Postcentral gyrus/Primary somatosensory cortex 1 2 3 Secondary somatosensory cortex 5 Posterior parietal cortex 7 Occipital lobe Superolateral Occipital pole of cerebrum Lateral occipital gyrus 18 19 Lunate sulcus Transverse occipital sulcus Medial/inferior Visual cortex 17 Cuneus Lingual gyrus Calcarine sulcus Temporal lobe Superolateral Transverse temporal gyrus/Auditory cortex 41 42 Superior temporal gyrus 38 22/Wernicke's area Middle temporal gyrus 21 Superior temporal sulcus Medial/inferior Fusiform gyrus 37 Medial temporal lobe 27 28 34 35 36 Inferior temporal gyrus 20 Inferior temporal sulcus Interlobar sulci/fissures Superolateral Central (frontal+parietal) Lateral (frontal+parietal+temporal) Parieto-occipital Preoccipital notch Medial/inferior Longitudinal fissure Cingulate (frontal+cingulate) Collateral (temporal+occipital) Callosal sulcus Limbic lobe Parahippocampal gyrus anterior Entorhinal cortex Perirhinal cortex Postrhinal cortex Posterior parahippocampal gyrus Prepyriform area Cingulate cortex/gyrus Subgenual area 25 Anterior cingulate 24 32 33 Posterior cingulate 23 31 Isthmus of cingulate gyrus: Retrosplenial cortex 26 29 30 Hippocampal formation Hippocampal sulcus Fimbria of hippocampus Dentate gyrus Rhinal sulcus Other Supracallosal gyrus Uncus Amygdala Insular cortex Insular cortex General Operculum Poles of cerebral hemispheres Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri. 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GyrusPrecentral GyrusPrecentral SulcusPrefrontal CortexSuperior Frontal GyrusBrodmann Area 4Brodmann Area 6Medial Frontal GyrusBrodmann Area 8Brodmann Area 9Paraterminal GyrusParaolfactory AreaBrodmann Area 12Straight GyrusBrodmann Area 11Orbital GyriOrbitofrontal CortexBrodmann Area 10Brodmann Area 11Brodmann Area 12Ventromedial Prefrontal CortexBrodmann Area 10Subcallosal AreaBrodmann Area 25Olfactory SulcusOrbital SulcusPrecentral GyrusParacentral LobuleBrodmann Area 4Paracentral SulcusPrimary Motor CortexBrodmann Area 4Premotor CortexBrodmann Area 6Supplementary Motor AreaBrodmann Area 6Supplementary Eye FieldBrodmann Area 6Frontal Eye FieldsBrodmann Area 8Parietal LobeSuperior Parietal LobuleBrodmann Area 5Brodmann Area 7Inferior Parietal LobuleBrodmann Area 40Supramarginal GyrusBrodmann Area 39Angular GyrusParietal OperculumBrodmann Area 43Intraparietal SulcusParacentral LobuleBrodmann Area 1Brodmann Area 2Brodmann Area 3Brodmann Area 5PrecuneusBrodmann Area 7Marginal 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