Contents 1 Historical context 2 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery 3 Istanbul Convention 4 Causes of forced marriages 5 Consequences 5.1 For victims and society 5.2 Legislative consequences 6 Violence 7 Relation to dowry and bride price 8 Marriage by abduction 9 Forced marriage as a way of solving disputes 10 Widow inheritance 11 In armed conflict 12 Forced marriage by partner 13 Escaping a forced marriage 14 Sharia law 15 Shotgun wedding 16 By country 16.1 Africa 16.1.1 Madagascar 16.1.2 Malawi 16.1.3 Mauritania 16.1.4 Niger 16.1.5 South Africa 16.1.6 The Gambia 16.2 Asia 16.2.1 Compensation marriage 16.2.2 Afghanistan 16.2.3 India 16.2.4 Iran 16.2.5 Nepal 16.2.6 Sri Lanka 16.3 Europe 16.3.1 Germany 16.3.2 United Kingdom 16.3.3 Sweden 16.3.4 Other 16.4 The Americas 16.4.1 Canada 16.4.2 United States 17 Statistics 18 See also 19 Activists and women famous for refusing forced marriage 20 References 21 External links

Historical context[edit] Further information: Arranged marriage, Love marriage, Coverture, Marital power, and Raptio Marriages throughout history were arranged between families, especially before the 18th century.[14] The practices varied by culture, but usually involved the legal transfer of dependency of the woman from her father to the groom. The emancipation of women in the 19th and 20th centuries changed marriage laws dramatically, especially in regard to property and economic status. By the mid-20th century, many Western countries had enacted legislation establishing legal equality between spouses in family law.[15] The period of 1975-1979 saw a major overhaul of family laws in countries such as Italy,[16][17] Spain,[18] Austria,[19][19] West Germany,[20][21] and Portugal.[22] In 1978, the Council of Europe passed the Resolution (78) 37 on equality of spouses in civil law.[23] Among the last European countries to establish full gender equality in marriage were Switzerland,[24] Greece,[25] Spain,[26] the Netherlands,[27] and France [28] in the 1980s. An arranged marriage is not the same as a forced marriage: in the former, the spouse has the possibility to reject the offer; in the latter, they do not. The line between arranged and forced marriage is however often difficult to draw, due to the implied familial and social pressure to accept the marriage and obey one's parents in all respects.[29][30] In Europe, during the late 18th century and early 19th century, the literary and intellectual movement of romanticism presented new and progressive ideas about love marriage, which started to gain acceptance in society. In the 19th century, marriage practices varied across Europe, but in general, arranged marriages were more common among the upper class. Arranged marriages were the norm in Russia before early 20th century, most of which were endogamous.[31] Child marriages were common historically, but began to be questioned in the 19th and 20th century. Child marriages are often considered to be forced marriages, because children (especially young ones) are not able to make a fully informed choice whether or not to marry, being influenced by their families.[32] In Western countries, during the past decades, the nature of marriage—especially with regard to the importance of marital procreation and the ease of divorce—has changed dramatically, which has led to less social and familial pressure to get married, providing more freedom of choice in regard to choosing a spouse.[33] Historically, forced marriage was also used to require a captive (slave or prisoner of war) to integrate with the host community, and accept his or her fate. One example is the English blacksmith John R. Jewitt, who spent three years as a captive of the Nootka people on the Pacific Northwest Coast in 1802–1805. He was ordered to marry, because the council of chiefs thought that a wife and family would reconcile him to staying with his captors for life. Jewitt was given a choice between forced marriage for himself and capital punishment for both him and his "father" (a fellow captive). "Reduced to this sad extremity, with death on the one side, and matrimony on the other, I thought proper to choose what appeared to me the least of the two evils" (p154).[34] Forced marriage was also practiced by authoritarian governments as a way to meet population targets. The Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia systematically forced people into marriages, in order to increase the population and continue the revolution.[35] These marriage ceremonies consisted of no fewer than three couples and could be as large as 160 couples. Generally, the village chief or a senior leader of the community would approach both parties and inform them that they were to be married and the time and place the marriage would occur. Often, the marriage ceremony would be the first time the future spouses would meet. Parents and other family members were not allowed to participate in selecting the spouse or to attend the marriage ceremony. The Khmer Rouge maintained that parental authority was unnecessary because it “w[as] to be everyone’s ‘mother and father.’”[35] Raptio is a Latin term referring to the large scale abduction of women, (kidnapping) either for marriage or enslavement (particularly sexual slavery). The practice is surmised to have been common since anthropological antiquity.[36] In the 21st century, forced marriages have come to attention in European countries, within the context of immigration from cultures in which they are common. The Istanbul Convention prohibits forced marriages. (see Article 37).[37]

Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery[edit] The 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery defines "institutions and practices similar to slavery" to include:[38] c) Any institution or practice whereby: (i) A woman, without the right to refuse, is promised or given in marriage on payment of a consideration in money or in kind to her parents, guardian, family or any other person or group; or (ii) The husband of a woman, his family, or his clan, has the right to transfer her to another person for value received or otherwise; or (iii) A woman on the death of her husband is liable to be inherited by another person;

Istanbul Convention[edit] The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, also known as the Istanbul Convention, states:[37] Article 32 – Civil consequences of forced marriages Parties shall take the necessary legislative or other measures to ensure that marriages concluded under force may be voidable, annulled or dissolved without undue financial or administrative burden placed on the victim. Article 37 – Forced marriage 1 Parties shall take the necessary legislative or other measures to ensure that the intentional conduct of forcing an adult or a child to enter into a marriage is criminalised. 2 Parties shall take the necessary legislative or other measures to ensure that the intentional conduct of luring an adult or a child to the territory of a Party or State other than the one she or he resides in with the purpose of forcing this adult or child to enter into a marriage is criminalised.

Causes of forced marriages[edit] There are numerous factors which can lead to a culture which accepts and encourages forced marriages. Reasons for performing forced marriages include: strengthening extended family links; controlling unwanted behavior and sexuality; preventing 'unsuitable' relationships; protecting and abiding by perceived cultural or religious norms; keeping the wealth in the extended family; dealing with the consequences of pregnancy out of wedlock; considering the contracting of a marriage as the duty of the parents; obtaining a guarantee against poverty; aiding immigration.[39][40]

Consequences[edit] For victims and society[edit] Early and forced marriages can contribute to girls being placed in a cycle of poverty and powerlessness. Most are likely to experience mistreatment such as violence, abuse and forced sexual relations. This means that women who marry younger in age are more likely to be dominated by their husbands. They also experience poor sexual and reproductive health. Young married girls are more likely to contract HIV and their health could be in jeopardy. Most people who are forced into a marriage lack education and are often illiterate. Young ones tend to drop out of school shortly before they get married.[41] Legislative consequences[edit] Depending by jurisdiction, a forced marriage may or may not be void or voidable. Victims may be able to seek redress through annulment or divorce. In England and Wales, the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 stipulates that a forced marriage is voidable.[42] In some jurisdictions, people who had coerced the victim into marriage may face criminal charges.[43][44][45]

Violence[edit] Further information: Honor killing Forced marriages are often related to violence, both in regard to violence perpetrated inside the marriage (domestic violence), and in regard to violence inflicted in order to force an unwilling participant to accept the marriage, or to punish a refusal (in extreme cases women and girls who do not accept the marriage are subjected to honor killings).[46][47][48]

Relation to dowry and bride price[edit] Further information: Dowry and Bride price The traditional customs of dowry and bride price contribute to the practice of forced marriage.[49][50][51] A dowry is the property or money that a wife (or wife's family) brings to her husband upon marriage.[52] A bride price is an amount of money or property or wealth paid by the groom (or his family) to the parents of the bride upon marriage. Dowry is mainly practiced in South Asia, while bride price is more common in Sub-Saharan Africa (see lobolo) and some regions in Southeast Asia (e.g. Cambodia, Thailand).

