Contents 1 Summary 1.1 Genes synthesize only proteins 1.2 Genes do not affect the organism's body only 1.3 Gene-centred view of life 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Summary[edit] Genes synthesize only proteins[edit] A cathedral termite mound – a small animal with a large extended phenotype Dawkins argues that the only thing that genes control directly is the synthesis of proteins. He points to the arbitrariness of restricting the idea of the phenotype to apply only to the phenotypic expression of an organism's genes in its own body. Dawkins develops this idea by pointing to the effect that a gene may have on an organism's environment through that organism's behaviour. Genes do not affect the organism's body only[edit] Dawkins suggests that there are three forms of extended phenotype. The first is the capacity of animals to modify their environment using architectural constructions. Dawkins cited as examples caddis houses and beaver dams. The second is manipulating other organisms. Dawkins points out that animal morphology and ultimately animal behaviour, may be advantageous not to the animal itself, but, for instance, to a parasite which afflicts it – "parasite manipulation". This refers the capacity, found in several groups of parasites, to modify the host behaviour to increase their own fitness. One famous example of this second type of extended phenotype is the suicidal drowning of crickets infected by hairworm, a behaviour that is essential to the parasite's reproductive cycle. Another example of such behaviour is seen in female mosquitoes carrying malaria parasites. The mosquitoes are significantly more attracted to human breath and odours than uninfected mosquitoes.[3] However, a recent study shows that an immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli can generate the same changes in the behaviour as is seen in infection by Plasmodium yoelii. It raises an unanswered question: to what extent is the alteration of host behaviour due to active manipulation selected for in malaria parasites?[4] The third form of extended phenotype is action at a distance of the parasite on its host. A common example is the manipulation of host behaviour by cuckoo chicks, which elicit intensive feeding by the parasitized host birds. These behavioural modifications are not physically associated with the host but influence the expression of its behavioural phenotype.[5] Dawkins summarizes these ideas in what he terms the Central Theorem of the Extended Phenotype: “ An animal's behaviour tends to maximize the survival of the genes "for" that behaviour, whether or not those genes happen to be in the body of the particular animal performing it.[2] ” Nests are typical examples of extended phenotypes. Gene-centred view of life[edit] In conducting this argument, Dawkins aims to strengthen the case for a gene-centric view of life, to the point where it is recognized that the organism itself needs to be explained. This is the challenge which he takes up in the final chapter entitled "Rediscovering the Organism." The concept of extended phenotype has been generalized in an organism-centered view of evolution with the concept of niche construction,[6] in the case where natural selection pressures can be modified by the organisms during the evolutionary process.[7]

See also[edit] Group selection Inclusive fitness Kin selection

References[edit] ^ Richard Dawkins, An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist, Black Swan, 2013, page 291. ^ a b Dawkins, Richard (1989). The Extended Phenotype. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. xiii. ISBN 0-19-288051-9.  ^ ^ Cator, LJ; George, J; Blanford, S; Murdock, CC; Baker, TC; Read, AF; Thomas, MB (2013). "'Manipulation' without the parasite: altered feeding behaviour of mosquitoes is not dependent on infection with malaria parasites". Proc. Biol. Sci. 280: 20130711. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0711. PMC 3774228 . PMID 23698008.  ^ D. P. HUGHES, J. BRODEUR and F. THOMAS (2012) Host manipulation by parasites. OXFORD. ^ Odling Smee, John; Laland, Kevin; Feldman, Marcus (2003). Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.  ^ Pocheville, Arnaud (2010). "What Niche Construction is (not).". La Niche Ecologique: Concepts, Modèles, Applications. Paris: Ecole Normale Supérieure. pp. 39–124. 

