Contents 1 Etymology 2 Diversity 3 Habitat 4 Anatomy 4.1 Shell 4.2 Body wall 4.3 Sensory organs and nervous system 4.4 Digestive system 4.5 Respiratory system 4.6 Circulatory system 4.7 Excretory system 4.8 Reproductive system 5 Life cycle 6 Feeding behavior 7 Genetics 8 Geological history and evolution 8.1 Cladogram 9 Taxonomy 10 References 11 External links

Etymology[edit] In the scientific literature, gastropods were described under "gasteropodes" by Georges Cuvier in 1795.[2] Cuvier chose "gastropod" by derivation from the Ancient Greek words γαστήρ (gastér) "stomach", and ποδὸς (podòs) "foot". The earlier name univalve means "one valve" or shell, in contrast to bivalve applied to mollusks such as clams and meaning that those animals possess two valves or shells.

Diversity[edit] At all taxonomic levels, gastropods are second only to the insects in terms of their diversity.[6] Gastropods have the greatest numbers of named mollusc species. However, estimates of the total number of gastropod species vary widely, depending on cited sources. The number of gastropod species can be ascertained from estimates of the number of described species of Mollusca with accepted names: about 85,000 (minimum 50,000, maximum 120,000).[7] But an estimate of the total number of Mollusca, including undescribed species, is about 240,000 species.[8] The estimate of 85,000 molluscs includes 24,000 described species of terrestrial gastropods.[7] Different estimates for aquatic gastropods (based on different sources) give about 30,000 species of marine gastropods, and about 5,000 species of freshwater and brackish gastropods.[9] The total number of living species of freshwater snails is about 4,000.[10] There are 444 recently extinct species of gastropods (extinct since the year 1500), 18 species that are now extinct in the wild (but still existing in captivity) and 69 "possibly extinct" species.[11] The number of prehistoric (fossil) species of gastropods is at least 15,000 species.[12]

Habitat[edit] Main articles: sea snail, sea slug, Terrestrial animal § Gastropods, land snail, semi-slug, and slug Some of the more familiar and better-known gastropods are terrestrial gastropods (the land snails and slugs) and some live in freshwater, but more than two thirds of all named species live in a marine environment. Gastropods have a worldwide distribution from the near Arctic and Antarctic zones to the tropics. They have become adapted to almost every kind of existence on earth, having colonized every medium available except the air. In habitats where there is not enough calcium carbonate to build a really solid shell, such as on some acidic soils on land, there are still various species of slugs, and also some snails with a thin translucent shell, mostly or entirely composed of the protein conchiolin. Snails such as Sphincterochila boissieri and Xerocrassa seetzeni have adapted to desert conditions, other snails have adapted to an existence in ditches, near deepwater hydrothermal vents, the pounding surf of rocky shores, caves, and many other diverse areas. Gastropods can be accidentally transferred from one habitat to another by other animals, e.g. by birds. The smallest bird species reported to carry a gastropod was a great tit (Parus major), as a hairy snail Trochulus hispidus was found in the plumage of a wintering great tit in Poland in 2010.[13]

