Contents 1 Categories of fruits 2 Anatomy of simple fruits 3 Pericarp layers 3.1 Epicarp 3.1.1 Flavedo 3.2 Mesocarp 3.3 Endocarp 4 Anatomy of grass fruits 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


Categories of fruits[edit] Fruits are generally classified into fleshy fruits and dry fruits. Some plants commonly called vegetables, such as cucumbers, tomatoes, and squash, are actually fruits. Fruits are found in three main anatomical categories: Simple fruits are formed from a single ovary and may contain one or many seeds. They can be either fleshy or dry. Berries and drupes are examples of simple fleshy fruits. Pomes are both accessory fruits and simple fruits. Nuts are dry fruits. Aggregate fruits are formed from a single compound flower and contain many ovaries. Examples include raspberries and blackberries. Multiple fruits are formed from the fused ovaries of multiple flowers. An example of a multiple fruit is Pineapple


Anatomy of simple fruits[edit] Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed A schematic picture of an orange hesperidium A segment of an orange that has been opened to show the pulp (juice vesicles) of the endocarp In berries and drupes, the pericarp forms the edible tissue around the seeds. In other fruits such as Citrus stone fruits (Prunus) only some layers of the pericarp are eaten. In accessory fruits, other tissues develop into the edible portion of the fruit instead, for example the receptacle of the flower in strawberries.


Pericarp layers[edit] In fleshy fruits, the pericarp is typically made up of three distinct layers: the epicarp, which is the outermost layer; the mesocarp, which is the middle layer; and the endocarp, which is the inner layer surrounding the ovary or the seeds. In a citrus fruit, the epicarp and mesocarp make up the peel. In dry fuits, the layers of the pericarp are not clearly distinguishable. Epicarp[edit] Epicarp (from Greek: epi-, "on" or "upon" + -carp, "fruit") is a botanical term for the outermost layer of the pericarp (or fruit). The epicarp forms the tough outer skin of the fruit, if there is one. The epicarp is sometimes called the exocarp, or, especially in Citrus, the flavedo. Flavedo[edit] Flavedo is mostly composed of cellulosic material but also contains other components, such as essential oils, paraffin waxes, steroids and triterpenoids, fatty acids, pigments (carotenoids, chlorophylls, flavonoids), bitter principles (limonin), and enzymes. In citrus fruits, the flavedo constitutes the peripheral surface of the pericarp. It is composed of several cell layers that become progressively thicker in the internal part; the epidermic layer is covered with wax and contains few stomata, which in many cases are closed when the fruit is ripe. When ripe, the flavedo cells contain carotenoids (mostly xanthophyll) inside chromoplasts, which, in a previous developmental stage, contained chlorophyll. This hormonally controlled progression in development is responsible for the fruit's change of color from green to yellow upon ripening. The internal region of the flavedo is rich in multicellular bodies with spherical or pyriform shapes, which are full of essential oils. Mesocarp[edit] The mesocarp (from Greek: meso-, "middle" + -carp, "fruit") is the fleshy middle layer of the pericarp of a fruit; it is found between the epicarp and the endocarp. It is usually the part of the fruit that is eaten. For example, the mesocarp makes up most of the edible part of a peach, and a considerable part of a tomato. "Mesocarp" may also refer to any fruit that is fleshy throughout. In a hesperidium, as is found in citrus fruit, the mesocarp is also referred to as albedo or pith. It is the inner part of the peel and is commonly removed before eating. In citron fruit, where the mesocarp is the most prominent part, it is used to produce succade. Endocarp[edit] Olive drupe endocarp (left and center) and the seed (right). Endocarp (from Greek: endo-, "inside" + -carp, "fruit") is a botanical term for the inside layer of the pericarp (or fruit), which directly surrounds the seeds. It may be membranous as in citrus where it is the only part consumed, or thick and hard as in the stone fruits of the family Rosaceae such as peaches, cherries, plums, and apricots. In nuts, it is the stony layer that surrounds the kernel of pecans, walnuts, etc., and that is removed prior to consumption. In citrus fruits, the endocarp is separated into sections, which are called segments. These segments are filled with juice vesicles, which contain the juice of the fruit.


Anatomy of grass fruits[edit] The grains of grasses are single-seed simple fruits wherein the pericarp (ovary wall) and seed coat are fused into one layer. This type of fruit is called a caryopsis. Examples include cereal grains, such as wheat, barley, and rice. The dead pericarp of dry fruits represents an elaborated layer that is capable of storing active proteins and other substances for increasing survival rate of germinating seeds [1]


See also[edit] Gynoecium


References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 


External links[edit] Media related to Fruit anatomy at Wikimedia Commons Fruit Terminology (part 4) - more pictures and diagrams Nut photos v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject v t e Types of fruits Types of fruits Achene Berry (modified berries: Hesperidium Pepo) Capsule Caryopsis Drupe Follicle Legume Loment Nut Pome Samara Schizocarp Silique Syconium Categories of fruits Accessory fruit Simple fruit Compound fruit Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Dehiscent fruit Function Diaspore Drift fruit Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fruit_anatomy&oldid=818218963" Categories: Fruit morphologyHidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from June 2014All articles lacking in-text citationsArticles containing Greek-language textWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with no article parameterWikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia BritannicaCommons category without a link on Wikidata