Marriage by abduction[edit] Main articles: Bride kidnapping and Groom kidnapping Marriage by abduction, also known as bride kidnapping, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry. Marriage by abduction has been practiced throughout history around the world and continues to occur in some countries today, particularly in Central Asia, the Caucasus and parts of Africa. A girl or a woman is kidnapped by the groom-to-be, who is often helped by his friends. The victim is often raped by the groom-to-be, for her to lose her virginity, so that the man is able to negotiate a bride price with the village elders to legitimize the marriage.[53][54][55] The future bride then has no choice in most circumstances, but to accept: if the bride goes back to her family, she (and her family) will often be ostracized by the community because the community thinks she has lost her virginity, and she is now 'impure'.[56]

Forced marriage as a way of solving disputes[edit] Further information: Vani (custom) A forced marriage is also often the result of a dispute between families, where the dispute is 'resolved' by giving a female from one family to the other. Vani is a cultural custom found in parts of Pakistan wherein a young girl is forcibly married as part of the punishment for a crime committed by her male relatives.[57] Vani is a form of forced child marriage,[58] and the result of punishment decided by a council of tribal elders named jirga.[59][60]

Widow inheritance[edit] Main articles: Widow inheritance and Levirate marriage Widow inheritance, also known as bride inheritance, is a cultural and social practice whereby a widow is required to marry a kinsman of her late husband, often his brother. It is prevalent in certain parts of Africa. The practice of wife inheritance has also been blamed for the spread of HIV/AIDS.[61]

In armed conflict[edit] In conflict areas, women and girls are sometimes forced to marry men on either side of the conflict. This practice has taken place recently in countries such as Syria, Sierra Leone, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Historically, this was common throughout the world, with women from the communities of the war enemy being considered "spoils of war", who could be kidnapped, raped and forced into marriage or sexual slavery.[62] Because women were regarded as property, it seemed reasonable to see them as the chattel of the war enemy, which could now be appropriated and used by the winner.[63]

Forced marriage by partner[edit] Forced marriage can occur in the situation where in an unmarried couple, one partner forces (through violence or threats) the other partner to enter the marriage.[62]

Escaping a forced marriage[edit] Ending a forced marriage may be extremely difficult in many parts of the world. For instance, in parts of Africa, one of the main obstacles for leaving the marriage is the bride price. Once the bride price has been paid, the girl is seen as belonging to the husband and his family. If she wants to leave, the husband may demand back the bride price that he had paid to the girl's family. The girl's family often cannot or does not want to pay it back.[64][65][66] UK citizens escaping forced marriage abroad are forced to pay their repatriation costs or get into debt. This makes escaping a forced marriage harder.[67]

Sharia law[edit] This section uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources, with multiple points of view. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main articles: Sharia and Islamic marital jurisprudence See also: Women in Islam and Islam and domestic violence Abu Hurayrah reported that the Prophet said: "A non-virgin woman may not be married without her command, and a virgin may not be married without her permission; and it is permission enough for her to remain silent (because of her natural shyness)." [Al-Bukhari:6455, Muslim & Others] It is reported in a hadith that A'ishah related that she once asked the Prophet : "In the case of a young girl whose parents marry her off, should her permission be sought or not?" He replied: "Yes, she must give her permission." She then said: "But a virgin would be shy, O Messenger of Allaah!" He replied: "Her silence is [considered as] her permission." [Al-Bukhari, Muslim, & Others] It appears that the permission of an under-age bride is indeed necessary for her marriage to be considered valid. Despite the fact that this opinion is held only by a minority of classical scholars, the above narrations seem to clearly make the approval of the bride a condition for a valid marriage contract. The contract of an Islamic marriage is concluded between the guardian (wali) of the bride and bridegroom, not between bridegroom and bride if she is virgin but her permission is still necessary. The guardian (wali) of the bride can only be a free Muslim.[68]

Shotgun wedding[edit] Part of a series on Slavery Contemporary Child labour Conscription Debt Forced marriage Bride buying Wife selling Forced prostitution Human trafficking Peonage Penal labour Sexual slavery Wage slavery Historical Antiquity Ancient Rome Babylonia Ancient Greece Topics and practices Atlantic slave trade Middle Passage Arab slave trade Ghilman Mamluk Saqaliba Aztec Blackbirding Byzantine Empire Coolie Corvée labor Field slaves in the United States House slaves Kholop Medieval Europe Panyarring Thrall Serfs History Russia Slave market Slave raiding Naval Galley slave Impressment Pirates Shanghaiing Slave ship By country or region Sub-Saharan Africa Contemporary Africa Slavery on the Barbary Coast Barbary slave trade Slave Coast Angola Chad Ethiopia Mali Mauritania Niger Somalia South Africa Sudan Seychelles North and South America Americas indigenous U.S. Natives Brazil Lei Áurea Canada Caribbean Barbados Code Noir Cuba Haiti revolt Restavek Latin America Puerto Rico Trinidad United States colonial maps female partus penal labor Slave codes interregional Human trafficking Virgin Islands Central, East, and South Asia Human trafficking in Southeast Asia Bhutan China Booi Aha Laogai India Debt bondage Chukri System Japan comfort women South Korea Yankee princess North Korea Vietnam Australia and Oceania Blackbirding in Australia Human trafficking in Australia Slave raiding in Easter Island Human trafficking in Papua New Guinea Blackbirding in Polynesia Europe and North Asia Sex trafficking in Europe Britain Denmark Dutch Republic Germany in World War II Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Spain colonies Sweden North Africa and West Asia Iran Libya Human trafficking in the Middle East Ottoman Empire Yemen Religion Bible Christianity Catholicism Mormonism Islam 21st century Judaism Bahá'í Faith Opposition and resistance Timeline Abolitionism U.K. U.S. Anti-Slavery International Blockade of Africa U.K. U.S. Compensated emancipation Freedman manumission Freedom suit Abolitionists Slave Power Underground Railroad songs Slave rebellion Slave Trade Acts International law 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution Related Common law Indentured servitude Unfree labour Fugitive slaves laws Great Dismal Swamp maroons List of slaves owners Slave narrative films songs Slave name Slave catcher Slave patrol Slave Route Project Treatment in U.S. breeding court cases Washington Jefferson Adams Lincoln 40 acres Freedmen's Bureau bit Emancipation Day v t e A shotgun wedding is a form of forced marriage occasioned by an unplanned pregnancy. Some religions and cultures consider it a moral imperative to marry in such a situation, based on reasoning that premarital sex or out-of-wedlock births are sinful, not sanctioned by law, or otherwise stigmatized.[69] Giving birth outside marriage can, in some cultures, trigger extreme reactions from the family or community, including honor killings.[70][71][72] The term "shotgun wedding" is an American colloquialism, though it is also used in other parts of the world. It is based on a hyperbolic scenario in which the pregnant female's father resorts to coercion (such as threatening with a shotgun) to ensure that the male partner who caused the pregnancy goes through with it, sometimes even following the man to the altar to prevent his escape. The use of violent coercion to marry was never legal in the United States, although many anecdotal stories and folk songs record instances of such intimidation in the 18th and 19th centuries. Purposes of the wedding include recourse from the male for the act of impregnation and to ensure that the child is raised by both parents as well as to ensure that the woman has material means of support. In some cases, a major objective was the restoring of social honor to the mother. Shotgun weddings have become less common as the stigma associated with out-of-wedlock births has gradually faded and the number of such births has increased; the increasing availability of birth control and abortion, as well as material support to unwed mothers, such as Elterngeld, child benefits, parental leave, and free kindergartens have reduced the perceived need for such measures.