Anatomy[edit] The anatomy of a common air-breathing land snail. Note that much of this anatomy does not apply to gastropods in other clades or groups. The anatomy of an aquatic snail with a gill, a male prosobranch gastropod. Note that much of this anatomy does not apply to gastropods in other clades. Light yellow - body Brown - shell and operculum Green - digestive system Light purple - gills Yellow - osphradium Red - heart Pink - Dark violet - 1. foot 2. cerebral ganglion 3. pneumostome 4. upper commissure 5. osphradium 6. gills 7. pleural ganglion 8. atrium of heart 9. visceral ganglion 10. ventricle 11. foot 12. operculum 13. brain 14. mouth 15. tentacle (chemosensory, 2 or 4) 16. eye 17. penis (everted, normally internal) 18. esophageal nerve ring 19. pedal ganglion 20. lower commissura 21. vas deferens 22. pallial cavity / mantle cavity / respiratory cavity 23. parietal ganglion 24. anus 25. hepatopancreas 26. gonad 27. rectum 28. nephridium Snails are distinguished by an anatomical process known as torsion, where the visceral mass of the animal rotates 180° to one side during development, such that the anus is situated more or less above the head. This process is unrelated to the coiling of the shell, which is a separate phenomenon. Torsion is present in all gastropods, but the opisthobranch gastropods are secondarily de-torted to various degrees.[14][15] Torsion occurs in two stages. The first, mechanistic stage is muscular, and the second is mutagenetic. The effects of torsion are primarily physiological - the organism develops an asymmetrical growth, with the majority occurring on the left side. This leads to the loss of right-paired appendages (e.g., ctenidia (comb-like respiratory apparatus), gonads, nephridia, etc.). Furthermore, the anus becomes redirected to the same space as the head. This is speculated to have some evolutionary function, as prior to torsion, when retracting into the shell, first the posterior end would get pulled in, and then the anterior. Now, the front can be retracted more easily, perhaps suggesting a defensive purpose. However, this "rotation hypothesis" is being challenged by the "asymmetry hypothesis" in which the gastropod mantle cavity originated from one side only of a bilateral set of mantle cavities.[16] Gastropods typically have a well-defined head with two or four sensory tentacles with eyes, and a ventral foot, which gives them their name (Greek gaster, stomach, and poda, feet). The foremost division of the foot is called the propodium. Its function is to push away sediment as the snail crawls. The larval shell of a gastropod is called a protoconch. The principal characteristic of the Gastropoda is the asymmetry of their principal organs. The essential feature of this asymmetry is that the anus generally lies to one side of the median plane.; The ctenidium (gill-combs), the osphradium (olfactory organs), the hypobranchial gland (or pallial mucous gland), and the auricle of the heart are single or at least are more developed on one side of the body than the other ; Furthermore, there is only one genital orifice, which lies on the same side of the body as the anus.[17] Shell[edit] Main article: Gastropod shell The shell of Zonitoides nitidus, a small land snail, has dextral coiling, which is typical (but not universal) in gastropod shells. Upper image: dorsal view of the shell, showing the apex Central image: lateral view showing the spire and aperture of the shell Lower image: basal view showing the umbilicus Most shelled gastropods have a one piece shell, typically coiled or spiraled, at least in the larval stage. This coiled shell usually opens on the right-hand side (as viewed with the shell apex pointing upward). Numerous species have an operculum, which in many species acts as a trapdoor to close the shell. This is usually made of a horn-like material, but in some molluscs it is calcareous. In the land slugs, the shell is reduced or absent, and the body is streamlined. Body wall[edit] Some sea slugs are very brightly colored. This serves either as a warning, when they are poisonous or contain stinging cells, or to camouflage them on the brightly colored hydroids, sponges and seaweeds on which many of the species are found. Lateral outgrowths on the body of nudibranchs are called cerata. These contain an outpocketing of digestive gland called the diverticula. Sensory organs and nervous system[edit] The upper pair of tentacles on the head of Helix pomatia have eye spots, but the main sensory organs of the snail are sensory receptors for olfaction, situated in the epithelium of the tentacles. Main articles: Sensory organs of gastropods and Nervous system of gastropods Sensory organs of gastropods include olfactory organs, eyes, statocysts and mechanoreceptors.[18] Gastropods have no hearing.[18] In terrestrial gastropods (land snails and slugs), the olfactory organs, located on the tips of the four tentacles, are the most important sensory organ.[18] The chemosensory organs of opisthobranch marine gastropods are called rhinophores. The majority of gastropods have simple visual organs, eye spots either at the tip or base of the tentacles. However, "eyes" in gastropods range from simple ocelli that only distinguish light and dark, to more complex pit eyes, and even to lens eyes.[19] In land snails and slugs, vision is not the most important sense, because they are mainly nocturnal animals.[18] The nervous system of gastropods includes the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. The central nervous system consist of ganglia connected by nerve cells. It includes paired ganglia: the cerebral ganglia, pedal ganglia, osphradial ganglia, pleural ganglia, parietal ganglia and the visceral ganglia. There are sometimes also buccal ganglia.[18] Digestive system[edit] Main articles: Digestive system of gastropods and Radula The radula of a gastropod is usually adapted to the food that a species eats. The simplest gastropods are the limpets and abalones, herbivores that use their hard radula to rasp at seaweeds on rocks. Many marine gastropods are burrowers, and have a siphon that extends out from the mantle edge. Sometimes the shell has a siphonal canal to accommodate this structure. A siphon enables the animal to draw water into their mantle cavity and over the gill. They use the siphon primarily to "taste" the water to detect prey from a distance. Gastropods with siphons tend to be either predators or scavengers. Respiratory system[edit] Main articles: Respiratory system of gastropods and Respiratory system § Anatomy of respiratory system in invertebrates Almost all marine gastropods breathe with a gill, but many freshwater species, and the majority of terrestrial species, have a pallial lung. Gastropods with a lung belong to one group with common descent, the Pulmonata, however, gastropods with gills are paraphyletic. The respiratory protein in almost all gastropods is hemocyanin, but a pulmonate family Planorbidae have hemoglobin as respiratory protein. In one large group of sea slugs, the gills are arranged as a rosette of feathery plumes on their backs, which gives rise to their other name, nudibranchs. Some nudibranchs have smooth or warty backs and have no visible gill mechanism, such that respiration may likely take place directly through the skin. Circulatory system[edit] Main article: Circulatory system of gastropods Gastropods have open circulatory system and the transport fluid is hemolymph. Hemocyanin is present in the hemolymph as the respiratory pigment. Excretory system[edit] Main article: Excretory system of gastropods The primary organs of excretion in gastropods are nephridia, which produce either ammonia or uric acid as a waste product. The nephridium also plays an important role in maintaining water balance in freshwater and terrestrial species. Additional organs of excretion, at least in some species, include pericardial glands in the body cavity, and digestive glands opening into the stomach. Reproductive system[edit] Main article: Reproductive system of gastropods Courtship is a part of mating behavior in some gastropods including some of the Helicidae. Again, in some land snails, an unusual feature of the reproductive system of gastropods is the presence and utilization of love darts. In many marine gastropods other than the opisthobranchs, there are separate sexes; most land gastropods, however, are hermaphrodites.

