Contents 1 Description 2 Species 3 Cultivation 4 In culture 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Description[edit] They grow from rounded, symmetrical corms,[7] (similar to crocuses) that are enveloped in several layers of brownish, fibrous tunics.[8] Their stems are generally unbranched, producing 1 to 9 narrow, sword-shaped, longitudinal grooved leaves, enclosed in a sheath.[2] The lowest leaf is shortened to a cataphyll. The leaf blades can be plane or cruciform in cross section. The flowers of unmodified wild species vary from very small to perhaps 40 mm across, and inflorescences bearing anything from one to several flowers. The spectacular giant flower spikes in commerce are the products of centuries of hybridisation and selection. The flower spikes are large and one-sided, with secund, bisexual flowers, each subtended by 2 leathery, green bracts. The sepals and the petals are almost identical in appearance, and are termed tepals. They are united at their base into a tube-shaped structure. The dorsal tepal is the largest, arching over the three stamens. The outer three tepals are narrower. The perianth is funnel-shaped, with the stamens attached to its base. The style has three filiform, spoon-shaped branches, each expanding towards the apex.[9] The ovary is 3-locular with oblong or globose capsules,[9] containing many, winged brown, longitudinally dehiscent seeds. These flowers are variously coloured, ranging from pink to reddish or light purple with white, contrasting markings, or white to cream or orange to red.[10] The South African species were originally pollinated by long-tongued anthophorini bees,[11] but some changes in the pollination system have occurred, allowing pollination by sunbirds, noctuid and Hawk-moths, long-tongued flies and several others.[12] In the temperate zones of Europe many of the hybrid large flowering sorts of gladiolus can be pollinated by small well-known wasps. Actually, they are not very good pollinators because of the large flowers of the plants and the small size of the wasps. Another insect in this zone which can try some of the nectar of the gladioli is the best-known European Hawk-moth Macroglossum stellatarum which usually pollinates many popular garden flowers like Petunia, Zinnia, Dianthus and others.[13] Gladioli are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Large Yellow Underwing,[14] and gladiolus thrips.[15] Gladioli have been extensively hybridized and a wide range of ornamental flower colours are available from the many varieties.[10] The main hybrid groups have been obtained by crossing between four or five species, followed by selection: 'Grandiflorus', 'Primulines' and 'Nanus'. They can make very good cut flowers for display.[10] The majority of the species in this genus are diploid with 30 chromosomes (2n=30) but the Grandiflora hybrids are tetraploid and possess 60 chromosomes (2n=4x=60). This is because the main parental species of these hybrids is Gladiolus dalenii which is also tetraploid and includes a wide range of varieties (like the Grandiflora hybrids).[10]

Species[edit] Gladiolus alatus, Clanwilliam, RSA Gladiolus cardinalis from Curtis's Botanical Magazine 1790 Waved-flowered Gladiolus (Gladiolus undulatus) from Curtis's Botanical Magazine 1801 Gladiolus hybrid, Grandiflorus group Gladiolus imbricatus Gladiolus × hortulanus Gladiolus carneus Gladiolus × hortulanus 'Priscilla' photographed in visible, ultraviolet (showing Nectar guides), and infrared light The genus Gladiolus contains about 300 species, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families had over 276 species in 1988,[10] As of February 2017[update], it accepted 300 species.[16] There are 260 species of Gladiolus endemic in southern Africa,[7] and 76 in tropical Africa. About 10 species are native to Eurasia.