Pathological feminization[edit] In animals, when feminization occurs in a male, or at an inappropriate developmental age, it is often due to a genetic or acquired disorder of the endocrine system. In humans, one of the more common manifestations of abnormal feminization is gynecomastia, the inappropriate development of breasts which may result from elevated levels of feminizing hormones such as estrogens.[3] Deficiency or blockage of virilizing hormones (androgens) can also contribute to feminization. In some cases, high levels of androgens may produce both virilizing effects (increased body hair, deepened voice, increased muscle mass, etc.) and feminizing effects (gynecomastia) since androgens can be converted to estrogens by aromatase in the peripheral tissues.[3]


See also[edit] Defeminization


References[edit] ^ DM Fry and CK Toone (1981). DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos Science, Vol 213, Issue 4510, 922-924 ^ Sylvia Gimeno, Anton Gerritsen, Tim Bowmer & Hans Komen Feminization of male carp Nature 384, 221 - 222 (21 November 1996); doi:10.1038/384221a0 ^ a b Larsen, P. Reed; Williams, Robert L. (2003). Williams textbook of endocrinology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-9184-6.  v t e Human physiology of sexual reproduction Menstrual cycle Menarche Menstruation Follicular phase Ovulation Luteal phase Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis (spermatogonium spermatocyte spermatid sperm) Oogenesis (oogonium oocyte ootid ovum) Germ cell (gonocyte gamete) Human sexual behavior Sexual arousal Sexual intercourse Masturbation Erection Orgasm Ejaculation Insemination Fertilisation/Fertility Implantation Pregnancy Postpartum period Mechanics of sex Life span Prenatal development/Sexual dimorphism/Sexual differentiation (Feminization Virilization) Puberty (Gonadarche Pubarche Menarche Spermarche Adrenarche) Maternal age / Paternal age Climacteric (Menopause Late-onset hypogonadism) Tanner scale Egg Ovum Oviposition Oviparity Ovoviviparity Vivipary Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis Hypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin axis Andrology Hormone Breast Thelarche Breast development Lactation Breastfeeding Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Feminization_(biology)&oldid=752182668" Categories: Endocrinology


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