Life cycle[edit] A 9-hour-old trochophore of Haliotis asinina sf - shell field mating behaviour of Elysia timida Egg strings of an Aplysia species. Main article: Reproductive system of gastropods See also: Mating of gastropods Courtship is a part of the behavior of mating gastropods with some pulmonate families of land snails creating and utilizing love darts, the throwing of which have been identified as a form of sexual selection.[20] The main aspects of the life cycle of gastropods include: Egg laying and the eggs of gastropods The Embryonic development of gastropods The larvae or larval stadium: some gastropods may be trochophore and/or veliger Estivation and hibernation (each of these are present in some gastropods only) The growth of gastropods Courtship and mating in gastropods: fertilization is internal or external according to the species. External fertilization is common in marine gastropods.

Feeding behavior[edit] Snail eating a dandelion flower The diet of gastropods differs according to the group considered. Marine gastropods include some that are herbivores, detritus feeders, predatory carnivores, scavengers, parasites, and also a few ciliary feeders, in which the radula is reduced or absent. Land-dwelling species can chew up leaves, bark, fruit and decomposing animals while marine species can scrape algae off the rocks on the sea floor. In some species that have evolved into endoparasites, such as the eulimid Thyonicola doglieli, many of the standard gastropod features are strongly reduced or absent. A few sea slugs are herbivores and some are carnivores. The carnivorous habit is due to specialisation. Many gastropods have distinct dietary preferences and regularly occur in close association with their food species. Some predatory carnivorous gastropods include, for example: Cone shells, Testacella, Daudebardia, Ghost slug and others.

Genetics[edit] Gastropods exhibit an important degree of variation in mitochondrial gene organization when compared to other animals.[21] Main events of gene rearrangement occurred at the origin of Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia, whereas fewer changes occurred between the ancestors of Vetigastropoda (only tRNAs D, C and N) and Caenogastropoda (a large single inversion, and translocations of the tRNAs D and N).[21] Within Heterobranchia, gene order seems relatively conserved, and gene rearrangements are mostly related with transposition of tRNA genes.[21]