By country[edit] Africa[edit] Madagascar[edit] Forced marriage is prevalent in Madagascar. Girls are married off by their families, and often led to believe that if they refuse the marriage they will be "cursed".[73][74] In some cases, the husband is much older than his bride, and when she becomes a widow, she is discriminated and excluded by society.[75] Malawi[edit] According to Human Rights Watch, Malawi has "widespread child and forced marriage" and half of the girls marry before 18.[76] The practice of bride price, known also as lobolo, is common in Malawi, and plays a major role in forced marriage. Wife inheritance is also practiced in Malawi. After marriage, wives have very limited rights and freedoms; and general preparation of young girls for marriage consists in describing their role as that of being subordinated to the husband.[77] Mauritania[edit] Forced marriage in Mauritania takes three principal forms: forced marriage to a cousin (known as maslaha); forced marriage to a rich man for the purpose of financial gain; and forced polygamous marriage to an influential man.[78] Niger[edit] Forced marriage is common in Niger. Niger has the highest prevalence of child marriage in the world;[79][80] and also the highest total fertility rate.[81] Girls who attempt to leave forced marriages are most often rejected by their families and are often forced to enter prostitution in order to survive.[82] Due to the food crisis, girls are being sold into marriage.[83] Balkissa Chaibou is known as one of the most famous activists against forced marriage in Niger. Chaibou was 12 when she was informed by her own mother that she was to be married to her cousin, and when she was 16, she took to the courts. With little success, Chaibou was forced to a women's shelter before she was finally able to go home where she learned of her parents changed views on forced marriage, that they were now against it.[84] South Africa[edit] Main article: Ukuthwala In South Africa, ukuthwala is the practice of abducting young girls and forcing them into marriage, often with the consent of their parents.[85] The practice occurs mainly in rural parts of South Africa, in particular the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal.[86] The girls who are involved in this practice are frequently under-aged, including some as young as eight.[87] The practice received negative publicity, with media reporting in 2009 that more than 20 Eastern Cape girls are forced to drop out of school every month because of ukuthwala.[88] The Gambia[edit] In 2016, during a feast ending the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, the Gambian President Yahya Jammeh announced that child and forced marriages were banned.[89][90] Asia[edit] Compensation marriage[edit] Compensation marriage, known variously as vanni, swara and sang chatti, is the traditional practice of forced marriage of women and young girls in order to resolve tribal feuds in parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Although illegal in Pakistan, it is still widely practiced in Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. Afghanistan[edit] Forced marriage is very common in Afghanistan, and sometimes women resort to suicide to escape these marriages.[91] A report by Human Rights Watch found that about 95% of girls and 50% of adult women imprisoned in Afghanistan were in jail on charges of the "moral crimes" of "running away" from home or zina. Obtaining a divorce without the consent of the husband is nearly impossible in Afghanistan, and women attempting a de facto separation risk being imprisoned for "running away". While it is not socially acceptable for women and girls to leave home without permission, "running away" is not defined as a criminal offense in the Afghan Penal Code. However, in 2010 and 2011, the Afghan Supreme Court issued instructions to courts to charge women with "running away" as a crime. This makes it nearly impossible for women to escape forced marriages. The Human Rights Watch report stated that According to the UN, as of 2008, 70 to 80 percent of marriages in Afghanistan were forced, taking place without full and free consent or under duress. Another study found that 59 percent of women had experienced forced marriage.[92] India[edit] Karma Nirvana, a charity set up by Jasvinder Sanghera who was disowned by her Sikh family aged 16 when she refused to marry a man in India, takes about 600 calls a month.[93] The cultural preference for boys and the resulting adverse sex ratio has also caused a shortage of brides. This has fueled incidents of forced marriages.[94] Iran[edit] Forced marriage remains common for Kurdish girls in Iran and is also one of the major reasons for self-immolation in Iran.[95] UNICEF’s 1998 report found extremely high rates of forced marriage, including at an early age, in Kordestan in Iran, although it noted that the practice appeared to be declining.[96] Kurdish cultural norms which facilitate the practice of forced and child marriage perpetuate the fear of violence amongst Kurdish girls in Iran.[96] Nepal[edit] As in other parts of South Asia, girls in Nepal are often seen as an economic burden to the family, due to dowry. Parents often compel young girls to marry, because older and more educated men can demand a higher dowry.[97] In 2009, the Nepalese government decided to offer a cash incentive (50,000 Nepali rupees - $641) to men for marrying widowed women. Because widows often lose social status in Nepalese society, this policy was meant to 'solve' their problems. However, many widows and human rights groups protested these regulations, denouncing them as humiliating and as encouraging coerced marriages.[98] Sri Lanka[edit] A 2004 report in the journal Reproductive Health Matters found that forced marriage in Sri Lanka was taking place in the context of the armed conflict, where parents forced teenage girls into marriage in order to ensure that they do not lose their chastity (considered an increased risk due to the conflict) before marriage, which would compromise their chances of finding a husband.[99] Europe[edit] Germany[edit] In 2011 the family ministry of Germany found that 3000 people were in forced marriages of which 30% were underage. In 2016 the German ministry of the interior found that 1475 children were in forced marriages. Of those 1474, 1100 were girls, 664 were from Syria, 157 were afghans and 100 were Iraqis.[100] United Kingdom[edit] Forced Marriage Unit, UK Forced marriages can be made because of family pride, the wishes of the parents, or social obligation. For example, according to Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood, many forced marriages in Britain within the British Pakistani community are aimed at providing British citizenship to a member of the family currently in Pakistan to whom the instigator of the forced marriage feels a sense of duty.[101] In response to the problem of forced marriages among immigrants in the UK, the Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007 (applicable in England and Wales, and in Northern Ireland) was passed, which enables the victims of forced marriage to apply for court orders for their protection. Similar legislation was passed in Scotland: the Forced Marriage etc. (Protection and Jurisdiction) (Scotland) Act 2011[43] gives courts the power to issue protection orders. In June 2012 the British Government, under Prime Minister David Cameron, declared that forced marriage would become a criminal offence in the United Kingdom.[102] In November 2013 it was reported that a case was brought before the High Court in Birmingham by local authority officials, involving a then 14-year-old girl who was taken to Pakistan, forced to marry a man ten years her senior and two weeks later forced to consummate the marriage with threats, resulting in pregnancy; the court case ended with Mr Justice Holman saying he was powerless to make a "declaration of non-recognition" of the forced marriage, since he was prevented by law from granting a declaration that her marriage was "at its inception, void". Mr Justice Holman said that the girl, now 17, would have to initiate proceedings herself to have the marriage nullified.[103][104] British courts can also issue civil orders to prevent forced marriage, and since 2014 refusing to obey such an order is grounds for a prison sentence of up to five years.[105] The Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014 makes forcing someone to marry (including abroad) a criminal offence.[106] The law came into effect in June 2014 in England and Wales and in October 2014 in Scotland.[44][107] In Northern Ireland, the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015[108] criminalises forced marriage (section 16 - Offence of forced marriage).[109] In July 2014, the United Kingdom hosted its first global Girl Summit; the goal of the Summit was to increase efforts to end child marriage, early, and forced marriage and female genital mutilation within a generation.[110] The first conviction for forced marriage in the United Kingdom occurred in June 2015, with the convicted being a man from Cardiff, who was subsequently sentenced to 16 years in prison.[111] Sweden[edit] Schools in Skåne in the southern part of report that they discover that about 25 youth are forced to marry annually due them being part of a shame society.[112] An investigation by government organisation Ungdomsstyrelsen reported that 70 000 youth perceived they were unfree in their choice of spouse.[112] In July 2016 an Afghani man in Sweden was sentenced to 4 years in prison for forcing his daughter to marry someone in Afghanistan and sexually molesting her Swedish boyfriend in the first Swedish sentence.[113] Other[edit] Although forced marriage in Europe is most often associated with the immigrant population, it is also present among some local populations, especially among the Roma communities in Eastern Europe.[114] The UK Forced marriage consultation, published in 2011, found forcing someone to marry to be a distinct criminal offence in Austria, Belgium, Turkey, Denmark, Norway and Germany.[115] In 2014 it became a distinct criminal offence in England and Wales.[105] The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence defines and criminalizes forced marriage, as well as other forms of violence against women.[116] The Convention came into force on 1 August 2014.[117] In November 2014 UCL held an event, Forced Marriage: The Real Disgrace, where the award-winning documentary Honor Diaries was shown, and a panel including Jasvinder Sanghera CBE (Founder of Karma Nirvana), Seema Malhotra MP (Labour Shadow Minister for Women), and Dr Reefat Drabu (former Assistant General Secretary of the Muslim Council of Britain) discussed the concept of izzat (honour), recent changes in UK law, barriers to tackling forced marriage, and reasons to be hopeful of positive change.[118] The Americas[edit] Canada[edit] Forced marriage may be practised among some immigrant communities in Canada.[119] Until recently, forced marriage has not received very much attention in Canada. That lack of attention has protected the practice from legal intervention.[40] In 2015, Parliament enacted 2 new criminal offences to address the issue.[120] Forcing a person to marry against their will is now a criminal offence under the Criminal Code,[121] as is assisting or aiding a child marriage, where one of the participants is under age 16.[122] There has also been the long-standing offence of solemnizing an illegal marriage, which was also modified by the 2015 legislation.[123] In addition to these criminal offences, the Civil Marriage Act stipulates: Marriage requires the free and enlightened consent of two persons to be the spouse of each other, as well as setting 16 as the minimum age for marriage.[124] United States[edit] See also: Sex trafficking in the United States § Forced marriages Estimates are that hundreds of Pakistani girls in New York have been flown out of the New York City area to Pakistan to undergo forced marriages; those who resist are threatened and coerced.[125] The AHA Foundation has commissioned a study by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice to research the incidence of forced marriage in New York City.[126] The results of the study were equivocal.[127] However, AHA has successfully referred numerous individuals seeking help in fleeing or avoiding a forced marriage to qualified service providers and law enforcement.[128] According to the National Center for Victims of Crime Conference, there are "limited laws/policies directly addressing forced marriage", although more general non-specific laws may be used.[129][page needed] The organization Unchained at Last, the only organization of its kind in the United States, assists women in forced or arranged marriages with free legal services and other resources.[130] It was founded by Fraidy Reiss.[130] The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS) has been suspected of trafficking underage women across state lines, as well as across the US–Canada[131] and US–Mexico borders,[132] for the purpose of sometimes involuntary plural marriage and sexual abuse.[133] The FLDS is suspected by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police of having trafficked more than 30 under-age girls from Canada to the United States between the late 1990s and 2006 to be entered into polygamous marriages.[131] RCMP spokesman Dan Moskaluk said of the FLDS's activities: "In essence, it's human trafficking in connection with illicit sexual activity."[134] According to the Vancouver Sun, it's unclear whether or not Canada's anti-human trafficking statute can be effectively applied against the FLDS's pre-2005 activities, because the statute may not be able to be applied retroactively.[135] An earlier three-year-long investigation by local authorities in British Columbia into allegations of sexual abuse, human trafficking, and forced marriages by the FLDS resulted in no charges, but did result in legislative change.[136]