[17] The genus Gladiolus has been divided into many sections. Most species, however, are only tentatively placed. Gladiolus abbreviatus Andrews Gladiolus abyssinicus (Brongn. ex Lem.) B.D.Jacks. Gladiolus actinomorphanthus P.A.Duvign. & Van Bockstal Gladiolus acuminatus F.Bolus[18] Gladiolus aequinoctialis Herb. Gladiolus alatus L. (sect. Hebea) Gladiolus albens Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus amplifolius Goldblatt Gladiolus anatolicus (Boiss.) Stapf Gladiolus andringitrae Goldblatt Gladiolus angustus L. (sect. Blandus) - long-tubed painted lady Gladiolus antakiensis A.P.Ham. Gladiolus antandroyi Goldblatt Gladiolus appendiculatus G.Lewis Gladiolus aquamontanus Goldblatt & Vlok Gladiolus arcuatus Klatt Gladiolus atropictus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus atropurpureus Baker Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss. Gladiolus attilae Kit Tan Gladiolus aurantiacus Klatt Gladiolus aureus Baker - golden gladiolus Gladiolus balensis Goldblatt Gladiolus baumii Harms Gladiolus bellus C. H. Wright Gladiolus benguellensis Baker (sect. Ophiolyza) Gladiolus bilineatus G. J. Lewis Gladiolus blommesteinii L.Bolus Gladiolus bojeri (Baker) Goldblatt Gladiolus bonaespei Goldblatt & Vos Gladiolus boranensis Goldblatt Gladiolus brachyphyllus Bolus f. Gladiolus brevifolius Jacq. (sect. Linearifolius) Gladiolus brevitubus G. Lewis Gladiolus buckerveldii (L. Bolus) Goldblatt Gladiolus bullatus Thunb. ex G. Lewis - Caledon bluebell Gladiolus caeruleus Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus calcaratus G. Lewis Gladiolus calcicola Goldblatt Gladiolus canaliculatus Goldblatt Gladiolus candidus (Rendle) Goldblatt Gladiolus cardinalis Curtis (sect. Blandus) Gladiolus carinatus Aiton Gladiolus carmineus C. H. Wright (sect. Blandus) - cliff lily Gladiolus carneus F.Delaroche (sect. Blandus) - large painted lady Gladiolus caryophyllaceus (Burm. f.) Poiret Gladiolus cataractarum Oberm. Gladiolus caucasicus Herb. Gladiolus ceresianus L. Bolus Gladiolus chelamontanus Goldblatt Gladiolus chevalierianus Marais Gladiolus communis L. (sect. Gladiolus) - cornflag (type species) Gladiolus comptonii G.J.Lewis Gladiolus crassifolius Baker Gladiolus crispulatus L. Bolus Gladiolus cruentus T. Moore (sect. Ophiolyza) Gladiolus cunonius (L.) Gaertn. Gladiolus curtifolius Marais Gladiolus curtilimbus P.A.Duvign. & Van Bockstal ex S.Córdova Gladiolus cylindraceus G. Lewis Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel (sect. Ophiolyza) Gladiolus davisoniae F.Bolus Gladiolus debeerstii De Wild. Gladiolus debilis Ker Gawler (sect. Homoglossum) - small painted lady Gladiolus decaryi Goldblatt Gladiolus decoratus Baker Gladiolus delpierrei Goldblatt Gladiolus densiflorus Baker Gladiolus deserticola Goldblatt Gladiolus dichrous (Bullock) Goldblatt Gladiolus diluvialis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning ' 'Gladiolus dolichosiphon Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus dolomiticus Oberm. Gladiolus dzavakheticus Eristavi Gladiolus ecklonii Lehm. Gladiolus elliotii Baker (sect. Ophiolyza) Gladiolus emiliae L. Bolus Gladiolus engysiphon G. Lewis Gladiolus equitans Thunb. (sect. Hebea) Gladiolus erectiflorus Baker Gladiolus exiguus G. Lewis Gladiolus exilis G.J.Lewis Gladiolus fenestratus Goldblatt Gladiolus ferrugineus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus filiformis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus flanaganii Baker - suicide gladiolus Gladiolus flavoviridis Goldblatt Gladiolus floribundus Jacq. Gladiolus fourcadei (L.Bolus) Goldblatt & Vos Gladiolus geardii L. Bolus Gladiolus goldblattianus Geerinck Gladiolus gracilis Jacq. (sect. Homoglossum) - reed bells Gladiolus gracillimus Baker Gladiolus grandiflorus Andrews (sect. Blandus) Gladiolus grantii Baker Gladiolus gregarius Welw. ex Baker (sect. Densiflorus) Gladiolus griseus Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus gueinzii Kunze Gladiolus gunnisii (Rendle) Marais Gladiolus guthriei F. Bol. (sect. Linearifolius) Gladiolus hajastanicus Gabrieljan Gladiolus halophilus Boiss. & Heldr. Gladiolus harmsianus Vaupel Gladiolus hirsutus Jacq. (sect. Linearifolius) - small pink Afrikaner, lapmuis Gladiolus hollandii L. Bolus Gladiolus horombensis Goldblatt Gladiolus huillensis (Welw. ex Baker) Goldblatt Gladiolus humilis Stapf Gladiolus huttonii (N.E.Br.) Goldblatt & Vos Gladiolus hyalinus Jacq. Gladiolus illyricus W.D.J.Koch - wild gladiolus Gladiolus imbricatus L. Gladiolus inandensis Baker Gladiolus inflatus Thunb. Gladiolus inflexus Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus insolens Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus intonsus Goldblatt Gladiolus invenustus G. J. Lewis Gladiolus involutus D.Delaroche (sect. Hebea) Gladiolus iroensis (A. Chev.) Marais Gladiolus italicus P. Mill. (sect. Gladiolus) - Italian gladiolus, cornflag Gladiolus jonquilodorus Eckl. ex G.J.Lewis Gladiolus juncifolius Goldblatt Gladiolus kamiesbergensis G. Lewis Gladiolus karooicus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus kotschyanus Boiss. Gladiolus lapeirousioides Goldblatt Gladiolus laxiflorus Baker Gladiolus ledoctei P.A.Duvign. & Van Bockstal Gladiolus leonensis Marais Gladiolus leptosiphon Bolus f. Gladiolus liliaceus Houtt. (sect. Homoglossum) Gladiolus linearifolius Vaupel Gladiolus lithicola Goldblatt Gladiolus longicollis Baker (sect. Homoglossum) Gladiolus longispathaceus Cufod. Gladiolus loteniensis Hilliard & Burtt Gladiolus lundaensis Goldblatt Gladiolus luteus Lam. Gladiolus macneilii Oberm. Gladiolus maculatus Sweet Gladiolus magnificus (Harms) Goldblatt Gladiolus malvinus Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus manikaensis Goldblatt Gladiolus marlothii G. Lewis Gladiolus martleyi L. Bolus (sect. Homoglossum) Gladiolus meliusculus (G. Lewis) Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus melleri Baker (sect. Ophiolyza) Gladiolus menitskyi Gabrieljan Gladiolus mensensis (Schweinf.) Goldblatt Gladiolus meridionalis G.J.Lewis Gladiolus metallicola Goldblatt Gladiolus micranthus Baker, 1901 Gladiolus microcarpus G. Lewis Gladiolus microspicatus P.A.Duvign. & Van Bockstal ex S.Córdova Gladiolus miniatus Eckl. Gladiolus mirus Vaupel Gladiolus monticola G. Lewis ex Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus mosambicensis Baker Gladiolus mostertiae L. Bolus Gladiolus muenzneri F. Vaup Gladiolus murgusicus Mikheev Gladiolus murielae Kelway (syn. G. callianthus) – Abyssinian gladiolus Gladiolus mutabilis G.J.Lewis Gladiolus negeliensis Goldblatt Gladiolus nerineoides G. Lewis Gladiolus nigromontanus Goldblatt Gladiolus nyasicus Goldblatt Gladiolus oatesii Rolfe Gladiolus ochroleucus Baker (sect. Densiflorus) Gladiolus oliganthus Baker ' 'Gladiolus oligophlebius Baker Gladiolus oppositiflorus Herbert (sect. Ophiolyza) Gladiolus orchidiflorus Andrews (sect. Hebea) Gladiolus oreocharis Schltr. Gladiolus ornatus Klatt Gladiolus overbergensis Goldblatt & Vos Gladiolus palustris Gaudin - marsh gladiolus Gladiolus papilio Hook. f. (sect. Densiflorus) - goldblotch gladiolus Gladiolus pappei Baker (sect. Blandus) Gladiolus pardalinus Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus parvulus Schltr. Gladiolus patersoniae Bolus f. Gladiolus pauciflorus Baker ex Oliv. Gladiolus pavonia Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus permeabilis Delaroche (sect. Hebea) Gladiolus perrieri Goldblatt Gladiolus persicus Boiss. Gladiolus phoenix Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus pole-evansii Verd. Gladiolus praecostatus Marais Gladiolus pretoriensis Kuntze Gladiolus priorii (N. E. Br.) Goldblatt & De Vos Gladiolus pritzelii Diels Gladiolus puberulus Vaupel Gladiolus pubigerus G. Lewis Gladiolus pulcherrimus (G. Lewis) Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus pungens P.A.Duvign. & Van Bockstal ex S.Córdova Gladiolus pusillus Goldblatt Gladiolus quadrangularis (Burm. f.) Ker Gawler Gladiolus quadrangulus (Delaroche) Barnard Gladiolus recurvus L. (sect. Homoglossum) Gladiolus reginae Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus rehmannii Baker Gladiolus rhodanthus J.C.Manning & Goldblatt Gladiolus richardsiae Goldblatt Gladiolus robertsoniae Bolus f. Gladiolus robiliartianus P.A.Duvign. Gladiolus rogersii Baker Gladiolus roseolus Chiov. Gladiolus