Contents 1 History 2 Reproduction 3 Morphology 3.1 Ginkgophyte wood 3.2 Ginkgophyte foliage 4 Fossil gallery 5 References


History[edit] The first Ginkgo leaves were found from the Triassic period, but there were many species of Ginkgo during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods as well. These periods, known collectively as the Mesozoic era, were when diversity and distribution for all plants were at their highest, including in Ginkophytes.[4] It was in the early Cenozoic period that Ginkgophytes nearly became extinct, specifically during the early Cretaceous and Tertiary periods.[2][4] The only remaining Ginkgophyte was Ginkgo adiantoidses – a polymorphic species.[5] The Chinese were the ones to save Ginkgo, as they grew them in their temple gardens.[2] This is why modern Ginkgo trees are native to China.


Reproduction[edit] Ginkgo trees produce ovulate, pollen-bearing structures. These structures are dioecious, in that male and female structures come from different Ginkgo plants.[2] The pollen organs are very similar to angiospermous catkins. They come from the axils of the bud scales, and the leaves from the Ginkgo tree spur shoots. Pollen is contained in sacs of two to four at the tips of sporophylls on the strobiloid. Ovules of Ginkgo trees come from stalks from leaf axils on the short shoots, each containing two ovules. The ovule is fertilized by the flagellated male gametes, which can move about freely. This fertilization process begins on the tree itself in the spring. The swollen fruit-like ovules, about 2–3 cm in diameter, fall from the tree in the fall, and fertilization continues into the winter/spring.[4][5] This fruit contains a single large seed, similar to that of a cycad.[4]


Morphology[edit] Ginkgophyte wood[edit] Fossils that appear Ginkgo-like are filed under a morphogenus called Ginkgoxylon, Ginkgomyeloxylon, or Protoginkgoxylon. Fossilized ginkgophyte wood is not commonly found in the record, possibly because it degrades easily, and possibly because it is difficult to tell apart from the much more pervasive conifer samples.[4] Like conifer wood, it has secondary thin-walled xylem and a primary vascular system composed of eustele and bifacial vascular cambium. The tracheids in the secondary xylem rays have pitting that occurs only on the walls and is circularly bordered.[2] This recreation displays one example of early Gingkophyte foliage. Ginkgophyte foliage[edit] Ginkgophyte foliage has stayed largely consistent since the Mesozoic. Its historically wide territory makes it an important leaf morphology, and its unique stomata and isotopic profile give it a key role in recreations of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Leaf fossils that resemble the Ginkgophytes are known as Ginkgoites. There are similar, now extinct, morphogens, such as Sphenobaiera, which describes fan-shaped, deeply divided leaves without clear petioles. The distinctive shape of the modern Ginkgo biloba gives the impression of a very narrow leaf morphology, but the group is varied and diverse. The Ginkgo genus by itself contains a range of morphologies. Ginkgo digitata, from the Jurassic, has long, wedge-shaped laminae with the intercostal regions covered in stomata and resin bodies, while G. pluripartita has at most 2 cm-long leaves and is intercostally hypostomatic.[4]


Fossil gallery[edit] A 6.7 cm tall Ginkgo biloba leaf, with insect herbivory. Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington, USA, Eocene, Ypresian, 49 million years old A 70 mm-wide Ginkgo biloba leaf. Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington, USA, Eocene, Ypresian, 49 million years old Ginkgo biloba Eocene fossil leaf from the Tranquille Shale of MacAbee, British Columbia, Canada Fossil of Ginkgo huttoni. Photo taken at Naturalis Museum in Leyden, Netherlands. Fossil of Ginkgoites huttoni


References[edit] ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M., J. L. Reveal, A. Farjon, M. F. Gardner, R. R. Mill, and M. W. Chase (2011). A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19:55–70. http://www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/content/2011/f/pt00019p070.pdf ^ a b c d e Beck, Charles (2014). "Ginkgoales". Access Science. Retrieved April 13, 2017.  ^ "Ginkgoaceae in Flora of China @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-04-12.  ^ a b c d e f Taylor, Thomas N.; Taylor, Edith L.; Krings, Michael (2008-12-29). Paleobotany, Second Edition: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants (2nd ed.). Academic Press. ISBN 9780123739728.  ^ a b Jalalpour, Julie; Malkin, Matt; Poon, Peter; Rehrmann, Liz; Yu, Jerry (1997). "Introduction to the Ginkgoales". www.ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-20.  v t e Classification of Archaeplastida / Plantae sensu lato Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) Rhodophyta (red algae) Cyanidiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Rhodellophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae Glaucocystophyta (glaucophytes) Glaucocystophyceae Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete Viridiplantae (green algae & land plants) Chlorophyta Palmophyllales Nephroselmidophyceae Prasinophyceae Pseudoscourfieldiales Pyramimonadophyceae Scourfieldiales Pedinophyceae Chlorodendrophyceae UTC clade Ulvophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Chlorophyceae Streptophyta (charophytes, & land plants) Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Phragmo- plastophyta Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Embryophyta (land plants) Bryophytes (non-vascular) Marchantiophyta Anthocerotophyta Bryophyta "Moss" †Horneophytopsida Tracheophyta (vascular) Lycopodiophyta (microphylls) †Zosterophyllopsida †Sawdoniales Isoetopsida Lycopodiopsida Euphyllophyta (megaphylls) Moniliformopses (ferns) †Cladoxylopsida †Stauropteridales †Zygopteridales Equisetopsida Psilotopsida Marattiopsida Filicopsida Spermatophyta (seed plants) †Seed ferns Gymnosperms Gnetopsida Pinopsida Cycadopsida Ginkgoopsida Angiosperms or flowering plants Amborellales Nymphaeales Austrobaileyales Magnoliids Monocots Eudicots Other †Trimerophytopsida †Progymnosperm Other †Rhyniopsida † = extinct. See also the list of plant orders. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ginkgoales&oldid=815733878" Categories: GinkgophytaGinkgoidaePlant ordersJurassic plantsExtant Permian first appearancesHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformats


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