Contents 1 Subfields 2 History 3 Current research topics 4 Journals 5 See also 6 References


Subfields[edit] Evolution is the central unifying concept in biology. Biology can be divided in various ways. One way is by the level of biological organisation, from molecular to cell, organism to population. An earlier way is by perceived taxonomic group, with fields such as zoology, botany, and microbiology, reflecting what were once seen as the major divisions of life. A third way is by approach, such as field biology, theoretical biology, experimental evolution, and paleontology. These alternative ways of dividing up the subject can be combined with evolutionary biology to create subfields like evolutionary ecology and evolutionary developmental biology. More recently, the merge between the biological science and applied sciences gave birth to new fields that are extensions of evolutionary biology, such as evolutionary robotics, engineering,[1] algorithms,[2] economics,[3] and architecture.[4] The basic mechanisms of evolution are applied directly or indirectly to come up with novel designs or solve problems that are difficult to solve otherwise. The research generated in these applied fields in turn contribute to progress, especially thanks to work on evolution in computer science and engineering fields such as mechanical engineering.[5]


History[edit] Main article: History of evolutionary thought The statistician Ronald Fisher (1890 – 1962) helped to form the modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics and natural selection. The idea of evolution by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859, but evolutionary biology, as an academic discipline in its own right, emerged during the period of the modern synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s.[6] It was not until the 1980s that many universities had departments of evolutionary biology. In the United States, many universities have created departments of molecular and cell biology or ecology and evolutionary biology, in place of the older departments of botany and zoology. Palaeontology is often grouped with earth science. J. B. S. Haldane (1892 – 1964) helped to create the field of population genetics. Microbiology too is becoming an evolutionary discipline, now that microbial physiology and genomics are better understood. The quick generation time of bacteria and viruses such as bacteriophages makes it possible to explore evolutionary questions. Many biologists have contributed to shaping the modern discipline of evolutionary biology. Theodosius Dobzhansky and E. B. Ford established an empirical research programme. Ronald Fisher, Sewall Wright and J. S. Haldane created a sound theoretical framework. Ernst Mayr in systematics, George Gaylord Simpson in paleontology and G. Ledyard Stebbins in botany helped to form the modern synthesis. James Crow,[7] Richard Lewontin,[8] Dan Hartl,[9] Marcus Feldman,[10][11] and Brian Charlesworth[12] trained a generation of evolutionary biologists.


Current research topics[edit] Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics and incorporates ideas from diverse areas, such as molecular genetics and computer science. First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis. These include speciation,[13] the evolution of sexual reproduction,[14] the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of ageing, and evolvability.[15] Second, biologists ask the most straightforward evolutionary question: "what happened and when?". This includes fields such as paleobiology, as well as systematics and phylogenetics. Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. Today, evolutionary biologists try to determine the genetic architecture of interesting evolutionary phenomena such as adaptation and speciation. They seek answers to questions such as how many genes are involved, how large are the effects of each gene, how interdependent are the effects of different genes, what do the genes do, and what changes happen to them (e.g., point mutations vs. gene duplication or even genome duplication). They try to reconcile the high heritability seen in twin studies with the difficulty in finding which genes are responsible for this heritability using genome-wide association studies.[16] One challenge in studying genetic architecture is that the classical population genetics that catalysed the modern evolutionary synthesis must be updated to take into account modern molecular knowledge. This requires a great deal of mathematical development to relate DNA sequence data to evolutionary theory as part of a theory of molecular evolution. For example, biologists try to infer which genes have been under strong selection by detecting selective sweeps.[17] Fourth, the modern evolutionary synthesis involved agreement about which forces contribute to evolution, but not about their relative importance.[18] Current research seeks to determine this. Evolutionary forces include natural selection, sexual selection, genetic drift, genetic draft, developmental constraints, mutation bias and biogeography. An evolutionary approach is key to much current research in organismal biology and ecology, such as in life history theory. Annotation of genes and their function relies heavily on comparative, i.e., evolutionary, approaches. The field of evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") investigates how developmental processes work, and compares them in different organisms to determine how they evolved.