roseovenosus Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus rubellus Goldblatt Gladiolus rudis Lichtst. ex Roem. & Schult. Gladiolus rufomarginatus G.J.Lewis Gladiolus rupicola F. Vaupel Gladiolus saccatus (Klatt) Goldblatt & M.P. de Vos Gladiolus salmoneicolor P.A.Duvign. & Van Bockstal ex S.Córdova Gladiolus salteri G. Lewis Gladiolus saundersii Hook. f. - Saunders' gladiolus, Lesotho lily Gladiolus saxatilis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus scabridus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus schweinfurthii Baker Gladiolus scullyi Baker Gladiolus sekukuniensis P.J.D.Winter Gladiolus sempervirens G.J.Lewis Gladiolus serapiiflorus Goldblatt Gladiolus serenjensis Goldblatt Gladiolus sericeovillosus Hook. f. Gladiolus serpenticola Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus somalensis Goldblatt & Thulin Gladiolus speciosus Thunb. Gladiolus splendens (Sweet) Herbert Gladiolus stefaniae Oberm. Gladiolus stellatus G. Lewis Gladiolus stenolobus Goldblatt Gladiolus stenosiphon Goldblatt Gladiolus stokoei G.J.Lewis Gladiolus subcaeruleus G. Lewis Gladiolus sudanicus Goldblatt Gladiolus sufflavus (G. Lewis) Goldblatt & J.C. Manning Gladiolus sulculatus Goldblatt Gladiolus symonsii F.Bolus Gladiolus szovitsii Grossh. Gladiolus taubertianus Schltr. Gladiolus tenuis M. Bieb. Gladiolus teretifolius Goldblatt & De Vos Gladiolus trichonemifolius Ker Gawl. (sect. Homoglossum) Gladiolus triphyllus (Sm.) Ker Gawl. Gladiolus tristis L. (sect. Homoglossum) Gladiolus tshombeanus P.A.Duvign. & Van Bockstal Gladiolus uitenhagensis Goldblatt & Vlok Gladiolus undulatus L. (sect. Blandus) - large white Afrikaner, wall gladiolus Gladiolus unguiculatus Baker Gladiolus usambarensis Marais ex Goldblatt Gladiolus uysiae L. Bolus ex G. Lewis Gladiolus vaginatus Bolus f. (sect. Homoglossum) Gladiolus vandermerwei (L. Bolus) Goldblatt & De Vos Gladiolus variegatus (G.J.Lewis) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus varius Bolus f. Gladiolus velutinus De Wild. Gladiolus venustus G. Lewis (sect. Hebea) Gladiolus verdickii De Wild. & T.Durand Gladiolus vernus Oberm. Gladiolus vigilans Barnard Gladiolus vinosomaculatus Kies Gladiolus violaceolineatus G.J.Lewis Gladiolus virescens Thunb. (sect. Hebea) Gladiolus virgatus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus viridiflorus G. Lewis Gladiolus watermeyeri L.Bolus (sect. Hebea) Gladiolus watsonioides Baker - Mackinder's gladiolus Gladiolus watsonius Thunb. (sect. Homoglossum) Gladiolus wilsonii (Baker) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning Gladiolus woodii Baker Gladiolus zambesiacus Baker Gladiolus zimbabweensis Goldblatt Known hybrids include: Gladiolus × colvillei (G. cardinalis × G. tristis): Colville's gladiolus Gladiolus × gandavensis (G. dalenii × G. oppositiflorus) (sect. Ophiolyza) Gladiolus × hortulanus See also List of Gladiolus cultivars

Cultivation[edit] In temperate zones, the corms of most species and hybrids should be lifted in autumn and stored over winter in a frost-free place, then replanted in spring. Some species from Europe and high altitudes in Africa, as well as the small 'Nanus' hybrids, are much hardier (to at least -15 °F/-26 °C) and can be left in the ground in regions with sufficiently dry winters. 'Nanus' is hardy to Zones 5-8. The large-flowered types require moisture during the growing season, and must be individually staked as soon as the sword-shaped flower heads appear. The leaves must be allowed to die down naturally before lifting and storing the corms. Plants are propagated either from small cormlets produced as offsets by the parent corms, or from seed. In either case, they take several years to get to flowering size. Clumps should be dug up and divided every few years to keep them vigorous.[15] They are affected by thrips, (thrip simlpex),[15][19] and wasps Dasyproctus bipunctatus, who burrow into the flowers causing them to collapse and die.[20]

