Contents 1 Ecological genetics 2 Biomes 3 Evolutionary ecologists 3.1 Charles Darwin 3.2 George Evelyn Hutchinson 3.3 Robert MacArthur 3.4 Eric Pianka 3.5 Michael Rosenzweig 3.6 Other notable evolutionary ecologists 4 Evolutionary models 5 Tangled nature model 6 Research 7 Color variation in cichlid fish 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links


Ecological genetics[edit] Ecological genetics tie into evolutionary ecology through the study of how traits evolve in natural populations[1]. Ecologists are concerned with how the environment and timeframe leads to genes becoming dominant. Organisms must continually adapt in order to survive in natural habitats. Genes define which organisms survive and which will die out. When organisms develop different genetic variations, even though they stem from the same species, it is known as polymorphism[2]. Organisms that pass on beneficial genes continue to evolve their species to have an advantage inside of their niche.


Biomes[edit] Biomes are environments which house a variety of plants and animals that have adapted to the rainfall and temperature natural to said environment[3]. There are eight main biomes: tropical forests, savannas, deserts, grasslands, temperate forests, mediterranean, coniferous forests, and tundras. Each biome has different organisms present that have adapted to the environment so as to retain their niche. Niches are the home inside of the environment that define an organism’s role. Different organisms have different niches based upon their diet, adaptations to the environment, and place inside of the food chain[4]. The organisms that reside within the biome are defined as the fauna of the biome[5].


Evolutionary ecologists[edit] Julia Margaret Cameron’s portrait of Darwin Charles Darwin[edit] The basis of the central principles of evolutionary ecology can be attributed to Charles Darwin (1809-1882), specifically in referencing his theory of natural selection and population dynamics, which discusses how populations of a species change over time.[6] According to Ernst Mayr, professor of Zoology at Harvard University, Darwin’s most distinct contributions to evolutionary biology and ecology are as follows: “The first is the non-constancy of species, or the modern conception of evolution itself. The second is the notion of branching evolution, implying the common descent of all species of living things on earth from a single unique origin.”[7]  Additionally, “Darwin further noted that evolution must be gradual, with no major breaks or discontinuities. Finally, he reasoned that the mechanism of evolution was natural selection.” [8] George Evelyn Hutchinson[edit] George Evelyn Hutchinson’s (1903-1991) contributions to the field of ecology spanned over 60 years, in which he had significant influence in systems ecology, radiation ecology, limnology, and entomology.[9] Described as the “father of modern ecology” [10] by Stephen Jay Gould, Hutchinson was one of the first scientists to link the subjects of ecology and mathematics. According to Hutchinson, he constructed “mathematical models of populations, the changing proportions of individuals of various ages, birthrate, the ecological niche, and population interaction in this technical introduction to population ecology.”[11]  He also had a vast interest in limnology, due to his belief that lakes could be studied as a microcosmthat provides insight into system behavior. [12] Hutchinson is also known for his work Circular Casual Systems in Ecology, in which he states that “groups of organisms may be acted upon by their environment, and they may react upon it. If a set of properties in either system changes in such a way that the action of the first system on the second changes, this may cause changes in properties of the second system which alter the mode of action of the second system on the first.” [13] Robert MacArthur[edit] Robert MacArthur (1930-1972) is best known in the field of Evolutionary Ecology for his work The Theory of Island Biogeography, in which he and his co-author propose “that the number of species on any island reflects a balance between the rate at which new species colonize it and the rate at which populations of established species become extinct.”[14] Eric Pianka[edit] According to the University of Texas, Eric Pianka’s (1939–present) work in evolutionary ecology includes foraging strategies, reproductive tactics, competition and niche theory, community structure and organization, species diversity, and understanding rarity.[15] Pianka is also known for his interest in lizards to study ecological occurrences, as he claimed they were “often abundant, making them relatively easy to locate, observe, and capture.”[16] Michael Rosenzweig[edit] Michael L. Rosenzweig (1941–present) created and popularized Reconciliation ecology, which began with his theory that designated nature preserves would not be enough land to conserve the biodiversity of Earth, as humans have used so much land that they have negatively impacted biogeochemical cycles and had other ecological impacts that have negatively affected species compositions.[17] Other notable evolutionary ecologists[edit] R. A. Fisher (1890-1962), whose 1930 fundamental theorem of natural selection recognised the power of rigorous application of the theory of natural selection to population biology.[18] David Lack (1910-1973), a devoted follower of Charles Darwin, worked to merge the fields of evolutionary biology and ecology, focusing mainly on birds and evolution. Thierry Lodé (1956–present), a French ecologist whose work focused on how sexual conflict in populations of species impacts evolution.[19][20]