Journals[edit] Some scientific journals specialise exclusively in evolutionary biology as a whole, including the journals Evolution, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, and BMC Evolutionary Biology. Some journals cover sub-specialties within evolutionary biology, such as the journals Systematic Biology, Molecular Biology and Evolution and its sister journal Genome Biology and Evolution, and Cladistics. Other journals combine aspects of evolutionary biology with other related fields. For example, Molecular Ecology, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, The American Naturalist and Theoretical Population Biology have overlap with ecology and other aspects of organismal biology. Overlap with ecology is also prominent in the review journals Trends in Ecology and Evolution and Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. The journals Genetics and PLoS Genetics overlap with molecular genetics questions that are not obviously evolutionary in nature.


See also[edit] Artificial selection Comparative anatomy Computational phylogenetics Evolutionary computation Evolutionary dynamics Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Genetics On the Origin of Species Phylogenetic comparative methods Quantitative genetics Selective breeding


References[edit] ^ "Evolutionary engineering".  ^ "What is an Evolutionary Algorithm?" (PDF).  ^ "What economists can learn from evolutionary theorists".  ^ "Investigating architecture and design".  ^ "Introduction to Evolutionary Computing: A.E. Eiben".  ^ Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty (1996). Unifying Biology: The Evolutionary Synthesis and Evolutionary Biology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03343-9.  ^ "The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology: James F. Crow".  ^ "The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology:Richard Lewontin".  ^ "The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology: Daniel Hartl".  ^ "Feldman lab alumni & collaborators".  ^ "The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology: Marcus Feldman".  ^ "The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology: Brian Charlesworth".  ^ Wiens JJ (2004). "What is speciation and how should we study it?". American Naturalist. 163 (6): 914–923. doi:10.1086/386552. JSTOR 10.1086/386552. PMID 15266388.  ^ Otto SP (2009). "The evolutionary enigma of sex". American Naturalist. 174 (s1): S1–S14. doi:10.1086/599084. PMID 19441962.  ^ Jesse Love Hendrikse; Trish Elizabeth Parsons; Benedikt Hallgrímsson (2007). "Evolvability as the proper focus of evolutionary developmental biology". Evolution & Development. 9 (4): 393–401. doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00176.x.  ^ Manolio TA; Collins FS; Cox NJ; Goldstein DB; Hindorff LA; Hunter DJ; McCarthy MI; Ramos EM; Cardon LR; Chakravarti A; Cho JH; Guttmacher AE; Kong A; Kruglyak L; Mardis E; Rotimi CN; Slatkin M; Valle D; Whittemore AS; Boehnke M; Clark AG; Eichler EE; Gibson G; Haines JL; Mackay TFC; McCarroll SA; Visscher PM (2009). "Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases". Nature. 461 (7265): 747–753. Bibcode:2009Natur.461..747M. doi:10.1038/nature08494. PMC 2831613 . PMID 19812666.  ^ Sabeti PC; Reich DE; Higgins JM; Levine HZP; Richter DJ; Schaffner SF; Gabriel SB; Platko JV; Patterson NJ; McDonald GJ; Ackerman HC; Campbell SJ; Altshuler D; Cooper R; Kwiatkowski D; Ward R; Lander ES (2002). "Detecting recent positive selection in the human genome from haplotype structure". Nature. 419 (6909): 832–837. Bibcode:2002Natur.419..832S. doi:10.1038/nature01140. PMID 12397357.  ^ Provine WB (1988). "Progress in evolution and meaning in life". Evolutionary progress. University of Chicago Press. pp. 49–79.  