Contents 1 History 2 Basic characteristics and significance 3 Orientation 4 Symbols used in diagrams 4.1 Bracts and bracteoles, axes 4.2 Perianth 4.3 Androecium 4.4 Gynoecium 4.5 Nectaries 4.6 Other 5 Floral diagrams and floral formulae 6 Examples 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links


History[edit] In the 19th century, two contrasting methods of describing the flower were introduced: the textual floral formulae and pictorial floral diagrams.[2] Floral diagrams are credited to A. W. Eichler, his extensive work Blüthendiagramme[3][4] (1875, 1878) remains a valuable source of information on floral morphology. Eichler inspired later generation of scientists, including John Henry Schaffner.[5] Diagrams were included e.g. in Types of Floral Mechanism[6] by Church (1908). They were used in different textbooks, e.g. Organogenesis of Flowers[7] by Sattler (1973), Botanische Bestimmungsübungen[8] by Stützel (2006) or Plant Systematics[9] by Simpson (2010). Floral Diagrams[1] (2010) by Ronse De Craene followed Eichler’s approach using the contemporary[Note 1] APG II system.


Basic characteristics and significance[edit] Floral diagram is a schematic cross-section through a young flower.[1] It may be also defined as “projection of the flower perpendicular to its axis”.[3] It usually shows the number of floral parts,[Note 2] their sizes, relative positions and fusion. Different organs are represented by distinguishable symbols, which may be uniform for one organ type, or may reflect concrete morphology. The diagram may also include symbols that don’t represent physical structures, but carry additional information (e.g. symmetry plane orientation). There is no agreement on how floral diagrams should be drawn, it depends on the author whether it is just a rough representation, or whether structural details of the flower are included. Diagrams can describe the ontogeny of flowers, or can show evolutionary relationships. They can be generalized to show the typical floral structure of a taxon.[1]:37 It is also possible to represent (partial) inflorescences by diagrams. Substantial amount of information may be included in a good diagram. It can be useful for flower identification or comparison between angiosperm taxa. Paleontologists can take advantage of diagrams for reconstruction of fossil flowers. Floral diagrams are also of didactic value.[1]:xiii Relation of a plant material (Campanula medium) to the floral diagram. Black dashed line shows the cross-section. 1 – position of the main axis; 2 – cross-section through the lateral flower; 3 – bracteole; 4 – subtending bract.


Orientation[edit] Diagrams are usually depicted with the subtending bract below and the axis above the flower itself, both in the median line. The axis corresponds to the position of the main stem relative to a lateral flower.[10]:12 When a terminal flower is depicted, the axis is not present and therefore cannot be shown. Bracteoles, if they are present, are usually drawn on the sides of the diagram.


Symbols used in diagrams[edit] Not only the information contained within diagrams, but also their appearance commonly varies between authors. Just some publications incorporate an overview of used symbols. Bracts and bracteoles, axes[edit] Bracts and bracteoles are commonly shown as arcs. In Floral Diagrams by Ronse De Craene they consistently have a black fill and a little triangle on the outer side to distinguish them from the perianth. In Eichler’s Blüthendiagramme their representation alters between diagrams. Ronse De Craene Eichler inconsistent The axis relative to the flower is shown as black circle in Floral Diagrams. When inflorescence is depicted, the position of its main stem is illustrated by a crossed circle. Eichler’s depiction of axes alternates between diagrams. Ronse De Craene Eichler axis relative to the flower inconsistent main stem of an inflorescence Perianth[edit] Perianth parts are also shown as arcs. They may be colored according to their type. In Blüthendiagramme the tepals are usually white with black stroke, sepals are hatched and petals are black. Ronse De Craene implies that it may be sometimes impossible to classify the organs, he shows green perianth parts as black and pigmented as white. Estivation can be accurately shown in the diagram. Ronse De Craene Eichler for sepals or sepaloid tepals for petals or petaloid tepals/sepals for tepals for sepals for petals Androecium[edit] Stamens are represented by a cross-section through anthers. In case there are many stamens in the flower, they can be simplified and drawn as circles. Staminodes have a small black circle inside or are painted black in Floral Diagrams, Eichler also fills them black. Ronse De Craene Eichler stamen or staminode or Gynoecium[edit] The pistil is shown as a sectional view of the ovary. Ovary position is highlighted by small triangles in Floral Diagrams. Ronse De Craene also incorporates ovule morphology or shows the position of stigmatic lobes by white shapes. Ronse De Craene Eichler superior ovary inferior ovary half-inferior ovary Nectaries[edit] In Floral Diagrams, nectaries are filled by grey color, Eichler fills them by hatching. Other[edit] Fusion can be shown in diagrams by full connecting lines between organs. Lost organs can be represented by a star (✶), lost perianth parts or bracts/bracteoles can be shown with dashed stroke. It is possible to show the direction of monosymmetry by a large arrow. Resupination may be illustrated by a curved arrow. Floral parts can be accompanied by numbers to show their sequence of inicialization.


