Contents 1 Human adaptations 1.1 Constraints 1.2 Trade-offs and conflicts 1.3 Competition effects 2 "Diseases of civilization" 2.1 Diet 2.2 Life expectancy 2.3 Exercise 2.4 Cleanliness 3 Specific explanations 3.1 Life stage related 3.2 Other 4 Evolutionary psychology 5 History 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links


Human adaptations[edit] Adaptation works within constraints, makes compromises and trade-offs, and occurs in the context of different forms of competition.[5] Constraints[edit] Adaptations can only occur if they are evolvable. Some adaptations which would prevent ill health are therefore not possible. DNA cannot be totally prevented from undergoing somatic replication corruption; this has meant that cancer, which is caused by somatic mutations, has not (so far) been completely eliminated by natural selection. Humans cannot biosynthesize vitamin C, and so risk scurvy, vitamin C deficiency disease, if dietary intake of the vitamin is insufficient. Retinal neurons and their axon output have evolved to be inside the layer of retinal pigment cells. This creates a constraint on the evolution of the visual system such that the optic nerve is forced to exit the retina through a point called the optic disc. This, in turn, creates a blind spot. More importantly, it makes vision vulnerable to increased pressure within the eye (glaucoma) since this cups and damages the optic nerve at this point, resulting in impaired vision. Other constraints occur as the byproduct of adaptive innovations. Trade-offs and conflicts[edit] One constraint upon selection is that different adaptations can conflict, which requires a compromise between them to ensure an optimal cost-benefit tradeoff. Running efficiency in women, and birth canal size[6] Encephalization, and gut size[7] Skin pigmentation protection from UV, and the skin synthesis of vitamin D Speech and its use of a descended larynx, and increased risk of choking[8] Competition effects[edit] Different forms of competition exist and these can shape the processes of genetic change. mate choice and disease susceptibility[9] genomic conflict between mother and fetus that results in pre-eclampsia[10][11]


"Diseases of civilization"[edit] Humans evolved to live as simple hunter-gatherers in small tribal bands, a very different way of life and environment compared to that faced by contemporary humans.[12][13] This change makes present humans vulnerable to a number of health problems, termed "diseases of civilization" and "diseases of affluence". Humans evolved to live off of the land, and take advantage of the resources that were readily available to them. They evolved for the stone-age, and the environments of today bring about many disease causing ailments, that may or may not be deadly. "Modern environments may cause many diseases such as deficiency syndromes like scurvy and rickets" (Williams, 1991[14]) Diet[edit] In contrast to the diet of early hunter-gatherers, the modern Western diet often contains high quantities of fat, salt, and simple carbohydrates, which include refined sugars and flours. These create health problems.[15][16][17] Trans fat health risks Dental caries High GI foods Modern diet based on "common wisdom" regarding diets in the paleolithic era Life expectancy[edit] Main article: Aging-associated diseases Examples of aging-associated diseases are atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and Alzheimer's disease. The incidence of all of these diseases increases rapidly with aging (increases exponentially with age, in the case of cancer). Age-Specific SEER Incidence Rates, 2003-2007 Of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds—100,000 per day—die of age-related causes.[18] In industrialized nations, the proportion is much higher, reaching 90%.[18] Exercise[edit] Many contemporary humans engage in little physical exercise compared to the physically active lifestyles ancestral hunter-gatherers.[19][20][21][22][23] It has been proposed that since prolonged periods of inactivity would have only occurred in early humans following illness or injury that it provides a cue for the body to engage in life-preserving metabolic and stress related responses such as inflammation that are now the cause of many chronic diseases.[24] Cleanliness[edit] See also: Autoimmune disease, Allergy § Hygiene hypothesis, Hygiene hypothesis, and Helminthic therapy Contemporary humans - due to medical treatment, frequent washing of clothing and the body, and improved sanitation - are mostly free of parasites, particularly intestinal ones. This causes problems in the proper development of the immune system although hygiene can be very important when it comes to maintaining good health. The hygiene hypothesis says that many modern humans are not exposed to microorganisms that have evolved in establishing the immune system as they should be. "Microorganisms and macroorganisms such as helminths from mud, animals, and feces play a critical role in driving immunoregulation" (Rook, 2012[25]). They play a crucial role in building and training immune functions to fight off and repel some diseases, and protect against excessive inflammation which has been implicated in several diseases (such as recent evidence for Alzheimer's Disease).[26]