External links[edit] The Tactless Meme - by Jon Seger, New Scientist Book profile - from The World of Richard Dawkins v t e Richard Dawkins Bibliography Political views Books The Selfish Gene (1976) The Extended Phenotype (1982) The Blind Watchmaker (1986) River Out of Eden (1995) Climbing Mount Improbable (1996) Unweaving the Rainbow (1998) A Devil's Chaplain (2003) The Ancestor's Tale (2004) The God Delusion (2006) The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution (2009) The Magic of Reality: How We Know What's Really True (2011) An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist (2013) Brief Candle in the Dark: My Life in Science (2015) Science in the Soul: Selected Writings of a Passionate Rationalist (2017) Related works Growing Up in the Universe (1991) Dawkins vs. Gould (2001) Beyond Belief (2006) Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think (2006) The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing (2008) Documentaries Nice Guys Finish First (1987) The Blind Watchmaker (1987) Break the Science Barrier (1996) The Atheism Tapes (2004) The Root of All Evil? (2006) The Enemies of Reason (2007) The Genius of Charles Darwin (2008) Faith School Menace? (2010) Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life (2012) The Unbelievers (2013) See also Meme Atheist Bus Campaign Out Campaign Gerin oil Foundation for Reason and Science Professorship for the Public Understanding of Science Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit Lalla Ward Frameshift Weasel program Marian Dawkins Middle World Go God Go Go God Go XII God's utility function Courtier's Reply Spectrum of theistic probability Universal Darwinism Endless Forms Most Beautiful When the Professor Got Stuck in the Snow Richard Dawkins Award Book Category Biology portal Evolutionary biology portal Books portal Retrieved from "" Categories: 1982 booksBooks about evolutionBooks by Richard DawkinsOxford University Press booksHidden categories: Pages to import images to Wikidata

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Richard DawkinsEvolutionary BiologyOxford University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-19-286088-7OCLCDewey Decimal ClassificationLibrary Of Congress ClassificationThe Selfish GeneThe Blind WatchmakerRichard DawkinsPhenotypeProtein BiosynthesisTissue (biology)The Selfish GeneEvolutionEnlargeTermiteProteinPhenotypeTrichopteraBeaverMorphology (biology)ParasiteHairwormEscherichia ColiPlasmodium YoeliiCuckooEnlargeNestGene-centered View Of EvolutionGroup SelectionInclusive FitnessKin SelectionAn Appetite For Wonder: The Making Of A ScientistRichard DawkinsOxfordOxford University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-19-288051-9Digital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierJon SegerTemplate:Richard DawkinsTemplate Talk:Richard DawkinsRichard DawkinsRichard Dawkins BibliographyPolitical Views Of Richard DawkinsThe Selfish GeneThe Blind WatchmakerRiver Out Of EdenClimbing Mount ImprobableUnweaving The RainbowA Devil's ChaplainThe Ancestor's TaleThe God DelusionThe Greatest Show On Earth: The Evidence For EvolutionThe Magic Of RealityAn Appetite For WonderBrief Candle In The Dark: My Life In ScienceScience In The Soul: Selected Writings Of A Passionate RationalistGrowing Up In The UniverseDawkins Vs. GouldBeyond Belief: Science, Religion, Reason And SurvivalRichard Dawkins: How A Scientist Changed The Way We ThinkThe Oxford Book Of Modern Science WritingNice Guys Finish FirstThe Blind Watchmaker (film)Break The Science BarrierThe Atheism TapesThe Root Of All Evil?The Enemies Of ReasonThe Genius Of Charles DarwinFaith School Menace?Sex, Death And The Meaning Of LifeThe UnbelieversMemeAtheist Bus CampaignOut CampaignGerin OilRichard Dawkins Foundation For Reason And ScienceSimonyi Professor For The Public Understanding Of ScienceUltimate Boeing 747 GambitLalla WardFrameshift (band)Weasel ProgramMarian DawkinsMiddle WorldGo God GoGo God Go XIIGod's Utility FunctionCourtier's ReplySpectrum Of Theistic ProbabilityUniversal DarwinismEndless Forms Most Beautiful (album)When The Professor Got Stuck In The SnowRichard Dawkins AwardBook:Richard DawkinsCategory:Richard DawkinsPortal:BiologyPortal:Evolutionary BiologyPortal:BooksHelp:CategoryCategory:1982 BooksCategory:Books About EvolutionCategory:Books By Richard DawkinsCategory:Oxford University Press BooksCategory:Pages To Import Images To WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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