Statistics[edit] Child Marriage (2008-2014):[137] Country Married by 15 Married by 18 Source Afghanistan - 33% Living Conditions Survey 2013-2013 Albania 0% 10% DHS 2008-2009 Algeria 0% 3% MICS 2012-2013 Armenia 0% 7% DHS 2010 Azerbaijan 2% 11% DHS 2011 Bangladesh 18% 52% MICS 2012-2013 Barbados 1% 11% MICS 2012 Belarus 0% 3% MICS 2012 Belize 3% 26% MICS 2011 Benin 11% 32% DHS 2011-2012 Bhutan 6% 26% MICS 2010 Bolivia 3% 22% DHS 2008 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0% 4% MICS 2011-2012 Brazil 11% 36% PNDS 2006 Burkina Faso 10% 52% DHS 2010 Burundi 3% 20% DHS 2010 Cabo Verde 3% 18% DHS 2005 Cambodia 2% 19% DHS 2014 Cameroon 13% 38% DHS 2011 Central African Republic 29% 68% MICS 2010 Chad 29% 68% MICS 2010 Colombia 6% 23% DHS 2010 Comoros 10% 32% DHS 2012 Congo 6% 33% DHS 2011-2012 Costa Rica 7% 21% MICS 2011 Côte d'Ivoire 10% 33% DHS 2011-2012 Cuba 5% 26% MICS 2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo 10% 37% DHS 2013-2014 Djibouti 2% 5% MICS 2006 Dominican Republic 10% 37% DHS 2013 Ecuador 4% 22% ENDEMAIN 2004 Egypt 2% 17% DHS 2014 El Salvador 5% 25% FESAL 2008 Equatorial Guinea 9% 30% DHS 2011 Eritrea 13% 41% Population and Health Survey 2010 Ethiopia 16% 41% DHS 2011 Gabon 6% 22% DHS 2012 Gambia 9% 30% DHS 2013 Georgia 1% 14% RHS 2010 Ghana 5% 21% DHS 2014 Guatemala 7% 30% ENSMI 2008/2009 Guinea 21% 52% DHS 2012 Guinea-Bissau 7% 22% MICS 2010 Guyana 6% 23% DHS 2009 Haiti 3% 18% DHS 2012 Honduras 8% 34% DHS 2011-2012 India 18% 47% NFHS 2005-2006 Indonesia - 14% National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS) 2013 Iran 3% 17% MIDHS 2010 Iraq 5% 24% MICS 2011 Jamaica 1% 8% MICS 2011 Jordan 0% 8% DHS 2012 Kazakhstan 0% 6% MICS 2010-2011 Kenya 4% 23% DHS 2014 Kiribati 3% 20% DHS 2009 Kyrgyzstan 1% 12% MICS 2014 Lao People's Democratic Republic 9% 35% MICS 2011-2012 Lebanon 1% 6% MICS 2009 Lesotho 2% 19% DHS 2009 Liberia 9% 36% DHS 2013 Macedonia 1% 7% MICS 2011 Madagascar 12% 41% ENSOMD 2012-2013 Malawi 9% 46% MICS 2013-2014 Maldives 0% 4% DHS 2009 Mali 15% 55% MICS 2010 Marshall Islands 6% 26% DHS 2007 Mauritania 14% 34% MICS 2011 Mexico 5% 23% ENADID 2009 Mongolia 0% 5% MICS 2010 Montenegro 1% 5% MICS 2013 Morocco 3% 16% DHS 2003-2004 Mozambique 14% 48% DHS 2011 Namibia 2% 7% DHS 2013 Nauru 2% 27% DHS 2007 Nepal 10% 37% MICS 2014 Nicaragua 10% 41% ENDESA 2006 Niger 28% 76% DHS 2012 Nigeria 17% 43% DHS 2013 Pakistan 3% 21% DHS 2012-2013 Panama 7% 26% MICS 2013 KFR Papua New Guinea 2% 21% DHS 2006 Paraguay - 18% RHS 2004 Peru 3% 19% Continuous DHS 2014 Philippines 2% 15% DHS 2013 Qatar 0% 4% MICS 2012 Republic of Moldova 0% 12% MICS 2012 Rwanda 1% 8% DHS 2010 Saint Lucia 1% 8% MICS 2012 Samoa 1% 11% DHS 2014 São Tomé and Príncipe 5% 34% DHS 2008-2009 Senegal 9% 32% Continuous DHS 2014 Serbia 0% 3% MICS 2014 Sierra Leone 13% 39% DHS 2013 Solomon Islands 3% 22% DHS 2007 Somalia 8% 45% MICS 2006 South Africa 1% 6% DHS 2003 South Sudan 9% 52% SHHS 2010 Sri Lanka 2% 12% DHS 2006-2007 State of Palestine 1% 15% MICS 2014 Sudan 7% 33% SHHS 2010 Suriname 5% 19% MICS 2010 Swaziland 1% 7% MICS 2010 Syrian Arab Republic 3% 13% MICS 2006 Tajikistan 0% 12% DHS 2012 Thailand 4% 22% MICS 2012 Timor-Leste 3% 19% DHS 2009 Togo 6% 22% DHS 2013-2014 Tonga 0% 6% DHS 2012 Trinidad and Tobago 2% 8% MICS 2006 Tunisia 0% 2% MICS 2011-2012 Turkey 1% 15% DHS 2013 Turkmenistan 1% 7% MICS 2006 Tuvalu 0% 10% DHS 2007 Uganda 10% 40% DHS 2011 Ukraine 0% 9% MICS 2012 United Republic of Tanzania 7% 37% DHS 2010 Uruguay 1% 25% MICS 2013 Uzbekistan 0% 7% MICS 2006 Vanuatu 3% 21% DHS 2013 Viet Nam 1% 11% MICS 2014 Yemen 9% 32% DHS 2013 Zambia 6% 31% DHS 2013-2014 Zimbabwe 4% 34% MICS 2014 Summary: Region Married by 15 Married by 18 Note Sub-Saharan Africa 12% 39% Eastern and Southern Africa 10% 36% West and Central Africa 14% 42% Middle East and North Africa 3% 18% East Asia and Pacific - 15% Excluding China Latin America and Caribbean 5% 23% CEE/CIS 1% 11% Least developed countries 13% 41%