Geological history and evolution[edit] Fossil gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane of the Matmor Formation in southern Israel. Cornu aspersum (formerly Helix aspersa): a European pulmonate land snail that has been accidentally introduced in many countries throughout the world. See also: fr:Gastropoda (classification phylogénétique) and List of marine gastropod genera in the fossil record The first gastropods were exclusively marine, with the earliest representatives of the group appearing in the Late Cambrian (Chippewaella, Strepsodiscus),[22] though their only gastropod character is a coiled shell, so they could lie in the stem lineage, if they are gastropods at all.[23] Early Cambrian organisms like Helcionella and Scenella are no longer considered gastropods,[citation needed] and the tiny coiled Aldanella of earliest Cambrian time is probably not even a mollusk.[citation needed] As such, it's not until the Ordovician that the first crown-group members arise.[24] By the Ordovician period the gastropods were a varied group present in a range of aquatic habitats. Commonly, fossil gastropods from the rocks of the early Palaeozoic era are too poorly preserved for accurate identification. Still, the Silurian genus Poleumita contains fifteen identified species. Fossil gastropods were less common during the Palaeozoic era than bivalves. Most of the gastropods of the Palaeozoic era belong to primitive groups, a few of which still survive. By the Carboniferous period many of the shapes seen in living gastropods can be matched in the fossil record, but despite these similarities in appearance the majority of these older forms are not directly related to living forms. It was during the Mesozoic era that the ancestors of many of the living gastropods evolved. One of the earliest known terrestrial (land-dwelling) gastropods is Maturipupa, which is found in the Coal Measures of the Carboniferous period in Europe, but relatives of the modern land snails are rare before the Cretaceous period, when the familiar Helix first appeared. Cepaea nemoralis: another European pulmonate land snail, which has been introduced to many other countries In rocks of the Mesozoic era, gastropods are slightly more common as fossils; their shells are often well preserved. Their fossils occur in ancient beds deposited in both freshwater and marine environments. The "Purbeck Marble" of the Jurassic period and the "Sussex Marble" of the early Cretaceous period, which both occur in southern England, are limestones containing the tightly packed remains of the pond snail Viviparus. Rocks of the Cenozoic era yield very large numbers of gastropod fossils, many of these fossils being closely related to modern living forms. The diversity of the gastropods increased markedly at the beginning of this era, along with that of the bivalves. Certain trail-like markings preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks are thought to have been made by gastropods crawling over the soft mud and sand. Although these trace fossils are of debatable origin, some of them do resemble the trails made by living gastropods today. Gastropod fossils may sometimes be confused with ammonites or other shelled cephalopods. An example of this is Bellerophon from the limestones of the Carboniferous period in Europe, the shell of which is planispirally coiled and can be mistaken for the shell of a cephalopod. Gastropods are one of the groups that record the changes in fauna caused by the advance and retreat of the Ice Sheets during the Pleistocene epoch. Cladogram[edit] A cladogram showing the phylogenic relationships of Gastropoda with example species:[25] Gastropoda Panpulmonata ► Euopisthobranchia ► Nudipleura ► Caenogastropoda Neritimorpha Vetigastropoda Patellogastropoda ► Cocculiniformia, Neomphalina and Lower Heterobranchia are not included in the above cladogram.

Taxonomy[edit] Main articles: Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Ponder & Lindberg, 1997); Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005); and Changes in the taxonomy of gastropods since 2005 A group of fossil shells of Turritella cingulifera from the Pliocene of Cyprus Five views of a shell of a Fulguropsis species Microphoto (35x) of Gastropoda sp. from Holocene sediments of Amuq Plain SSE Turkey Since Darwin, biological taxonomy has attempted to reflect the phylogeny of organisms, i.e., the tree of life. The classifications used in taxonomy attempt to represent the precise interrelatedness of the various taxa. However, the taxonomy of the Gastropoda is constantly being revised and so the versions shown in various texts can differ in major ways. In the older classification of the gastropods, there were four subclasses:[26] Opisthobranchia (gills to the right and behind the heart). Gymnomorpha (no shell) Prosobranchia (gills in front of the heart). Pulmonata (with a lung instead of gills) The taxonomy of the Gastropoda is still under revision, and more and more of the old taxonomy is being abandoned, as the results of DNA studies slowly become clearer. Nevertheless, a few of the older terms such as "opisthobranch" and "prosobranch" are still sometimes used in a descriptive way. New insights based on DNA sequencing of gastropods have produced some revolutionary new taxonomic insights. In the case of the Gastropoda, the taxonomy is now gradually being rewritten to embody strictly monophyletic groups (only one lineage of gastropods in each group). Integrating new findings into a working taxonomy remain challenging. Consistent ranks within the taxonomy at the level of subclass, superorder, order, and suborder have already been abandoned as unworkable. Ongoing revisions of the higher taxonomic levels are expected in the near future. Convergent evolution, which appears to exist at especially high frequency in gastropods, may account for the observed differences between the older phylogenies, which were based on morphological data, and more recent gene-sequencing studies. Bouchet & Rocroi (2005)[3][27] made sweeping changes in the systematics, resulting in a taxonomy that is a step closer to the evolutionary history of the phylum. The Bouchet & Rocroi classification system is based partly on the older systems of classification, and partly on new cladistic research. In the past, the taxonomy of gastropods was largely based on phenetic morphological characters of the taxa. The recent advances are more based on molecular characters from DNA[28] and RNA research. This has made the taxonomical ranks and their hierarchy controversial. The debate about these issues is not likely to end soon. In the Bouchet, Rocroi et al. taxonomy, the authors have used unranked clades for taxa above the rank of superfamily (replacing the ranks suborder, order, superorder and subclass), while using the traditional Linnaean approach for all taxa below the rank of superfamily. Whenever monophyly has not been tested, or is known to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic, the term "group" or "informal group" has been used. The classification of families into subfamilies is often not well resolved, and should be regarded as the best possible hypothesis. In 2004, Brian Simison and David R. Lindberg showed possible diphyletic origins of the Gastropoda based on mitochondrial gene order and amino acid sequence analyses of complete genes.[29] In the 2017 issue of "Malacologia" journal (available online from 4 January 2018) new much updated version of 2005 "Bouchet & Rocroi" taxonomy was published: "Revised Classification, Nomenclator and Typification of Gastropod and Monoplacophoran Families"[30].