Specific explanations[edit] See also: Heterozygote advantage This is a partial list: all links here go to a section describing or debating its evolutionary origin. Life stage related[edit] Adipose tissue in human infants[27] Arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases[28][29][30] Ageing[5][31] Alzheimer disease[32] Childhood[33] Menarche[34] Menopause[35] Menstruation[36][37][38] Morning sickness[39][40] Other[edit] Atherosclerosis[41] Arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases[28][29][30] Cough[42] Cystic fibrosis[43] Dental occlusion[44] Diabetes Type II[45][46] Diarrhea[47] Essential hypertension[48] Fever[49][50] Gestational hypertension Gout[51] Hemochromatosis[52][53] Iron deficiency (paradoxical benefits)[54] Obesity[55][56] Phenylketonuria[57] Placebos[58] Osteoporosis[59] Red blood cell polymorphism disorders[60] Sickle cell anemia[61][62] Sickness behavior[63] Women’s reproductive cancers[64]


Evolutionary psychology[edit] See also: Evolutionary psychology and Evolutionary approaches to depression This section duplicates the scope of other sections, specifically, Evolutionary psychology#Abnormal psychology. (February 2015) As noted in the table below, adaptationist hypotheses regarding the etiology of psychological disorders are often based on analogies with evolutionary perspectives on medicine and physiological dysfunctions (see in particular, Randy Nesse and George C. Williams' book Why We Get Sick).[65] Evolutionary psychiatrists and psychologists suggest that some mental disorders likely have multiple causes.[66] Possible Causes of Psychological 'Abnormalities' from an Adaptationist Perspective Summary based on information in Buss (2011),[67] Gaulin & McBurney (2004),[68] Workman & Reader (2004)[69] Possible cause Physiological Dysfunction Psychological Dysfunction Functioning adaptation (adaptive defense) Fever / Vomiting (functional responses to infection or ingestion of toxins) Mild depression or anxiety (functional responses to mild loss or stress) By-product of an adaptation(s) Intestinal gas (byproduct of digestion of fiber) Sexual fetishes (?) (possible byproduct of normal sexual arousal adaptations that have 'imprinted' on unusual objects or situations) Adaptations with multiple effects Gene for malaria resistance, in homozygous form, causes sickle cell anemia Adaptation(s) for high levels of creativity may also predispose schizophrenia or bi-polar disorder (adaptations with both positive and negative effects, perhaps dependent on alternate developmental trajectories) Malfunctioning adaptation Allergies (over-reactive immunological responses) Autism (possible malfunctioning of theory of mind module) Frequency-dependent morphs The two sexes / Different blood and immune system types Personality traits and personality disorders (may represent alternative behavioral strategies dependent on the frequency of the strategy in the population) Mismatch between ancestral & current environments Modern diet-related Type 2 Diabetes More frequent modern interaction with strangers (compared to family and close friends) may predispose greater incidence of depression & anxiety Tails of normal (bell shaped) curve Very short or tall height Tails of the distribution of personality traits (e.g., extremely introverted or extroverted) See several topic areas, and the associated references, below. Agoraphobia[70] Anxiety[71] Depression[72] Drug abuse[73] Schizophrenia[74][75] Unhappiness[76]