See also[edit] Arranged marriage Knobstick wedding Birth control sabotage Child marriage Forced pregnancy Shotgun wedding Bride kidnapping and Groom kidnapping Exchange of women Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007 (UK legislation) Human trafficking Servile marriage Marriage of convenience United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery

Activists and women famous for refusing forced marriage[edit] Nojoud Ali Balkissa Chaibou Franca Viola

References[edit] ^ Sharp, Nicola. "Forced Marriage in the UK: A scoping study on the experience of women from Middle Eastern and North East African Communities" (PDF). London: Refuge: 6, 10.  ^ Bunting, Annie. "'Forced Marriage' in Conflict Situations: Researching and Prosecuting Old Harms and New Crimes" (PDF). Winnipeg: Canadian Journal of Human Rights.  ^ "Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law". SSRN 1563842 .  Missing or empty |url= (help) ^ "Forced Marriage and the Exoticization of Gendered Harms in United States Asylum Law". SSRN 1757283 .  Missing or empty |url= (help) ^ "Ethics - Forced Marriages: Introduction". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 29 September 2015.  ^ Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Article 1, (c) ^ Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Article 2 ^ "Forced Marriage: Exploring the Viability of the Special Court for Sierra Leone's New Crime Against Humanity". SSRN 824291 .  Missing or empty |url= (help) ^ Valerie Oosterveld. "IntLawGrrls".  ^ "Advancing International Criminal Law: The Special Court for Sierra Leone Recognizes Forced Marriage as a 'New' Crime Against Humanity". SSRN 2014731 .  Missing or empty |url= (help) ^ Stuart, Hunter (16 October 2013). "Country With The Most Child Brides Won't Agree To End Forced Child Marriage". Huffington Post.  ^ "UN Takes Major Action to End Child Marriage". Center for Reproductive Rights.  ^ Girls Not Brides. "States adopt first-ever resolution on child, early and forced marriage at Human Rights Council". Girls Not Brides.  ^ Jodi O'Brien (2008), Encyclopedia of Gender and Society, Volume 1, SAGE Publications, page 40-42, ISBN 978-1412909167 ^ "family - kinship :: Family law". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ ^ ^ Solsten, Eric; Meditz, Sandra W., eds. (1988), "Social Values and Attitudes", Spain: A Country Study, Washington: Government Printing Office for the Library of Congress  ^ a b Contemporary Western European Feminism, by Gisela Kaplan, pp. 133 ^ Reconciliation Policy in Germany 1998–2008, Construing the ’Problem’ of the Incompatibility of Paid Employment and Care Work, by Cornelius Grebe; pg 92: "However, the 1977 reform of marriage and family law by Social Democrats and Liberals formally gave women the right to take up employment without their spouses' permission. This marked the legal end of the 'housewife marriage' and a transition to the ideal of 'marriage in partnership'."[1] ^ Further reforms to parental rights law in 1979 gave equal legal rights to the mother and the father. Comparative Law: Historical Development of the Civil Law Tradition in Europe, Latin America, and East Asia, by John Henry Merryman, David Scott Clark, John Owen Haley, pp. 542 ^ Women in Portugal, by Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Information, pp 32 ^ ^ In 1985, a referendum guaranteed women legal equality with men within marriage.[2][3] The new reforms came into force in January 1988.Women's movements of the world: an international directory and reference guide, edited by Sally Shreir, p. 254 ^ In 1983, legislation was passed guaranteeing equality between spouses, abolishing dowry, and ending legal discrimination against illegitimate children [4]Demos, Vasilikie. (2007) “The Intersection of Gender, Class and Nationality and the Agency of Kytherian Greek Women.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. 11 August. ^ In 1981, Spain abolished the requirement that married women must have their husbands’ permission to initiate judicial proceedings "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets: Second Edition, by Tito Boeri, Jan van Ours, pp. 105, [5][6] ^ Although married women in France obtained the right to work without their husbands' permission in 1965,"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  and the paternal authority of a man over his family was ended in 1970 (before that parental responsibilities belonged solely to the father who made all legal decisions concerning the children), it was only in 1985 that a legal reform abolished the stipulation that the husband had the sole power to administer the children's property. [7] ^ "FAQ's". Karma Nirvana.  ^ ^ Hutton, M. J. (2001). Russian and West European Women, 1860–1939: Dreams, Struggles, and Nightmares. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-1043-3. ; see Chapter 1 ^ "Eradicating child marriage in Africa - FORWARD UK". FORWARD.  ^ "marriage". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ A Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt, only survivor of the crew of the ship Boston, during a captivity of nearly three years among the savages of Nootka Sound: with an account of the manners, mode of living, and religious opinions of the full text here ^ a b Anderson, Natalae (22 September 2010). "Historical background" (PDF). Memorandum: Charging forced marriage as a crime against humanity. Documentation Center of Cambodia. pp. 1–3.  ^ Eisenhauer, U., Kulturwandel und Innovationsprozess: Die fünf grossen 'W' und die Verbreitung des Mittelneolithikums in Südwestdeutschland. Archäologische Informationen 22, 1999, 215-239; an alternative interpretation is the focus of abduction of children rather than women, a suggestion also made for the mass grave excavated at Thalheim. See E Biermann, Überlegungen zur Bevölkerungsgrösse in Siedlungen der Bandkeramik (2001) "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2014.  ^ a b "Council of Europe - Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (CETS No. 210)".  ^ "Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery". Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ "BBC - Ethics - Forced Marriages: Motives and methods".  ^ a b "Reasons for forced marriage - Analysis of Data Collected from Field Workers - Report on the Practice of Forced Marriage in Canada: Interviews with Frontline Workers: Exploratory Research Conducted in Montreal and Toronto in 2008". Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ @PlanUK. "Children's charity focused on girls' rights & disaster relief". Plan UK. Retrieved 29 September 2015.  ^ "Matrimonial Causes Act 1973".  ^ a b "Forced Marriage etc. (Protection and Jurisdiction) (Scotland) Act 2011".  ^ a b "Forced marriage law sends 'powerful message'". BBC News.  ^ "UK makes forced marriage illegal as pursues campaign of 'British values'". Reuters UK.  ^ ^ "BBC - Ethics - Honour crimes".  ^ ^ "BBC - Ethics - Slavery: Modern slavery".  ^ ^ "Fiji World News" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2011.  ^ "Dowry - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary".  ^ "Ethiopia: Revenge of the abducted bride". BBC News. 18 June 1999.  ^ "IRIN Africa - ETHIOPIA: Surviving forced marriage - Ethiopia - Children - Gender Issues". IRINnews.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.  ^ ^ Vani: Pain of child marriage in our society Momina Khan, News Pakistan (26 October 2011) ^ Nasrullah, M.; Zakar, R.; Krämer, A. (2013). "Effect of child marriage on use of maternal health care services in Pakistan". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 122 (3): 517–524. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31829b5294.  ^ Forced child marriage tests Pakistan law Barbara Plett, BBC News (5 December 2005) ^ Bedell, J. M. (2009). Teens in Pakistan. Capstone.  ^ "BBC NEWS - Africa - Kenyan widows fight wife inheritance".  ^ a b "Types of Forced Marriage". Forced Marriage Project - Agincourt Community Services Association.  ^ International Law and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts, by Chile Eboe-Osuji, p. 91 ^ ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.  ^ Stange, Mary Zeiss, and Carol K. Oyster, Jane E. Sloan (2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World, Volume 1. SAGE. p. 496. ISBN 9781412976855. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Forced marriage victims are made to pay to go home to UK The Guardian ^ The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Vol. VIII, p. 27, Leiden 1995. ^ "Hebrews 13:4". Bible Gateway.  ^ "BBC - Ethics: Honour Crimes".  ^ ^ "Turkey condemns 'honour killings'". BBC News. 1 March 2004.  ^ "Malagasy Women Wounded by Child Marriage and its Aftermath".  ^ "Gender Equality and Infant Mortality". Magnificent madagascar.  ^ "Children of Madagascar".  ^ "Malawi: End Widespread Child Marriage - Human Rights Watch".  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.  ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - Mauritania: Prevalence of forced marriage; information on legal status, including state protection; ability of women to refuse a forced marriage". Refworld.  ^ Girls Not Brides. "Niger". Girls Not Brides.  ^ ^ "The World Factbook".  ^ "UNICEF helps to begin changing attitudes towards early marriage in Niger". UNICEF. 23 December 2010.  ^ "World Vision Australia - Press releases > Children sold into marriage in Niger as food crisis worsens". Archived from the original on 26 August 2014.  ^ Template:Cite ^ [8] Archived 13 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sarah Condit (28 October 2011). "Child Marriage: Ukuthwala in South Africa". Retrieved 11 January 2013.  ^ "When 'culture' clashes with gender rights". Mail & Guardian. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2013.  ^ Lea Mwambene; Julia Sloth-Nielsen. "Benign Accommodation? Ukuthwala, 'forced marriage' and the South African Children's Act" (PDF). [permanent dead link] ^ "Gambia's leader says ban on child marriage 'as from today'". Retrieved 11 July 2016.  ^ "Gambia and Tanzania outlaw child marriage - BBC News". 16 December 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2016.  ^ "Afghan women escape marriage through suicide". DW.DE.  ^ ^ "Girls escape forced marriage by hiding spoons in their clothes to set off airport metal detectors". 16 August 2013.  ^ "While India's girls are aborted, brides are wanted". 3 September 2014.  ^ Amnesty International (July 2008). Human Rights Abuses against the Kurdish Minority. London: Amnesty International. Available at[permanent dead link] 11dd-a592-c739f9b70de8/mde130882008eng.pdf [downloaded 15 July 2009] page 20-22 ^ a b Amnesty International (July 2008). Human Rights Abuses against the Kurdish Minority. London: Amnesty International. Available at[permanent dead link] 11dd-a592-c739f9b70de8/mde130882008eng.pdf [downloaded 15 July 2009] page 20-22 ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^ "BBC NEWS - South Asia - Nepal widows dismiss marriage incentive".  ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - Sri Lanka: Incidence of forced marriages and protection available to women (2004-2005)". Refworld.  ^ Ziegler, Jean-Pierre (13 October 2016). "Kinderehen in Deutschland - "Viele der Mädchen sind massiv traumatisiert"". Der Spiegel Online. Retrieved 16 October 2016.  ^ "British Council Handout - The forced-arranged marriage abuse".  ^ Travis, Alan (8 June 2012). "Forced marriage to become criminal offence, David Cameron confirms". London: The Guardian.  ^ Saul, Heather (5 November 2013). "Girl aged 14 became pregnant after she was forced to marry man, 24". London: The Independent. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "Muslim Girl, 14, In Forced Marriage: Judge 'Powerless' To Help". The Huffington Post. UK. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ a b "Marriage by Force Is Addressed in Britain". The New York Times. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014".  ^ "Page not found! - The Evening Telegraph - Dundee born and read".  ^ "Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015".  ^ "Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015".  ^ "'Girl Summit' Aims to End Child Marriage". Yahoo News UK. 22 July 2014.  ^ "Forced marriage jail first as Cardiff man sentenced". BBC News. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ a b "Svårt hindra att barn gifts bort". Sydsvenskan. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2016.  ^ "Fyra års fängelse till pappan som gifte bort sin dotter". Sydsvenskan. 15 July 2016.  ^ "Gender Equality". Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "FORCED MARRIAGE – A CONSULTATION". Home Office. Retrieved 16 September 2012.  ^ "13 Countries sign new Convention in Istanbul".  ^ "Liste complète". Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "FORCED MARRIAGE – The Real Disgrace".  ^ Maryum Anis, Shalini Konanur, and Deepa Mattoo, "Who - If - When to Marry: The INcidence of Forced Marriage in Ontario" ^ Zero Tolerance for Barbaric Cultural Practices Act, SC 2015, c 29, ss 9, 10. ^ "Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46, s 293.1". Retrieved 29 September 2015.  ^ Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46, s 293.2 ^ Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46, s 295. ^ "Civil Marriage Act, SC 2005, c 33, ss 2.1, 2.2". Retrieved 29 September 2015.  ^ Katz, Nancie. (24 November 2007). "Parents force daughters to fly home to Pakistan for arranged marriages". The New York Daily News. ^ "The AHA Foundation 2012 Annual Report" Archived 8 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine., accessed 22 March 2013 ^ Marcus, Anthony, Popy Begum, Alana Henninger, Laila Alsabahi, Engy Hanna, Lisa Stathas-Robbins, and Ric Curtis. 2014. “Is Forced Marriage A Problem in the United States: Preliminary Results from a Study of Intergenerational Conflict over Marital Choice Among College Students at the City University of New York from Middle Eastern, North African, and South Asian Migrant Families” ^ [9] The AHA Foundation, accessed 22 March 2013 ^ Heiman, Heather; Bangura, Ramatu (9 September 2013). Forced Marriage in Immigrant Communities in the United States (PDF). Washington, DC: National Center for Victims of Crime. Retrieved 29 September 2015.  ^ a b "Unchained at Last: Fraidy Reiss Helps Women Escape Forced and Arranged Marriages". 2 July 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ a b "Dozens of girls may have been trafficked to U.S. to marry". CTV News. 11 August 2011.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ Moore-Emmett, Andrea (27 July 2010). "Polygamist Warren Jeffs Can Now Marry Off Underaged Girls With Impunity". Ms. blog. Retrieved 8 December 2012. ^ Robert Matas (30 March 2009). "Where 'the handsome ones go to the leaders'". The Globe and Mail.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ Matthew Waller (25 November 2011). "FLDS may see more charges: International sex trafficking suspected". San Angelo Standard-Times.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) ^ D Bramham (19 February 2011). "Bountiful parents delivered 12-year-old girls to arranged weddings". The Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015.  ^ Martha Mendoza (15 May 2008). "FLDS in Canada may face arrests soon". Deseret News. Retrieved 9 December 2012.  ^ "Child Marriage - UNICEF DATA". UNICEF. UNICEF. June 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 

