Contents 1 Terminology 2 Society of Fa'afafine in American Samoa and Samoa Fa'afafine Association 3 Role in Samoan society 4 Notable fa'afafine 5 Fictional fa'afafines 6 References 6.1 General references 6.2 Inline citations 7 External links

Terminology[edit] The word fa'afafine includes the causative prefix fa'a–, meaning "in the manner of", and the word fafine, meaning "woman".[4] It is cognate with linguistically related words in other Polynesian languages, such as the Tongan fakafefine (also fakaleiti), the Maori whakawahine, the Cook Islands Maori akava'ine, and similar to the Hawaiian concept of māhū.[citation needed] The Samoan slang word mala (or "devastation" in the Samoan language) is in less frequent use for fa'afafine.[citation needed]

Society of Fa'afafine in American Samoa and Samoa Fa'afafine Association[edit] The Society of Fa'afafine in American Samoa or "The Sosaiete o Fa’afafine in American Samoa" (S.O.F.I.A.S) is an organization designed to foster collaboration between the fa'afafine and the LGBTQI+ communities in both American Samoa, the Asia Pacific region, and the world.[5] SOFIAS describes itself as an organization dedicated to balancing both Samoan values with western influences and aims to promote a positive attitude toward the Samoan fa'afafine community.

Role in Samoan society[edit] Fa'afafine are known for their hard work and dedication to the family, in the Samoan tradition of tautua. Ideas of the family in Samoa and Polynesia are markedly different from Western constructions, and include all the members of a sa, or communal family within the fa'amatai family systems.[6] Fa'afafine, as a third gender, have sexual relationships almost exclusively with men who do not identify as fa'afafine, and sometimes with women, but apparently not with other fa'afafine.[7] This third gender is so well-accepted in Samoan culture that most Samoans state that they have friendship relationships with at least one fa'afafine; it is, however, not totally accepted in other communities, such as some Catholic groups and traditional leaders. Traditionally, fa'afafine follow the training of the women's daily work in an Aiga (Samoan family group).[1][8] Being a fa'afafine is said to be thoroughly enjoyable by this group. Many would state that they "loved" engaging in feminine activities as children, such as playing with female peers, playing female characters during role play, dressing up in female clothes, and playing with female gender-typical toys. This is in contrast to women who stated that they merely "liked" engaging in those activities as children. Some fa'afafine recall believing they were girls in childhood, but knew better as adults. In Samoa, there is very seldom ridicule or displeasure towards a biologically male child who states that they are a girl. For instance, one study showed only a minority of parents (20 percent) tried to stop their fa'afafine children from engaging in feminine behavior. Being pushed into the male gender role is upsetting to many fa'afafine. A significant number stated that they "hated" masculine play, such as rough games and sports, even more than females did as children.[1] Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand estimates that there are 500 fa’afafine in Samoa, and the same number in the Samoan diaspora in New Zealand.[9] According to SBS news, there are up to 3000 Fa'afafine – men raised as girls – currently living in Samoa. [10]

Notable fa'afafine[edit] Edward Cowley aka "Buckwheat" – a popular performer and television personality from Australia. Fuimaono Karl Pulotu-Endemann – a medical professional, Justice of the Peace, and gay activist from New Zealand. In the 2001 New Year Honours, Pulotu-Endemann was made a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to Public Health. Shigeyuki Kihara – a contemporary artist whose work has been featured in numerous museum exhibitions art galleries around the world. Her solo exhibition, Shigeyuki Kihara: Living Photographs (2008-9), was the Metropolitan Museum of Art's first exhibition of contemporary Samoan art. Marion Malena – a multiple beauty pageant winner and performer from American Samoa currently living in Seattle.[11] Jaiyah Saelua – American Samoan soccer player. Saelua was the first fa'afafine player to compete in a men's FIFA World Cup qualifier. Saelua featured in a UK documentary Next Goal Wins.[12][13]

Fictional fa'afafines[edit] Vili Atafa, a character in the Pasifika play A Frigate Bird Sings by Oscar Kightley, David Fane and Nathaniel Lees[14] Brother Ken, a fictional character in New Zealand animated series bro'Town, voiced by David Fane. "Sugar Shirley", a character in Sia Figiel's novel Where We Once Belong.[citation needed]