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(1997): Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119 83–265. Robin, A. (2008): Encyclopedia of Marine Gastropods. 480 S., Verlag ConchBooks. Hackenheim. ISBN 978-3-939767-09-1

External links[edit] Look up gastropod or univalve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikispecies has information related to Gastropoda Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gastropoda. Gastropods portal Gastropod reproductive behavior 2004 Linnean taxonomy of gastropods Webster, S.; Fiorito, G. (2001). "Socially guided behaviour in non-insect invertebrates". Animal Cognition. 4 (2): 69. doi:10.1007/s100710100108.  - An article about social learning also in gastropods. Gastropod photo gallery, mostly fossils, a few modern shells A video of a crawling Garden Snail (Helix aspersa), YouTube v t e Classes of Molluscs Extant classes Caudofoveata Solenogastres Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Gastropoda Cephalopoda Bivalvia Scaphopoda Extinct classes †Rostroconchia †Helcionelloida Taxon identifiers Wd: Q4867740 ADW: Gastropoda EoL: 15516635 Fauna Europaea: 11369 Fossilworks: 8304 GBIF: 225 ITIS: 69459 NCBI: 6448 WoRMS: 101 Authority control GND: 4179833-8 NDL: 00563642 Retrieved from "" Categories: GastropodsMollusc classesExtant Cambrian first appearancesTaxa named by Georges CuvierHidden categories: Articles with French-language external linksArticles with Spanish-language external linksCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listWebarchive template wayback linksArticles using diversity taxoboxArticles with 'species' microformatsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2017Wikipedia articles with GND identifiersArticles containing video clips

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Gastropods - Photos and All Basic Informations