External links[edit] European Immigrants Continue to be Forced Into Marriage World Politics Watch 31 January 2007 Forced Marriage, Another Perspective Interview with Serap Cileli World Politics Watch 1 February 2007 Forced Marriage Among Europe's Immigrants: Hülya Kalkan's Story World Politics Watch 8 February 2007 Freedom Charity, UK charity raising awareness of forced marriage and 'dis-honour' based violence. BBC News story: Forced marriage 'could be banned' The UK Government's joint Home Office/Foreign & Commonwealth Office Forced Marriage Unit: Forced Marriage Unit Akhtar Amin (13 November 2006). "Swara practised with impunity in tribal areas". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2008.  Declan Walsh (5 June 2008). "15 child brides used to settle Pakistan feud". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2008.  Ashfaq Yusufzai (1 April 2006). "Blood Feuds Trap Girls in 'Compensation Marriages'". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 5 June 2008.  "Swara---A Bridge over troubled waters". Ethnomedia. Retrieved 5 June 2008.  "Virtual Slavery: The Practice of "Compensation Marriages"". United Nations Population Fund. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2008.  (Microsoft Word document) Captured Hearts: An epidemic of bride kidnappings may at last be waning in Kyrgyzstan- National Geographic, Paul Salopek v t e Abuse Types Abuse during childbirth Anti-social behaviour Bullying Child abuse (neglect, sexual) Cruelty to animals Domestic abuse Elder abuse Gaslighting Harassment Humiliation Incivility Institutional abuse Intimidation Neglect Persecution Professional abuse Proxy abuse Psychological abuse Physical abuse Religious abuse Sexual abuse Stalking Structural abuse Verbal abuse more... Related topics Abusive power and control Child grooming Complex post-traumatic stress disorder Dehumanization Denial Destabilisation Exaggeration Isolation Just-world hypothesis Lying Manipulation Minimisation Narcissism Psychological projection Psychological trauma Psychopathy Rationalization Traumatic bonding Victim blaming Victim playing Victimisation Retrieved from "" Categories: Human rights abusesTypes of marriageForced marriageHidden categories: Pages using web citations with no URLCS1 maint: Uses authors parameterWebarchive template wayback linksAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from October 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksPages using citations with accessdate and no URLUse dmy dates from May 2017Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2015Articles lacking reliable references from September 2015All articles lacking sourcesArticles needing more viewpoints from September 2015

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages العربيةBrezhonegDeutschEspañolEsperantoفارسیFrançaisFryskBahasa IndonesiaItalianoBasa JawaLatinaMagyarमैथिलीNederlandsनेपाली日本語NorskPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்اردو中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 11 January 2018, at 00:01. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.960","walltime":"1.073","ppvisitednodes":{"value":5212,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":210364,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":3620,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":5,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 906.370 1 -total"," 65.36% 592.361 1 Template:Reflist"," 32.61% 295.534 74 Template:Cite_web"," 8.39% 76.008 6 Template:Fix"," 7.06% 63.959 2 Template:Page_needed"," 7.00% 63.411 18 Template:Cite_news"," 5.16% 46.749 3 Template:Cite_journal"," 4.85% 43.946 12 Template:Category_handler"," 3.88% 35.210 1 Template:Use_dmy_dates"," 2.94% 26.681 2 Template:Delink"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.482","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":6263471,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1275","timestamp":"20180116231745","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":1196,"wgHostname":"mw1275"});});