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages فارسیIdo Edit links This page was last edited on 2 January 2018, at 08:23. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.300","walltime":"0.377","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1232,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":56387,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":762,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":1,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 314.642 1 -total"," 45.53% 143.243 1 Template:Lang-el"," 18.09% 56.922 1 Template:EB1911"," 17.89% 56.298 1 Template:No_footnotes"," 15.15% 47.664 1 Template:Cite_EB1911"," 12.17% 38.304 1 Template:Cite_encyclopedia"," 11.81% 37.172 3 Template:Navbox"," 11.05% 34.783 1 Template:Botany"," 9.96% 31.352 1 Template:Ambox"," 4.59% 14.442 1 Template:Commons_category-inline"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.186","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":10702534,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1267","timestamp":"20180114223127","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":94,"wgHostname":"mw1261"});});


Fruit_anatomy - Photos and All Basic Informations

Fruit_anatomy More Links

Wikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:WikiProject Fact And Reference CheckWikipedia:When To CiteHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalEnlargeSquash (plant)Ovary (plants)OvuleCarpelPetalPlant AnatomyFruitOvary (plants)FlowersSeedAckeeArilPineappleVegetableCucumberTomatoCucurbitaFruitSimple FruitBerry (botany)DrupePomeAccessory FruitNut (fruit)Aggregate FruitRaspberryBlackberryMultiple FruitPineappleEnlargeDrupePeachFruitSeedEnlargeOrange (fruit)HesperidiumEnlargeOrange (fruit)Juice VesiclesAccessory FruitReceptacle (botany)StrawberryPeel (fruit)Greek LanguageBotanicalCitrusCelluloseEssential OilParaffin WaxSteroidTriterpenoidFatty AcidPigmentCarotenoidChlorophyllFlavonoidLimoninEnzymeEpidermis (botany)StomaXanthophyllChromoplastChlorophyllHesperidiumCitrusPithPeel (fruit)CitronSuccadeEnlargeOliveBotanicalSeedsCitrusStone FruitsRosaceaePeachCherryPlumApricotNut (fruit)PecanWalnutJuice VesiclesCaryopsisGynoeciumPublic DomainEncyclopædia Britannica Eleventh EditionCommons:Category:FruitsTemplate:BotanyTemplate Talk:BotanyBotanyHistory Of BotanyBranches Of BotanyHistory Of Plant SystematicsEthnobotanyPaleobotanyPlant AnatomyPlant EcologyPhytogeographyGeobotanical ProspectingFloraPhytochemistryPlant PathologyBryologyPhycologyFloristicsDendrologyPlantAlgaeArchaeplastidaBryophyteNon-vascular PlantVascular PlantSpermatophytePteridophyteGymnospermFlowering PlantPlant MorphologyGlossary Of Plant MorphologyPlant CellCell WallPhragmoplastPlastidPlasmodesmaVacuoleTissue (biology)MeristemVascular TissueVascular BundleGround TissueLeafCork CambiumWoodStorage OrganRootRhizoidBulbRhizomeShootPlant StemLeafPetiole (botany)CataphyllBudSessility (botany)Plant Reproductive MorphologyABC Model Of Flower DevelopmentInflorescenceUmbelRacemeBractPedicel (botany)FlowerWhorl (botany)Floral SymmetryFloral DiagramFloral FormulaReceptacle (botany)HypanthiumPerianthTepalPetalSepalSporophyllGynoeciumOvary (botany)OvuleStigma (botany)ArchegoniumStamenStamenStaminodePollenTapetum (botany)Column (botany)GametophyteSporophyteEmbryoFruitBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)SeedSeed DispersalEndospermEpicuticular WaxPlant CuticleEpidermis (botany)StomaNectarTrichomeThorns, Spines, And PricklesPlant PhysiologyPlant NutritionPhotosynthesisChlorophyllPlant HormoneTranspirationTurgor PressureBulk MovementAleuronePhytomelaninSugarSapStarchCelluloseSecondary GrowthWoody PlantHerbaceous PlantHabit (biology)VineLianaShrubSubshrubTreeSucculent PlantPlant ReproductionPlant EvolutionPlant EcologyAlternation Of GenerationsSporangiumSporeMicrosporangiaMicrosporeSporangiumMegasporePollinationPollinatorPollen TubeDouble FertilizationGerminationPlant Evolutionary Developmental BiologyEvolutionary History Of PlantsTimeline Of Plant EvolutionHardiness ZonePlant TaxonomyHistory Of Plant SystematicsHerbariumTaxonomy (biology)Botanical NomenclatureBotanical NameCorrect NameAuthor Citation (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsTaxonomic RankInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyList Of Systems Of Plant TaxonomyCultivated Plant TaxonomyCitrus TaxonomyCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupGrex (horticulture)AgronomyFloricultureForestryHorticultureGlossary Of Botanical TermsList Of BotanistsList Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (W–Z)Botanical ExpeditionCategory:BotanyPortal:PlantsWikipedia:WikiProject PlantsTemplate:FruitsTemplate Talk:FruitsFruitAcheneBerry (botany)HesperidiumBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)CaryopsisDrupeFollicle (fruit)LegumeLomentNut (fruit)PomeSamara (fruit)SchizocarpSiliqueSyconiumAccessory FruitFruitCompound FruitAggregate FruitMultiple FruitDehiscence (botany)Diaspore (botany)Drift SeedHelp:CategoryCategory:Fruit MorphologyCategory:Articles Lacking In-text Citations From June 2014Category:All Articles Lacking In-text CitationsCategory:Articles Containing Greek-language TextCategory:Wikipedia Articles Incorporating A Citation From The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica With No Article ParameterCategory:Wikipedia Articles Incorporating Text From The 1911 Encyclopædia BritannicaCategory:Commons Category Without A Link On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link