In culture[edit] The Mancunian singer Morrissey is known to dance with gladiolus hanging from his back pocket or in his hands, especially during the era of The Smiths.[21] This trait of his was made known in the music video for "This Charming Man", where he swung a bunch of yellow gladiolus while singing.[22] The Australian comedian and personality Dame Edna Everage's signature flowers are gladiolus, which she refers to as "glads".[23] Gladiolus are the flowers associated with a fortieth wedding anniversary. Gladiolus is the flower of August.[24] "Gladiolus" was the word Frank Neuhauser correctly spelled to win the 1st National Spelling Bee in 1925.[25] Gladiolus in art Vase with Red Gladioli (1886) by Vincent van Gogh Gladiole by Philipp Ernst (de)

References[edit] ^ "Gladiolus". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved 10 April 2014.  ^ a b Perry, Dr. Leonard. "Gladiolus". Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ Manning, John; Goldblatt, Peter (2008). The Iris Family: Natural History & Classification. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. pp. 138–42. ISBN 0-88192-897-6.  ^ Shorter Oxford English dictionary: 6th edition. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 2007. ISBN 0199206872.  ^ Goldblatt, P. &, J.C. Manning. Gladiolus in Southern Africa : Systematics, Biology, and Evolution. Fernwood Press, Cape Town; 1998. ^ GOLDBLATT P. & DE VOS M. P. The reduction of Oenostachys, Homoglossum and Anomalesia, putative sunbird pollinated genera, in Gladiolus L. (Iridaceae-Ixioideae). Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 11 (4): 417–428, 1989. ^ a b Trevor R. Hodkinson and John A.N. Parnell (Editors) Reconstructing the Tree of Life: Taxonomy and Systematics of Species Rich Taxa, p. 158, at Google Books ^ "The Purple Gladiolus". 11 September 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ a b William Berman to Dissect&pg=PA207 3m8CD9yJC14C, p. 207, at Google Books ^ a b c d e A. Mujib (Editor) Somatic Embryogenesis in Ornamentals and Its Applications, p. 188, at Google Books ^ Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C.; Bernhardt, Peter (October 1997). "Notes on the Pollination of Gladiolus brevifolius (Iridaceae) by Bees (Anthophoridae) and Bee Mimicking Flies (Psilodera: Acroceridae)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 70 (4): 297–304. JSTOR 25085792.  ^ Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C. (2006). "Radiation of Pollination Systems in the Iridaceae of sub-Saharan Africa". Ann. Bot. 97 (3): 317–344. doi:10.1093/aob/mcj040. PMC 2803647 .  ^ Alexandersson, R; Johnson, SD. (2002). "Pollinator-mediated selection on flower-tube length in a hawkmoth-pollinated Gladiolus (Iridaceae)". Proc R Soc Lond B. 269: 631–636.  ^ David J. Carter Pest Lepidoptera of Europe: With Special Reference to the British Isles, p. 302, at Google Books ^ a b c Lloyd, Christopher (2000). Garden Flowers. Cassell and Co. pp. 170–172. ISBN 0304354279.  ^ "Search for Gladiolus". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ Rina Kamenetsky and Hiroshi Okubo (Editors) Geophytes: From Basic Science to Sustainable Production&pg=PA24 5B-ucdbgA3wC, p. 24, at Google Books ^ ^ Ramon Albajes, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Joop C. van Lenteren and Yigal Elad (Editors) Integrated Pest and Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops, p. 513, at Google Books ^ Arnold S. Menke Wasps of the World: A Generic Revision&pg=PA420 FExMjuRhjpIC, p. 420, at Google Books ^ "BBC NEWS - Entertainment - Rainy-day voice of a generation".  ^ YouTube.  ^ Dame Edna Everage and gladioli ^ "August Birth Flowers". Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ "Champions and their winning words". Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 

Bibliography[edit] G R Delpierre and N M du Plessis (1974) - The winter-growing Gladioli of Southern Africa. 120 colour photographs and descriptions; (Tafelberg-Uitgewers Beperk) Peter Goldblatt (1996)- A monograph of the genus Gladiolus in tropical Africa (83 species) (Timber Press) Peter Goldblatt, J.C. Manning (1998)- Gladiolus in southern Africa : Systematics, Biology, and Evolution, including 144 watercolor paintings; (Fernwood Press, Cape Town)