Forced_marriage - Photos and All Basic Informations

Forced_marriage More Links

Forced MarriageEnlargeAzerbaijani PeopleMolla Nasraddin (magazine)EnlargePukirevFamily LawFamilyMarriageTypes Of MarriagesPrenuptial AgreementCohabitationConcubinageCommon-law MarriageCivil UnionDomestic PartnershipVoid MarriageVoidable MarriageAnnulmentDivorceDivorceAdulteryGrounds For DivorceNo-fault DivorceMatrimonial Causes ActLegal SeparationAlimonyParenting PlanResidence In English Family LawParental Responsibility (access And Custody)Custody EvaluationParenting CoordinatorPaternity LawLegitimacy (family Law)Child CustodyLegal GuardianAdoptionChild SupportContact (law)Children And Family Court Advisory And Support ServiceGrandparent VisitationConvention On The Rights Of The ChildChildren's RightsEmancipation Of MinorsFoster CareWard (law)Parental Child AbductionConflict Of LawsConflict Of Divorce LawsConflict Of Marriage LawsHague Adoption ConventionInternational Child AbductionHague Convention On The Civil Aspects Of International Child AbductionHague Convention On The International Recovery Of Child Support And Other Forms Of Family MaintenancePaternity FraudBigamyChild Protective ServicesChild AbuseDomestic ViolenceIncestChild-sellingTemplate:Family LawTemplate Talk:Family LawMarriageArranged MarriageMatchmakingCoercionSouth AsiaAfricaWikipedia:Citing SourcesUnited NationsHuman Rights AbuseFree WillUniversal Declaration Of Human RightsDignityEquality Before The LawRoman Catholic ChurchAnnulment (Catholic Church)Supplementary Convention On The Abolition Of SlaveryMarriageable AgeSpecial Court For Sierra LeoneCharles Taylor (Liberian Politician)United Nations Human Rights CouncilChild MarriageArranged MarriageLove MarriageCovertureMarital PowerRaptioArranged MarriageMarriage LawsFamily LawFamily LawCouncil Of EuropeGender EqualityRomanticismLove MarriageEndogamousChild MarriageInformed ConsentDivorceSlavePrisoner Of WarJohn R. JewittNuu-chah-nulth PeopleCapital PunishmentKhmer RougeRaptioLatinKidnappingEnslavementSexual SlaveryImmigrationCouncil Of Europe Convention On Preventing And Combating Violence Against Women And Domestic ViolenceSupplementary Convention On The Abolition Of Slavery, The Slave Trade, And Institutions And Practices Similar To SlaveryCouncil Of Europe Convention On Preventing And Combating Violence Against Women And Domestic ViolenceCycle Of PovertyHIVVoid MarriageVoidable MarriageAnnulmentDivorceEngland And WalesMatrimonial Causes Act 1973Honor KillingDomestic ViolenceHonor KillingsDowryBride PriceDowryBride PriceSouth AsiaSub-Saharan AfricaLoboloSoutheast AsiaBride KidnappingGroom KidnappingCentral AsiaCaucasusAfricaVirginityVani (custom)PakistanChild MarriageJirgaWidow InheritanceLevirate MarriageHIV/AIDSSyriaSierra LeoneUgandaDemocratic Republic Of The CongoBride PriceReligious TextWikipedia:PSTSWikipedia:Reliable SourcesHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalShariaIslamic Marital JurisprudenceWomen In IslamIslam And Domestic ViolenceIslamic MarriageWaliMuslimSlaveryContemporary SlaveryChild LabourConscriptionDebt BondageBride BuyingWife SellingForced ProstitutionHuman TraffickingPeonPenal LabourSexual SlaveryWage SlaveryHistory Of SlaverySlavery In AntiquitySlavery In Ancient RomeBabylonian LawSlavery In Ancient GreeceAtlantic Slave TradeMiddle PassageArab Slave TradeGhilmanMamlukSaqalibaAztec SlaveryBlackbirdingSlavery In The Byzantine EmpireCoolieCorvéeField Slaves In The United StatesHouse SlaveKholopSlavery In Medieval EuropePanyarringThrallSerfdomHistory Of SerfdomEmancipation Reform Of 1861Slave MarketSlave RaidingGalley SlaveImpressmentBarbary PiratesShanghaiingSlave ShipSlavery In AfricaSlavery In Contemporary AfricaSlavery On The Barbary CoastBarbary Slave TradeSlave Coast Of West AfricaSlavery In AngolaSlavery In ChadSlavery In EthiopiaSlavery In MaliSlavery In MauritaniaSlavery In NigerSlavery In SomaliaSlavery In South AfricaSlavery In SudanSlavery In SeychellesSlavery In The AmericasSlavery Among The Indigenous Peoples Of The AmericasSlavery Among Native Americans In The United StatesSlavery In BrazilLei ÁureaSlavery In CanadaSlavery In The British And French CaribbeanBarbados Slave CodeCode NoirSlavery In CubaSlavery In HaitiHaitian RevolutionRestavekSlavery In Latin AmericaAfro-Puerto RicansSlavery In TrinidadSlavery In The United StatesSlavery In The Colonial United StatesSlave States And Free StatesFemale Slavery In The United StatesPartus Sequitur VentremPenal Labor In The United StatesSlave CodesInterregional Slave TradeHuman Trafficking In The United StatesSlavery In The British Virgin IslandsHistory Of Slavery In AsiaHuman Trafficking In Southeast AsiaSlavery In BhutanSlavery In ChinaBooi AhaLaogaiSlavery In IndiaDebt Bondage In IndiaChukri SystemSlavery In JapanComfort WomenSlavery In KoreaProstitutes In South Korea For The U.S. MilitaryKwallisoSlavery In VietnamSlavery In OceaniaBlackbirding In AustraliaHuman Trafficking In AustraliaSlave Raiding In Easter IslandHuman Trafficking In Papua New GuineaBlackbirding In PolynesiaSex Trafficking In EuropeSlavery In BritainDanish Slave TradeDutch Slave CoastForced Labour Under German Rule During World War IISlavery In NorwaySlavery In PolandSlavery In PortugalSlavery In RomaniaSlavery In RussiaSlavery In SpainSlavery In The Spanish New World ColoniesSwedish Slave TradeSlavery In IranSlavery In LibyaHuman Trafficking In The Middle EastSlavery In The Ottoman EmpireSlavery In YemenSlavery And ReligionThe Bible And SlaveryChristian Views On SlaveryCatholic Church And SlaveryMormonism And SlaveryIslamic Views On SlaverySlavery In 21st-century IslamismJewish Views On SlaveryBahá'í Faith And SlaveryAbolitionismTimeline Of Abolition Of Slavery And SerfdomAbolitionismAbolitionism In The United KingdomAbolitionism In The United StatesAnti-Slavery InternationalBlockade Of AfricaWest Africa SquadronAfrican Slave Trade PatrolCompensated EmancipationFreedmanManumissionFreedom SuitList Of AbolitionistsSlave PowerUnderground RailroadSongs Of The Underground RailroadSlave RebellionSlave Trade ActSlavery In International LawThirteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionSlavery At Common LawIndentured ServitudeUnfree LabourFugitive Slaves In The United StatesFugitive Slave LawsGreat Dismal Swamp MaroonsList Of SlavesList Of Slave OwnersSlave NarrativeList Of Films Featuring SlaverySlave Songs Of The United StatesSlave NameSlave CatcherSlave PatrolThe Slave Route ProjectTreatment Of Slaves In The United StatesSlave Breeding In The United StatesAmerican Slave Court CasesGeorge Washington And SlaveryThomas Jefferson And SlaveryJohn Quincy Adams And AbolitionismAbraham Lincoln And SlaveryForty Acres And A MuleFreedmen's BureauSlave Iron BitEmancipation DayTemplate:SlaveryTemplate Talk:SlaveryShotgun WeddingUnintended PregnancyMoral ImperativePremarital SexLegitimacy (family Law)Honor KillingUnited StatesColloquialismHyperboleCoercionShotgunUnited StatesHonourBirth ControlAbortionElterngeldChild BenefitParental LeaveKindergartenMadagascarCurseMalawiLoboloWife InheritanceMauritaniaNigerTotal Fertility RateUkuthwalaUkuthwalaSouth AfricaEastern CapeKwaZulu-NatalMuslimRamadanThe GambiaPresident Of The GambiaYahya JammehSwara (custom)PakistanAfghanistanKhyber PakhtunkhwaHuman Rights WatchZinaAfghan Supreme CourtJasvinder SangheraSouth AsiaNepalNepalWidowedSri LankaFederal Ministry Of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women And YouthFederal Ministry Of The Interior (Germany)EnlargeRuqaiyyah Waris MaqsoodBritish PakistaniBritish CitizenshipPakistanForced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007David CameronJames Holman (judge)Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime And Policing Act 2014Northern IrelandChildFemale Genital MutilationCardiffSkåneShame SocietyRomani PeopleEastern EuropeAustriaBelgiumTurkeyDenmarkNorwayGermanyCouncil Of Europe Convention On Preventing And Combating Violence Against Women And Domestic ViolenceSeema MalhotraCanadaCriminal Code (Canada)Child MarriageCivil Marriage ActSex Trafficking In The United StatesAHA FoundationJohn Jay College Of Criminal JusticeWikipedia:Citing SourcesFundamentalist Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter-Day SaintsPlural MarriageRoyal Canadian Mounted PoliceVancouver SunArranged MarriageKnobstick WeddingBirth Control SabotageChild MarriageForced PregnancyShotgun WeddingBride KidnappingGroom KidnappingExchange Of WomenForced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007Human TraffickingServile MarriageMarriage Of ConvenienceUnited Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention On The Abolition Of SlaveryNojoud AliFranca ViolaRefuge (United Kingdom Charity)WinnipegSocial Science Research NetworkHelp:CS1 ErrorsSocial Science Research NetworkHelp:CS1 ErrorsSupplementary Convention On The Abolition Of SlaverySocial Science Research NetworkHelp:CS1 ErrorsSocial Science Research NetworkHelp:CS1 ErrorsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1412909167DowryInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7425-1043-3Abduction Of ChildrenThalheim, SaxonyDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781412976855Category:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterThe GuardianWayback MachineWikipedia:Link RotWikipedia:Link RotWikipedia:Link RotDer SpiegelThe IndependentThe Huffington PostSydsvenskanSydsvenskanWayback MachineWashington, DCHelp:CS1 ErrorsHelp:CS1 ErrorsSan Angelo Standard-TimesHelp:CS1 ErrorsTemplate:AbuseTemplate Talk:AbuseAbuseAbuseAbuse During ChildbirthAnti-social BehaviourBullyingChild AbuseChild NeglectChild Sexual AbuseCruelty To AnimalsDomestic ViolenceElder AbuseGaslightingHarassmentHumiliationIncivilityInstitutional AbuseIntimidationNeglectPersecutionProfessional AbuseFlying Monkeys (psychology)Psychological AbusePhysical AbuseReligious AbuseSexual AbuseStalkingStructural AbuseVerbal AbuseAbuseAbusive Power And ControlChild GroomingComplex Post-traumatic Stress DisorderDehumanizationDenialDestabilisationExaggerationIsolation To Facilitate AbuseJust-world HypothesisLiePsychological ManipulationMinimisation (psychology)NarcissismPsychological ProjectionPsychological TraumaPsychopathyRationalization (psychology)Traumatic BondingVictim BlamingVictim PlayingVictimisationHelp:CategoryCategory:Human Rights AbusesCategory:Types Of MarriageCategory:Forced MarriageCategory:Pages Using Web Citations With No URLCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:All Articles With Dead External LinksCategory:Articles With Dead External Links From October 2017Category:Articles With Permanently Dead External LinksCategory:Pages Using Citations With Accessdate And No URLCategory:Use Dmy Dates From May 2017Category:Wikipedia Articles Needing Page Number Citations From September 2015Category:Articles Lacking Reliable References From September 2015Category:All Articles Lacking SourcesCategory:Articles Needing More Viewpoints From September 2015Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link