History[edit] Charles Darwin Charles Darwin did not discuss the implications of his work for medicine, though biologists quickly appreciated the germ theory of disease and its implications for understanding the evolution of pathogens, as well as an organism’s need to defend against them. Medicine, in turn, ignored evolution, and instead focused (as done in the hard sciences) upon proximate mechanical causes. medicine has modelled itself after a mechanical physics, deriving from Galileo, Newton, and Descartes.... As a result of assuming this model, medicine is mechanistic, materialistic, reductionistic, linear-causal, and deterministic (capable of precise predictions) in its concepts. It seeks explanations for diseases, or their symptoms, signs, and cause in single, materialistic— i.e., anatomical or structural (e.g., in genes and their products)— changes within the body, wrought directly (linearly), for example, by infectious, toxic, or traumatic agents.[77] p. 510 George C. Williams was the first to apply evolutionary theory to health in the context of senescence.[31] Also in the 1950s, John Bowlby approached the problem of disturbed child development from an evolutionary perspective upon attachment. An important theoretical development was Nikolaas Tinbergen’s distinction made originally in ethology between evolutionary and proximate mechanisms.[78] Randolph M. Nesse summarizes its relevance to medicine: all biological traits need two kinds of explanation, both proximate and evolutionary. The proximate explanation for a disease describes what is wrong in the bodily mechanism of individuals affected by it. An evolutionary explanation is completely different. Instead of explaining why people are different, it explains why we are all the same in ways that leave us vulnerable to disease. Why do we all have wisdom teeth, an appendix, and cells that can divide out of control?[79] The paper of Paul Ewald in 1980, “Evolutionary Biology and the Treatment of Signs and Symptoms of Infectious Disease”,[80] and that of Williams and Nesse in 1991, “The Dawn of Darwinian Medicine”[81] were key developments. The latter paper “draw a favorable reception”,[42]page x and led to a book, Why We Get Sick (published as Evolution and healing in the UK). In 2008, an online journal started: Evolution and Medicine Review.


See also[edit] Evolutionary biology portal Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary developmental psychopathology Evolutionary approaches to depression Illness Paleolithic lifestyle Universal Darwinism


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Further reading[edit] Books Williams, George; Nesse, Randolph M. (1996). Why We Get Sick: the new science of Darwinian medicine. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-74674-9.  Stearns SC, Koella JK (2008). Evolution in health and disease (2nd ed.). Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920745-3.  McKenna, James J.; Trevathan, Wenda; Smith, Euclid O. (2008). Evolutionary medicine and health: new perspectives (2nd ed.). Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530706-2.  O'Higgins, Paul; Sarah Elton (2008). Medicine and Evolution: Current Applications, Future Prospects (Society for the Study of Human Biology Symposium Series (Sshb). Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN 1-4200-5134-2.  Ewald, P. W. (1996). Evolution of Infectious Disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511139-7.  Moalem, S.; Prince, J. (2007). Survival of the Sickest. New York: HarperLuxe. ISBN 978-0-06-088965-4.  Online articles Straub, RH.; Besedovsky, HO. (2003). "Integrated evolutionary, immunological, and neuroendocrine framework for the pathogenesis of chronic disabling inflammatory diseases". FASEB J. 17 (15): 2176–2183. doi:10.1096/fj.03-0433hyp. PMID 14656978.  Straub, RH. (2012). "Evolutionary medicine and chronic inflammatory state--known and new concepts in pathophysiology". Journal of Molecular medicine. 90 (5): 523–534. doi:10.1007/s00109-012-0861-8. PMC 3354326 . PMID 22271169.  LeGrand, E. K.; Brown C. C. (1 July 2002). "Darwinian medicine: Applications of evolutionary biology for veterinarians". Canadian Veterinary Journal. 43 (7): 556–9. ISSN 0008-5286. PMC 341948 . PMID 12125190.  Randolph M. Nesse; Stephen C. Stearns (2008). "The great opportunity: Evolutionary applications to medicine and public health" (PDF). Evolutionary Applications. 1 (1): 28–48. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4571.2007.00006.x.  Naugler, Christopher T. (1 September 2008). "Evolutionary medicine: Update on the relevance to family practice". Canadian Family Physician. 54 (9): 1265–9. PMC 2553465 . PMID 18791103.  Childs, B.; Wiener, C.; Valle, D. (2005). "A science of the individual: Implications for a medical school curriculum". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 6 (1): 313–330. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.6.080604.162345. PMID 16124864.  Stiehm ER (2006). "Disease versus disease: how one disease may ameliorate another". Pediatrics. 117 (1): 184–91. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2773. PMID 16396876. 


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