Floral diagrams and floral formulae[edit] Each of these two concepts is better in expressing some information. Floral diagrams can show the size and relative position of the organs. On the other hand, floral formulae are capable of broader generalization. Prenner et al. view them as complementary methods and state they make an “identikit” flower when utilized together.[2]:248 Ronse De Craene also approves of their combined use.[1]:xiii


Examples[edit] Partial inflorescence of Theobroma cacao (after Ronse De Craene). Floral formula: ✶ K5 C5 A(5°+5²) G(5) Floral diagram of Pyrus communis (after Eichler). Floral formula: ✶ K(5) C5 A10+5+5 Ğ(4)


See also[edit] Floral formulae


Notes[edit] ^ APG II was contemporary at the time of book’s writing. ^ It also shows organs that are not part of the flower, but may be closely associated with it, such as bracts and bracteoles.


References[edit] ^ a b c d e f g Ronse De Craene, Louis P. (2010-02-04). Floral Diagrams: An Aid to Understanding Flower Morphology and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49346-8.  ^ a b Prenner, Gerhard; Richard M. Bateman; Paula J. Rudall (February 2010). "Floral formulae updated for routine inclusion in formal taxonomic descriptions". Taxon. 59 (1): 241–250. ISSN 0040-0262.  ^ a b Eichler, August Wilhelm (1875). Blüthendiagramme, erster Theil: Enthaltend Einleitung, Gymnospermen, Monocotylen und sympetale Dicotylen. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.  ^ Eichler, August Wilhelm (1878). Blüthendiagramme, zweiter Theil: Enthaltend die apetalen und choripetalen Dicotylen. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.  ^ Schaffner 1916. ^ Church, Arthur Harry (1908). Types of floral mechanism; a selection of diagrams and descriptions of common flowers arranged as an introduction to the systematic study of angiosperms. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  ^ Sattler, Rolf (1973). Organogenesis of flowers; a photographic text-atlas. Toronto, Buffalo: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-1864-5.  ^ Stützel, Thomas (2006). Botanische Bestimmungsübungen: Praktische Einführung in die Pflanzenbestimmung (2nd ed.). Stuttgart (Hohenheim): UTB, Stuttgart. ISBN 9783825282202.  ^ Simpson, Michael George (2010). Plant Systematics. Oxford (Great Britain): Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374380-0.  ^ Weberling, Focko (1992). Morphology of Flowers and Inflorescences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521438322. 


Bibliography[edit] Schaffner, John Henry (June 1916). "A General System of Floral Diagrams" (PDF). Ohio Journal of Science. 16 (8): 360–366. ISSN 0030-0950. 


External links[edit] Floral diagram generator v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Floral_diagram&oldid=820209500" Categories: FlowersPlant morphology


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages CatalàČeštinaDeutschEspañolEsperantoفارسیFrançaisNederlandsPolskiPortuguêsRomânăСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Edit links This page was last edited on 13 January 2018, at 17:46. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.216","walltime":"0.314","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1114,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":58754,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":665,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":8,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":0,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 164.213 1 -total"," 47.41% 77.849 2 Template:Reflist"," 29.65% 48.694 8 Template:Cite_book"," 23.31% 38.280 1 Template:Botany"," 23.07% 37.884 2 Template:Navbox"," 15.60% 25.614 1 Template:Infobox"," 5.55% 9.110 2 Template:Cite_journal"," 5.41% 8.876 3 Template:Icon"," 5.39% 8.855 3 Template:Hlist"," 2.48% 4.080 6 Template:Rp"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.070","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4068643,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1322","timestamp":"20180116043406","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":412,"wgHostname":"mw1322"});});


