Contents 1 History 2 Contained information 2.1 Organ numbers and fusion 2.2 Ovary position 2.3 Symmetry 2.4 Sexuality 3 Examples 3.1 Using boxes 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

History[edit] Floral formulae were developed at the beginning of the 19th century.[2] The first authors using them were Cassel[3] (1820) and Martius[4] (1828). Grisebach[5] (1854) used them in his textbook to describe characteristics of floral families, stating numbers of different organs separated by commas and highlighting fusion. Sachs[6] (1873) used them together with floral diagrams, he noted their advantage of being composed of "ordinary typeface". Although Eichler widely used floral diagrams in his Blüthendiagramme,[7][8] he used floral formulae sparingly, mainly for families with simple flowers. Sattler's[9] Organogenesis of Flowers (1973) takes advantage of floral formulae and diagrams to describe the ontogeny of 50 plant species. Newer books containing formulae include Plant Systematics by Judd et al.[10] (2002) and Simpson[11] (2010). Prenner et al. devised an extension of the existing model to broaden the descriptive capability of the formula and argued that formulae should be included in formal taxonomic descriptions.[2] Ronse De Craene (2010)[1] partially utilized their way of writing the formulae in his book Floral Diagrams.

Contained information[edit] Organ numbers and fusion[edit] The formula expresses counts of different floral organs,[note 1] these are usually preceded by letters or abbreviations according to the organ type. They are ordered corresponding to the arrangement of the parts of the flower from the outside to the inside: Bracts Bracteoles Tepals (perigon or perianth), or sepals (calyx) and petals (corolla) Stamens (androecium) Carpels (gynoecium) Ovules B[2] Bt[2] P[2] or CaCo[12] A G V[2] or O[9] K[2] or Ca[12] C[2] or Co[12] The labels with darker backgrounds are less common. "V" used by Prenner et al. for the number of ovules per gynoecium is followed by lowercase letter describing the type of placentation. For epicalyx/calyculus, the letter "k" is used. The numbers are inserted after the labels, they may be formatted as sub- or superscript. If an organ is absent, its number is written as "0" or it is omitted, if there are "many" (usually more than 10–12) instances, it can be written as "∞". Whorls of the same organ are separated by "+". Organ counts within a whorl can be separated by ":", for example when part of the whorl is morphologically different. A range can be given if the number is variable, e.g. when the formula summarizes a taxon. K3+3 – a calyx with six free sepals, arranged as two separate whorls A∞ – many stamens P3–12 – perianth from three to twelve tepals Groups of organs can be described by writing the number of instances in the group as superscript. A5² – 5 groups of 2 stamens The formula can also express organ fusion. Fusion of one organ type can be shown by enclosing the number in a circle, fusion of different organs can be represented by ties, as e.g. in Judd et al. Prenner et al. state that this method is difficult to achieve via standard typesetting.[2]:242 Joining of organs can be more readily written using parentheses "(…)" if instances of the same organ are fused. Fusion between different organs can be achieved by square "[…]", eventually curly brackets "{…}". A(5) – five fused stamens [C(5) A5] – corolla fused from 5 petals, fused to stamens Prenner et al. propose superscript zero for a lost organ, and superscript "r" for a reduced one. Ronse De Craene uses a degree symbol to mark a staminode (infertile stamen) or pistillode (infertile carpel). A3:2r+50 – (Prenner et al.) androecium in two whorls, first contains 3 stamens and 2 staminodes, second whorl lost A1+2° – (Ronse De Craene) androecium in two whorls, first whorl containing a stamen, second whorl containing two staminodes Ovary position[edit] Ovary position is shown by alternating the "G" label. Simpson circumvents the intricate formatting by expressing the ovary position by words. superior ovary inferior ovary half-inferior ovary Prenner et al.,[2]:243 Ronse De Craene[1]:39 G Ĝ, Ğ -G- Sattler[9]:xviii G G Simpson[11] G…, superior G…, inferior G…, half-inferior Symmetry[edit] Symmetry or arrangement may be described for the whole flower, in such case the corresponding symbol is usually placed at the beginning of the formula. It may be also outlined separately for different organs, placing it after their labels or numbers, or it may not be included in the formula at all. It is described by following symbols: polysymmetry (actinomorphic) disymmetry monosymmetry (zygomorphic) asymmetry spiral arrangement Prenner et al.[2]:242 * ┼ ↓, → or Ø, depending on the symmetry plane orientation ∂ not mentioned Ronse De Craene[1]:39 ✶ ↔ ↓, arrow orientation depending on symmetry plane orientation ↯ ↺ Sattler[2]:xviii ✳ + ∙|∙ not mentioned Judd et al.[10]:66 * not mentioned X $ Subrahmanyam[13] ⊕  % in median plane, in lateral plane not mentioned Rosypal[14] ✳ ⤧ ↓ ↯ Sexuality[edit] Sexuality of the flower can be highlighted by ☿ or for hermaphrodite (bisexual), ♂ for male (staminate) and ♀ for female (pistillate) flower. The symbols are usually placed at the beginning of the formula, after or before the symmetry symbol. Prenner et al. recommend to use the corresponding symbols (♀ and ♂) only for flowers of separate sexuality. Ronse De Craene utilizes the words "pistillate" or "staminate" instead of the symbols. Floral formula can also incorporate the fruit type, Judd et al.[10] place it at the very end.