Evolutionary models[edit] Part of a series on Evolutionary biology Diagrammatic representation of the divergence of modern taxonomic groups from their common ancestor Key topics Introduction to evolution Common descent Evidence of common descent Processes and outcomes Population genetics Variation Diversity Mutation Natural selection Adaptation Polymorphism Genetic drift Gene flow Speciation Adaptive radiation Co-operation Coevolution Divergence Convergence Parallel evolution Extinction Natural history Origin of life History of life Timeline of evolution Human evolution Phylogeny Biodiversity Biogeography Classification Evolutionary taxonomy Cladistics Transitional fossil Extinction event History of evolutionary theory Overview Renaissance Before Darwin Darwin Origin of Species Before synthesis Modern synthesis Molecular evolution Evo-devo Current research History of paleontology (timeline) Fields and applications Applications of evolution Biosocial criminology Ecological genetics Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary computation Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary economics Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary linguistics Evolutionary medicine Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Experimental evolution Phylogenetics Paleontology Selective breeding Sociobiology Systematics Universal Darwinism Social implications Evolution as fact and theory Social effects Creation–evolution controversy Objections to evolution Level of support Evolutionary biology portal  Category Book Related topics v t e A large part of Evolutionary ecology is about utilising models and finding empirical data as proof.[21] Examples include the Lack clutch size model devised by David Lack and his study of Darwin's finches on the Galapagos Islands. Lack's study of Darwin's finches was important in analyzing the role of different ecological factors in speciation. Lack suggested that differences in species were adaptive and produced by natural selection, based on the assertion by G.F. Gause that two species cannot occupy the same niche.[22] Richard Levins introduced his model of the specialization of species in 1968, which investigated how habitat specialization evolved within heterogeneous environments using the fitness sets an organism or species possesses. This model developed the concept of spatial scales in specific environments, defining fine-grained spatial scales and coarse-grained spatial scales.[23] The implications of this model include a rapid increase in environmental ecologists' understanding of how spatial scales impact species diversity in a certain environment.[24] Another model is Law & Diekmann's 1996 models on mutualism, which is defined as a relationship between two organisms that benefits both individuals.[25] Law and Diekmann developed a framework called adaptive dynamics, which assumes that changes in plant or animal populations in response to a disturbance or lack thereof occurs at a faster rate than mutations occur. It is aimed to simplify other models addressing the relationships within communities.[26]


Tangled nature model[edit] The tangled nature model provides different methods for demonstrating and predicting trends in evolutionary ecology. The model analyzes an individual prone to mutation within a population as well as other factors such as extinction rate.[27] The model was developed by Simon Laird, Daniel Lawson, and Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen of the Imperial College London in 2002. The purpose of the model is to create a simple and logical ecological model based on observation. The model is designed such that ecological effects can be accounted for when determining form, and fitness of a population.


Research[edit] Rosenzweig's idea of Reconciliation ecology was developed based on existing research, which was conducted on the principle first suggested by Alexander von Humboldt stating that larger areas of land will have increased species diversity as compared to smaller areas. This research focused on species-area relationships (SPARs) and the different scales on which they exist, ranging from sample-area to interprovincial SPARs. Steady-state dynamics in diversity gave rise to these SPARs, which are now used to measure the reduction of species diversity on Earth. In response to this decline in diversity, Rosenzweig's Reconciliation ecology was born.[28] Evolutionary ecology has been studied using symbiotic relationships between organisms to determine the evolutionary forces by which such relationships develop. In symbiotic relationships, the symbiont must confer some advantage to its host in order to persist and continue to be evolutionarily viable. Research has been conducted using aphids and the symbiotic bacteria with which they coevolve. These bacteria are most frequently conserved from generation to generation, displaying high levels of vertical transmission. Results have shown that these symbiotic bacteria ultimately confer some resistance to parasites to their host aphids, which both increases the fitness of the aphids and lead to symbiont-mediated coevolution between the species.[29]


Color variation in cichlid fish[edit] The effects of evolutionary ecology and its consequences can be seen in the case of color variation among African cichlid fish. With over 2,000 species, cichlid fishes are very species-rich and capable of complex social interactions [30]. Polychromatism, the variation of color patterns within a population, occurs within cichlid fishes due to environmental adaptations and to increase chances of sexual reproduction [31]