v t e Evolutionary biology Evolutionary history of life Index of evolutionary biology articles Introduction Outline of evolution Timeline of evolution Evolution Abiogenesis Adaptation Adaptive radiation Cladistics Coevolution Common descent Cospeciation Convergence Divergence Earliest known life forms Evidence of common descent Extinction Event Gene-centered view Homology Last universal common ancestor Macroevolution Microevolution Origin of life Panspermia Parallel evolution Prehistoric Autopsy Speciation Taxonomy Population genetics Biodiversity Gene flow Genetic drift Mutation Natural selection Variation Development Canalisation Evolutionary developmental biology Inversion Modularity Phenotypic plasticity Of taxa Birds origin Brachiopods Cephalopods Dinosaurs Fish Fungi Insects butterflies Life Mammals cats dogs dolphins and whales horses primates humans lemurs sea cows wolves Molluscs Plants Reptiles Spiders Tetrapods Viruses influenza Of organs Cell DNA Flagella Eukaryotes symbiogenesis chromosome endomembrane system mitochondria nucleus plastids In animals eye hair auditory ossicle nervous system brain Of processes Aging Death Programmed cell death Avian flight Biological complexity Cooperation Color vision in primates Emotion Empathy Ethics Eusociality Immune system Metabolism Monogamy Morality Mosaic evolution Multicellularity Sexual reproduction Gamete differentiation/sexes Life cycles/nuclear phases Mating types Sex-determination Snake venom Tempo and modes Gradualism/Punctuated equilibrium/Saltationism Micromutation/Macromutation Uniformitarianism/Catastrophism Speciation Allopatric Anagenesis Catagenesis Cladogenesis Ecological Hybrid Parapatric Peripatric Reinforcement Sympatric History Renaissance and Enlightenment Transmutation of species Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species History of paleontology Transitional fossil Blending inheritance Mendelian inheritance The eclipse of Darwinism Modern synthesis History of molecular evolution Extended evolutionary synthesis Philosophy Darwinism Alternatives to evolution by natural selection Catastrophism Lamarckism Orthogenesis Mutationism Saltationism Structuralism Spandrel Theistic Vitalism Related Biogeography Ecological genetics Molecular evolution Phylogenetics Tree Polymorphism Protocell Systematics Category Commons Portal WikiProject v t e Biology Subdisciplines Anatomy Astrobiology Biochemistry Biogeography Biological anthropology Biological classification Biomechanics Biophysics Bioinformatics Biostatistics Botany Cell biology Cellular microbiology Chemical biology Chronobiology Cognitive biology Computational biology Conservation biology Developmental biology Ecology Epidemiology Epigenetics Evolutionary biology Evolutionary developmental biology Genetics Genomics Histology Human biology Immunology Lipidology Marine biology Mathematical biology Microbiology Molecular biology Mycology Nanobiotechnology Neuroscience Nutrition Origin of life Paleontology Parasitology Pathology Pharmacology Physiology Quantum biology Reproductive biology Sociobiology Structural biology Systematics Systems biology Toxicology Virology Virophysics Zoology Hierarchy of life Biosphere >  Ecosystem > Community (Biocoenosis) > Population >  Organism > Organ system > Organ > Tissue > Cell > Organelle > Biomolecular complex > Molecule (Macromolecule, Biomolecule) > Atom Foundations Cell theory Ecology Energy Transformation Evolution Genetics Homeostasis Synthetic biology Taxonomy Principles Evolution Adaptation Earliest known life forms Function Genetic drift Gene flow Macroevolution Microevolution Mutation Natural selection Speciation Ecology Biodiversity Biological interaction Community Ecosystem Habitat Niche Population dynamics Resources Molecular biology Cell signaling Development Epigenetics Gene regulation Meiosis Mitosis Post-transcriptional modification Biochemistry Carbohydrates Lipids Metabolism Nucleic acids Photosynthesis Proteins Glossaries Biology Botanical terms Ecological terms Plant morphology terms Category Commons Portal WikiProject Authority control LCCN: sh90004042 GND: 4153283-1 Biology portal Evolutionary biology portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Evolutionary_biology&oldid=819595065" Categories: Evolutionary biologyPhilosophy of biologyHidden categories: Use dmy dates from March 2014Use British English from March 2015Pages using div col with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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