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gladiolus. Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Gladiolus. Taxonomy of Gladiolus in GBIF Biodiversity Data Portal Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). "Gladiolus". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.  Taxon identifiers Wd: Q156207 APDB: 190982 EoL: 61025 FloraBase: 21248 FNA: 113591 FoC: 113591 GBIF: 2749747 GRIN: 4969 ITIS: 43293 NCBI: 49747 PLANTS: GLADI Authority control NDL: 00576499 Retrieved from "" Categories: GladiolusCormous plantsGarden plantsIridaceae generaHidden categories: Interlanguage link template link numberArticles with 'species' microformatsArticles containing potentially dated statements from February 2017All articles containing potentially dated statementsPages using div col with deprecated parameters

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Gladiolus (disambiguation)Gladiolus ItalicusTaxonomy (biology)PlantaeAngiospermsMonocotsAsparagalesIridaceaeIxioideaeIxieaeCarl LinnaeusType SpeciesSynonym (taxonomy)L.TrewMill.Robert Sweet (botanist)Steud.Salisb.Hochst.KlattRegelN.E.Br.A.Chev.Collingwood IngramGenusPerennial PlantCormFlowering PlantFamily (biology)Center Of DiversityCape Floristic RegionCormCrocusPlant StemLeafCataphyllSecundBractSepalPetalTepalsStamenPerianthStyle (botany)Leaf ShapeOvary (plants)Capsule (fruit)DehiscentSeedAnthophoriniSunbirdNoctuidSphingidaeMacroglossum StellatarumLarvaLepidopteraLarge Yellow UnderwingThripsHybrid (biology)DiploidChromosomeTetraploidGladiolus DaleniiEnlargeGladiolus AlatusEnlargeEnlargeGladiolus UndulatusEnlargeEnlargeEnlargeEnlargeGladiolus CarneusEnlargeNectar GuidesWorld Checklist Of Selected Plant FamiliesEurasiaHenry Charles AndrewsWilliam Herbert (botanist)Gladiolus AlatusOtto StapfGoldblattGladiolus AngustusVlokFriedrich Wilhelm KlattNikolaus Joseph Von JacquinCarl Peter ThunbergAlfred Barton RendleWilliam CurtisWilliam AitonGladiolus CarneusOberm.Gladiolus CommunisCarl LinnaeusType SpeciesGladiolus CrassifoliusThomas Moore (botanist)Gladiolus DaleniiVan GeelGladiolus DichrousJohann Georg Christian LehmannGladiolus EquitansGladiolus FlanaganiiHarriet Margaret Louisa BolusPeter GoldblattMiriam Phoebe De VosGladiolus IllyricusGladiolus ItalicusGladiolus MurielaeGladiolus OrchidiflorusGladiolus PalustrisGladiolus Pole-evansiiGladiolus TriphyllusGladiolus TristisGladiolus UndulatusGladiolus WatsonioidesGladiolus WatsoniusGladiolus × ColvilleiList Of Gladiolus CultivarsTemperate ZoneCormsPlant PropagationThripsManchesterSingerMorrisseyThe SmithsThis Charming ManDame Edna EverageWedding AnniversaryAugustFrank NeuhauserNational Spelling BeeVincent Van GoghPhilipp Ernst (page Does Not Exist)Royal Botanic Gardens, KewInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-88192-897-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0199206872Google BooksGoogle BooksGoogle BooksJSTORDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralGoogle BooksInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0304354279World Checklist Of Selected Plant FamiliesRoyal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle BooksGoogle BooksGoogle BooksWikisourceEncyclopædia Britannica Eleventh EditionHelp:Taxon IdentifiersWikidataEncyclopedia Of LifeFloraBaseFlora Of North AmericaFlora Of ChinaGlobal Biodiversity Information FacilityGermplasm Resources Information NetworkIntegrated Taxonomic Information SystemNational Center For Biotechnology InformationNatural Resources Conservation ServiceHelp:Authority ControlNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:GladiolusCategory:Cormous PlantsCategory:Garden PlantsCategory:Iridaceae GeneraCategory:Interlanguage Link Template Link NumberCategory:Articles With 'species' MicroformatsCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From February 2017Category:All Articles Containing Potentially Dated StatementsCategory:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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