References[edit] ^ "Ecological Genetics". Wiley. September 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2017.  ^ "Polymorphism". biology online. December 6, 2008. Retrieved November 4, 2017.  ^ "Terrestrial Biomes". The nature education. 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2017.  ^ "Fauna". Annenberg learner. 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2017.  ^ "Ecological Genetics". Merriam-Webster. 1771. Retrieved November 4, 2017.  ^ "Population Dynamics | e-cology". sites.nicholas.duke.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-08.  ^ Mayr, Ernst. "Darwin's Influence on Modern Thought". Scientific American. Retrieved 2017-12-08.  ^ Mayr, Ernst. "Darwin's Influence on Modern Thought". Scientific American. Retrieved 2017-12-08.  ^ Slobodkin, L.B. (1993). "An Appreciation: George Evelyn Hutchinson". Journal of Animal Ecology. 62 (2): 390–394. doi:10.2307/5370. JSTOR 5370.  ^ Slobodkin, L.B. (1993). "An Appreciation: George Evelyn Hutchinson". Journal of Animal Ecology. 62 (2): 390–394. doi:10.2307/5370. JSTOR 5370.  ^ 1943-, Rockwood, Larry L., (2006). Introduction to population ecology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 9781405132633. OCLC 60322007.  ^ Hyland, Callen (Sumer, 2011). "The Art of Ecology, Writings of G. Evelyn Hutchinson". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 84 (2): 175–176. ISSN 0044-0086. PMC 3117418 .  Check date values in: |date= (help) ^ Hutchinson, G. Evelyn (1948-10-01). "Circular Causal Systems in Ecology". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 50 (4): 221–246. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1948.tb39854.x. ISSN 1749-6632.  ^ "Island Biogeography". web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-08.  ^ "Eric Pianka's Contributions to Ecology". www.zo.utexas.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-08.  ^ "Eric Pianka's Contributions to Ecology". www.zo.utexas.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-08.  ^ L., Rosenzweig, Michael (2003). Win-win ecology : how the earth's species can survive in the midst of human enterprise. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195156041. OCLC 62866022.  ^ Eric R. Pianka. 2011. Evolutionary Ecology. Seventh Edition - eBook. Page 13. Accessed 7 June 2014. ^ Thierry Lodé 2014. Manifeste pour une écologie évolutive. Eds Odile Jacob, Paris. ^ Lodé, Thierry, et al. “Asynchronous arrival pattern, operational sex ratio and occurrence of multiple paternities in a territorial breeding anuran, Rana dalmatina.” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 86, no. 2, 2005, pp. 191–200., doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00521.x. ^ Morozov, Andrew (2013-12-06). "Modelling biological evolution: recent progress, current challenges and future direction". Interface Focus. 3 (6). doi:10.1098/rsfs.2013.0054. ISSN 2042-8898. PMC 3915852 .  ^ "Lack, David Lambert." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 17, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008, pp. 521-523. Gale Virtual Reference Library, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=GVRL&sw=w&u=tusc49521&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CCX2830905204&it=r&asid=f73ad736d17e749682f6a72c03aeca54. Accessed 10 Nov. 2017. ^ Brown, Joel S., and Noel B. Pavlovic. “Evolution in heterogeneous environments: Effects of migration on habitat specialization.” Evolutionary Ecology, vol. 6, no. 5, 1992, pp. 360–382., doi:10.1007/bf02270698. ^ Hart, Simon P., et al. “The spatial scales of species coexistence.” Nature Ecology & Evolution, vol. 1, no. 8, 2017, pp. 1066–1073., doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0230-7. ^ Bronstein, Judith. “Mutualisms and Symbioses.” Oxford Bibliographies, 20 Nov. 2017, www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199830060/obo-9780199830060-0006.xml. ^ Akçay, Erol. (2015). Evolutionary models of mutualism. In J. L. Bronstein (Ed.), Mutualism (pp. 57-76). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ^ Laird, Simon, "The Tangled Nature Model of Evolutionary Ecology: An Overview.", Mathematical Modeling of Biological Systems, Volume II, pp. 49–62, doi:10.1007/978-0-8176-4556-4_5  ^ Rosenzweig, Michael L. “Reconciliation ecology and the future of species diversity.” Oryx, vol. 37, no. 02, 10 Feb. 2003, doi:10.1017/s0030605303000371. ^ Vorburger, Christoph, et al. “Comparing constitutive and induced costs of symbiont-Conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids.” Ecology and Evolution, vol. 3, no. 3, 2013, pp. 706–713., doi:10.1002/ece3.491. ^ "Functional diversity in the color vision of cichlid fishes". BMC Biology, BioMed Central. October 28, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2017.  ^ "Evolution of colour patterns in East African cichlid fish". Blackwell Publishing Ltd. December 25, 2001. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 


Further reading[edit] Fox, C.W., Roff, D.A. and Fairbairn, D.J. 2001. Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies. Oxford University Press. Mayhew, P.J. 2006. Discovering Evolutionary Ecology: Bringing Together Ecology and Evolution. Oxford University Press. Pianka, E.R. 2000. Evolutionary Ecology, 6th ed. Benjamin Cummings.


External links[edit] Ecology portal Environment portal Evolutionary Ecology Research - a journal in the field. Methods in Ecology and Evolution - a journal in the field. 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