Examples[edit] ↯ K3 [C3 A1°–3°+½:2°] Ğ(3)[1]:39 – the formula of Canna edulis; asymmetric flower; calyx of three free sepals; corolla of three free petals joined with androecium; androecium in two whorls, the outer whorl contains 1–3 staminodes, the inner contains ½ of a stamen and 2 staminodes; gynoecium fused of 3 carpels, inferior ovary B BtC K3:(2)C↓ C3:2r↓ A(3):2r↓+4r:10 G1↓ Vm8–10[2]:246 – the formula of Tamarindus indica; bract and petaloid bracteoles; monosymmetric calyx of three and two petaloid sepals; monosymmetric corolla of three and two reduced petals; two whorls of stamens, the outer monosymmetric from three fused and two reduced stamens, the inner of 4 reduced and 1 lost stamen; monosymmetric gynoecium of 1 carpel with superior ovary; marginal placentation with 8–10 ovules per gynoecium. Using boxes[edit] Narcissus Floral formula Br ✶ ☿ P3+3+Corona A3+3 G(3) Bracteate, Actinomorphic, Bisexual Perianth: 6 tepals in 2 whorls of 3 Stamens: 2 whorls of 3 Ovary: Superior - 3 fused carpels ✶ P3+3 A3+3 G(3) Liliaceae Floral formula Flowers actinomorphic and hermaphrodite with 6 undifferentiated tepals in two whorls of three, the same number and arrangement of stamens, and a superior ovary with 3 fused carpels. Individual species and genera may have more or less derived formulas.

See also[edit] Floral diagram

Notes[edit] ^ Bracts and bracteoles are not considered parts of the flower itself, yet they may be included in the floral formula

References[edit] ^ a b c d e f Ronse De Craene, Louis P. (2010-02-04). Floral Diagrams: An Aid to Understanding Flower Morphology and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49346-8.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Prenner, Gerhard; Richard M. Bateman; Paula J. Rudall (February 2010). "Floral formulae updated for routine inclusion in formal taxonomic descriptions". Taxon. 59 (1): 241–250. ISSN 0040-0262.  ^ Cassel, F. P. (1820). Morphonomia botanica: sive observationes circa proportionem et evolutionem partium plantarum. Colonia Agrippina [Cologne]: M. DuMont-Schauberg.  ^ Martius, C. F. (1828). "Über die Architectonik der Blüthen". Isis (Oken) (21): 522–529.  ^ Grisebach, A. (1854). Grundriss der systematischen Botanik. Göttingen: Verlag der Dieterichschen Buchhandlung.  ^ Sachs, J. (1873). Lehrbuch der Botanik nach dem gegenwaertigen Stand der Wissenschaft. Leipzig: Engelmann.  ^ Eichler, August Wilhelm (1875). Blüthendiagramme, erster Theil: Enthaltend Einleitung, Gymnospermen, Monocotylen und sympetale Dicotylen. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.  ^ Eichler, August Wilhelm (1878). Blüthendiagramme, zweiter Theil: Enthaltend die apetalen und choripetalen Dicotylen. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.  ^ a b c Sattler, Rolf (1973). Organogenesis of flowers; a photographic text-atlas. Toronto, Buffalo: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-1864-5.  ^ a b c Judd, Walter S.; Christopher S. Campbell; Elizabeth A. Kellogg; Peter F. Stevens; Michael J. Donoghue (2002). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach (2nd ed.). Sunderland, Mass., U.S.A.: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0878934030.  ^ a b Simpson, Michael George (2010). Plant Systematics. Oxford (Great Britain): Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374380-0.  ^ a b c ^ Subrahmanyam, N. S. (1997-01-01). Modern Plant Taxonomy. Jangpura, New Delhi: South Asia Books. ISBN 9780706993462.  ^ Rosypal, Stanislav (2003). Nový přehled biologie. Praha: Scientia. ISBN 80-7183-268-5. 