Floral_diagram - Photos and All Basic Informations

Floral_diagram More Links

Anagallis ArvensisBractSepalPetalStamenPlacentationOvuleFlowerA. W. EichlerFloral FormulaA. W. EichlerJohn Henry SchaffnerArthur Harry ChurchRolf SattlerAPG II SystemMorphology (biology)Floral SymmetryOntogenyTaxonInflorescenceAngiospermPaleobotanyCampanula MediumBractPlant StemInflorescenceBracteoleArc (geometry)Edit Section: PerianthTepalSepalPetalAestivation (botany)Edit Section: AndroeciumStamenStaminodeEdit Section: GynoeciumPistilOvary (botany)Edit Section: NectariesNectarResupinationFloral FormulaPartial Inflorescence Of Theobroma CacaoFloral Diagram Of Pyrus CommunisTheobroma CacaoFloral FormulaPyrus CommunisFloral FormulaFloral FormulaAngiosperm Phylogeny GroupInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-49346-8International Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8020-1864-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9783825282202International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-12-374380-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780521438322International Standard Serial NumberTemplate:BotanyTemplate Talk:BotanyBotanyHistory Of BotanyBranches Of BotanyHistory Of Plant SystematicsEthnobotanyPaleobotanyPlant AnatomyPlant EcologyPhytogeographyGeobotanical ProspectingFloraPhytochemistryPlant PathologyBryologyPhycologyFloristicsDendrologyPlantAlgaeArchaeplastidaBryophyteNon-vascular PlantVascular PlantSpermatophytePteridophyteGymnospermFlowering PlantPlant MorphologyGlossary Of Plant MorphologyPlant CellCell WallPhragmoplastPlastidPlasmodesmaVacuoleTissue (biology)MeristemVascular TissueVascular BundleGround TissueLeafCork CambiumWoodStorage OrganRootRhizoidBulbRhizomeShootPlant StemLeafPetiole (botany)CataphyllBudSessility (botany)Plant Reproductive MorphologyABC Model Of Flower DevelopmentInflorescenceUmbelRacemeBractPedicel (botany)FlowerWhorl (botany)Floral SymmetryFloral FormulaReceptacle (botany)HypanthiumPerianthTepalPetalSepalSporophyllGynoeciumOvary (botany)OvuleStigma (botany)ArchegoniumStamenStamenStaminodePollenTapetum (botany)Column (botany)GametophyteSporophyteEmbryoFruitFruit AnatomyBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)SeedSeed DispersalEndospermEpicuticular WaxPlant CuticleEpidermis (botany)StomaNectarTrichomeThorns, Spines, And PricklesPlant PhysiologyPlant NutritionPhotosynthesisChlorophyllPlant HormoneTranspirationTurgor PressureBulk MovementAleuronePhytomelaninSugarSapStarchCelluloseSecondary GrowthWoody PlantHerbaceous PlantHabit (biology)VineLianaShrubSubshrubTreeSucculent PlantPlant ReproductionPlant EvolutionPlant EcologyAlternation Of GenerationsSporangiumSporeMicrosporangiaMicrosporeSporangiumMegasporePollinationPollinatorPollen TubeDouble FertilizationGerminationPlant Evolutionary Developmental BiologyEvolutionary History Of PlantsTimeline Of Plant EvolutionHardiness ZonePlant TaxonomyHistory Of Plant SystematicsHerbariumTaxonomy (biology)Botanical NomenclatureBotanical NameCorrect NameAuthor Citation (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsTaxonomic RankInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyList Of Systems Of Plant TaxonomyCultivated Plant TaxonomyCitrus TaxonomyCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupGrex (horticulture)AgronomyFloricultureForestryHorticultureGlossary Of Botanical TermsList Of BotanistsList Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (W–Z)Botanical ExpeditionCategory:BotanyPortal:PlantsWikipedia:WikiProject PlantsHelp:CategoryCategory:FlowersCategory:Plant MorphologyDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link