References[edit] General references[edit] Besnier, Niko. 1994. "Polynesian Gender Liminality Through Time and Space". In Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. Gilbert Herdt, ed. pp. 285–328. New York: Zone. Inline citations[edit] ^ a b c Bartlett, N. H.; Vasey, P. L. (2006). "A Retrospective Study of Childhood Gender-Atypical Behavior in Samoan Fa'afafine". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 35 (6): 659–66. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9055-1. PMID 16909317.  ^ "Charting the Pacific - Fa'afafine - Samoan boys brought up as girls". Retrieved 2016-06-20.  ^ ^ Milner, G.B. 1966. Samoan-English Dictionary. "Fa'afafine" entry pg. 52 under "Fafine" ^ "Shevon Kaio Matai passes away". Samoa News. Archived from the original on 2015-05-30. Retrieved 2015-06-06.  ^ Saleimoa Vaai, Samoa Faamatai and the Rule of Law (Apia: The National University of Samoa Le Papa-I-Galagala, 1999). ^ Perkins, Roberta (March 1994). "Like a Lady in Polynesia". Polare magazine (3 ed.). Archived from the original on 2013-09-27.  ^ Danielsson, B., T. Danielsson, and R. Pierson. 1978. Polynesia's third sex: The gay life starts in the kitchen. Pacific Islands Monthly 49:10–13. ^ ^ ^ "New Miss UTOPIA crowned". Seattle Gay News. 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2014-02-18.  ^ "Next Goal WIns". NBC Sports Radio. 2014-02-20. Retrieved 2014-02-28.  ^ "Hollywood treatment for American Samoa". FIFA World. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2014.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-13. 

External links[edit] Official website of S.O.F.I.A.S. (Society of Fa’afaafine in American Samoa) Montague, James. 2011. "Transgender Player Helps American Samoa to First International Soccer Win". New York Times, November 25, 2011. Schmidt, J. 2001. Redefining Fa'afafine: Western Discourses and the Construction of Transgenderism in Samoa. Intersections, Issue 6. Taulapapa McMullin, Dan 2013. "Coconut Milk". University of Arizona Press, 2013. Taulapapa McMullin, Dan. 2011. Fa'afafine Notes: On Tagaloa, Jesus, and Nafanua In Queer Indigenous Studies: Critical Interventions in Theory, Politics, and Literature. Edited by Qwo-Li Driskill, Chris Finley, Brian Joseph Gilley, and Scott Lauria Morgensen. pp. 81–94. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. William Kremer (18 February 2014). "The evolutionary puzzle of homosexuality". BBC News. Retrieved 18 February 2014.  v t e Gender and sexual identities Gender identities Gender Man Woman Male Female Androgyne Bigender Boi Cisgender Cross-dresser Gender bender Genderqueer Gender neutrality Postgenderism Gender variance Pangender Transgender Trans man Trans woman Transmasculine Transfeminine Transsexual Trigender Third gender, third sex Akava'ine Bakla Bissu Calabai Eunuch Fa'afafine Fakaleiti Femminiello Galli Hijra Kathoey Khanith Köçek Koekchuch Māhū Maknyah Mukhannathun Muxe Nullo Sworn virgin Takatāpui Third gender Travesti Tumtum Two-Spirit Winkte Other Skoptsy Sexual orientation, identities Gender binary Asexual Bisexual Heterosexual Homosexual Non-binary Ambiphilia, Androphilia, Gynephilia Monosexuality Pansexuality Polysexuality Third gender Two-Spirit Social Antisexuality Monogamous Polyamorous Other Attraction to transgender people Banjee Bi-curious Ex-gay Ex-ex-gay Gay Gray asexuality Heteroflexible Lesbian Kinsey scale Non-heterosexual Queer Questioning Romantic orientation Same gender loving See also Disorders of sex development Ego-dystonic sexual orientation Erotic target location error Gender roles Hermaphrodite Human female sexuality Human male sexuality Intersex Sex and gender distinction Sex assignment Sex change Sex reassignment surgery Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures Social construction of gender The NeuroGenderings Network Violence against women and men (gendercide) Gender studies portal Sexuality portal LGBT portal Retrieved from "" Categories: Fa'afafineGender in OceaniaSamoan cultureThird genderTransgender in OceaniaTransgender identitiesSamoan societySamoan words and phrasesAmerican Samoan cultureLGBT in SamoaLGBT in American SamoaHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from May 2017Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014

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