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PrecambrianCambrianOrdovicianSilurianDevonianCarboniferousPermianTriassicJurassicCretaceousPaleogeneNeogeneHelix PomatiaTaxonomy (biology)EAnimalMolluscaGeorges CuvierBiodiversitySnailSlugTaxonomicClass (taxonomy)PhylumMolluscaSnailSlugAchatina AchatinaSea SnailOpisthobranchiaFreshwater SnailLimpetLand SnailSlugInsectFurongianFamily (taxonomy)ExtinctFossilClass (biology)PhylumSpeciesAnatomyCladeHabitatEstuariesMudflatIntertidalAbyssal ZoneHydrothermal VentParasiticGastropod ShellAbaloneConchCommon PeriwinkleWhelkSeashellCowriesFamily (biology)LimpetLarvalGeorges CuvierAncient GreekBivalveValve (mollusc)ExtinctExtinct In The WildSea SnailSea SlugTerrestrial AnimalLand SnailSemi-slugSlugTerrestrial AnimalCalcium CarbonateConchiolinSphincterochila BoissieriXerocrassa SeetzeniBirdGreat TitTrochulus HispidusPolandEnlargeCladeEnlargeProsobranchCladesGastropod ShellOperculum (gastropod)GillsOsphradiumPneumostomeCommissureOsphradiumGillsOperculum (gastropod)Reproductive System Of GastropodsVas DeferensMantle (mollusc)HepatopancreasGonadRectumNephridiumTorsion (gastropod)OpisthobranchiaCtenidium (mollusc)GonadNephridiumHead (anatomy)TentacleGreek LanguageStomachFootProtoconchCtenidium (mollusc)OsphradiumHypobranchial GlandAuricle (anatomy)Gastropod ShellEnlargeGastropod ShellZonitoides NitidusGastropod ShellApex (mollusc)Operculum (gastropod)OpisthobranchiaCamouflageCerataDiverticula (mollusc)EnlargeTentacleOlfactionEpitheliumSensory Organs Of GastropodsNervous System Of GastropodsSenseOlfactionStatocystMechanoreceptorTentacleOpisthobranchRhinophoreOcelliPeripheral Nervous SystemCentral Nervous SystemGangliaDigestive System Of GastropodsRadulaRadulaLimpetAbaloneRadulaSeaweedSiphon (mollusc)Mantle (mollusc)Siphonal CanalRespiratory System Of GastropodsRespiratory SystemGillLungParaphyleticHemocyaninPlanorbidaeHemoglobinNudibranchCirculatory System Of GastropodsCirculatory SystemHemolymphHemocyaninHemolymphExcretory System Of GastropodsNephridiumAmmoniaUric AcidReproductive System Of GastropodsMating Of GastropodsMating Of GastropodsHelicidaeReproductive System Of GastropodsLove DartOpisthobranchHermaphroditeEnlargeTrochophoreHaliotis AsininaGastropod ShellEnlargeElysia TimidaEnlargeReproductive System Of GastropodsMating Of GastropodsMating Of GastropodsMatingPulmonateLove DartSexual SelectionTrochophoreVeligerEstivationHibernationFertilizationEnlargeHerbivoreDetritusPredatoryCarnivoreScavengerParasiteRadulaEulimidaeCone ShellTestacellaDaudebardiaGhost SlugMitochondrial GeneMutationPatellogastropodaHeterobranchiaVetigastropodaTRNACaenogastropodaChromosomal InversionChromosomal TranslocationTransposonEnlargeBivalveMatmor FormationIsraelEnlargeCornu AspersumList Of Marine Gastropod Genera In The Fossil RecordFurongianChippewaellaStrepsodiscusCambrianHelcionellaScenellaWikipedia:Citation NeededAldanellaCambrianWikipedia:Citation NeededOrdovicianFossilPalaeozoicSilurianPoleumitaPalaeozoicBivalveCarboniferousMesozoicCoal MeasureCarboniferousCretaceousHelix (gastropod)EnlargeCepaea NemoralisMesozoicPurbeck MarbleJurassicSussex MarbleLimestoneViviparusCenozoicBivalveTrace FossilAmmoniteCephalopodBellerophon (genus)CarboniferousPleistoceneCladogramPanpulmonataPanpulmonataEuopisthobranchiaEuopisthobranchiaNudipleuraNudipleuraCaenogastropodaNeritimorphaVetigastropodaPatellogastropodaPatellogastropodaCocculiniformiaNeomphalinaLower HeterobranchiaTaxonomy Of The Gastropoda (Ponder & Lindberg, 1997)Taxonomy Of The Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005)Changes In The Taxonomy Of Gastropods Since 2005EnlargeTurritella CinguliferaPlioceneCyprusEnlargeFulguropsisEnlargeCharles DarwinPhylogenyTree Of LifeOpisthobranchiaGymnomorphaProsobranchiaPulmonataTaxonomy (biology)DNAMonophyleticTaxonomy (biology)Convergent EvolutionTaxonomy Of The Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005)CladisticPheneticCladeDavid R. LindbergParaphylyMitochondrialAmino Acid SequenceMalacologiaGeorges CuvierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-925919-72-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-642-56860-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-642-56861-8Digital Object IdentifierHandle SystemDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-643-05756-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-87893-097-3Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-85199-318-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-86025-156-2Digital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierJSTORCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierWayback MachineDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierMalacologiaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-915826-23-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-9661720-0-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/3-925919-00-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-939767-09-1WikispeciesPortal:GastropodsDigital Object IdentifierSocial Learning (social Pedagogy)Helix AspersaYouTubeTemplate:MolluscMolluscCaudofoveataSolenogastresChitonMonoplacophoraCephalopodBivalviaTusk ShellRostroconchiaHelcionelloidaHelp:Taxon IdentifiersWikidataAnimal Diversity WebEncyclopedia Of LifeFauna EuropaeaFossilworksGlobal Biodiversity Information FacilityIntegrated Taxonomic Information SystemNational Center For Biotechnology InformationWorld Register Of Marine SpeciesHelp:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:GastropodsCategory:Mollusc ClassesCategory:Extant Cambrian First AppearancesCategory:Taxa Named By Georges CuvierCategory:Articles With French-language External LinksCategory:Articles With Spanish-language External LinksCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Articles Using Diversity TaxoboxCategory:Articles With 'species' MicroformatsCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2017Category:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Articles Containing Video ClipsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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