Bibliography[edit] N S Subrahmanyam, Modern Plant Taxonomy, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 2009. ISBN 0706993462

External links[edit] Kvetné vzorce – a website dedicated to floral formulae (in Slovakian) Table 2.1. Floral formulae; symbols used in this book. In Ronse De Craene, p. 39 Symbols employed in floral formula. In Subrahmanyam, p. 42 v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "" Categories: FlowersPlant morphology

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Anagallis ArvensisFlowerTaxonFloral DiagramTypefaceOntogenyBiological ClassificationBractBracteolePerianthSepalPetalStamenCarpelOvuleOvuleCalyculusTie (typography)ParenthesesSquare BracketsCurly BracketsDegree SymbolStaminodePistillodeFloral SymmetryBar With Two DotsEdit Section: SexualityEdit Section: ExamplesCanna EdulisTamarindus IndicaNarcissus (plant)LiliaceaeFloral DiagramInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-49346-8International Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8020-1864-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0878934030International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-12-374380-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780706993462International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/80-7183-268-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0706993462Template:BotanyTemplate Talk:BotanyBotanyHistory Of BotanyBranches Of BotanyHistory Of Plant SystematicsEthnobotanyPaleobotanyPlant AnatomyPlant EcologyPhytogeographyGeobotanical ProspectingFloraPhytochemistryPlant PathologyBryologyPhycologyFloristicsDendrologyPlantAlgaeArchaeplastidaBryophyteNon-vascular PlantVascular PlantSpermatophytePteridophyteGymnospermFlowering PlantPlant MorphologyGlossary Of Plant MorphologyPlant CellCell WallPhragmoplastPlastidPlasmodesmaVacuoleTissue (biology)MeristemVascular TissueVascular BundleGround TissueLeafCork CambiumWoodStorage OrganRootRhizoidBulbRhizomeShootPlant StemLeafPetiole (botany)CataphyllBudSessility (botany)Plant Reproductive MorphologyABC Model Of Flower DevelopmentInflorescenceUmbelRacemeBractPedicel (botany)FlowerWhorl (botany)Floral SymmetryFloral DiagramReceptacle (botany)HypanthiumPerianthTepalPetalSepalSporophyllGynoeciumOvary (botany)OvuleStigma (botany)ArchegoniumStamenStamenStaminodePollenTapetum (botany)Column (botany)GametophyteSporophyteEmbryoFruitFruit AnatomyBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)SeedSeed DispersalEndospermEpicuticular WaxPlant CuticleEpidermis (botany)StomaNectarTrichomeThorns, Spines, And PricklesPlant PhysiologyPlant NutritionPhotosynthesisChlorophyllPlant HormoneTranspirationTurgor PressureBulk MovementAleuronePhytomelaninSugarSapStarchCelluloseSecondary GrowthWoody PlantHerbaceous PlantHabit (biology)VineLianaShrubSubshrubTreeSucculent PlantPlant ReproductionPlant EvolutionPlant EcologyAlternation Of GenerationsSporangiumSporeMicrosporangiaMicrosporeSporangiumMegasporePollinationPollinatorPollen TubeDouble FertilizationGerminationPlant Evolutionary Developmental BiologyEvolutionary History Of PlantsTimeline Of Plant EvolutionHardiness ZonePlant TaxonomyHistory Of Plant SystematicsHerbariumTaxonomy (biology)Botanical NomenclatureBotanical NameCorrect NameAuthor Citation (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsTaxonomic RankInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyList Of Systems Of Plant TaxonomyCultivated Plant TaxonomyCitrus TaxonomyCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupGrex (horticulture)AgronomyFloricultureForestryHorticultureGlossary Of Botanical TermsList Of BotanistsList Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (W–Z)Botanical ExpeditionCategory:BotanyPortal:PlantsWikipedia:WikiProject PlantsHelp:CategoryCategory:FlowersCategory:Plant MorphologyDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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