Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Personal life 3 Death 4 Writings 4.1 Botanical works and the Lichfield Botanical Society 4.2 Zoonomia 4.3 Poem on evolution 4.4 Education of women 5 Lunar Society 6 Other activities 6.1 Cosmological speculation 6.2 Inventions 6.3 Rocket engine 7 Major publications 8 Family tree 9 Appearances 10 Surviving houses 11 Works 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Sources 15.1 Biographies and criticism 16 External links


Early life and education[edit] Stone-cast bust of Erasmus Darwin, by W. J. Coffee, c. 1795 Darwin's House in Lichfield, now a museum dedicated to his life and work. Darwin was born in 1731 at Elston Hall, Nottinghamshire near Newark-on-Trent, England, the youngest of seven children of Robert Darwin of Elston (12 August 1682 – 20 November 1754), a lawyer and physician, and his wife Elizabeth Hill (1702–97). The name Erasmus had been used by a number of his family and derives from his ancestor Erasmus Earle, Common Sergent of England under Oliver Cromwell.[2] His siblings were: Robert Darwin (17 October 1724 – 4 November 1816) Elizabeth Darwin (15 September 1725 – 8 April 1800) William Alvey Darwin (3 October 1726 – 7 October 1783) Anne Darwin (12 November 1727 – 3 August 1813) Susannah Darwin (10 April 1729 – 29 September 1789) Charles Darwin, rector of Elston (28 September 1730 – 24 May 1805) He was educated at Chesterfield Grammar School, then later at St John's College, Cambridge.[3] He obtained his medical education at the University of Edinburgh Medical School. Whether Darwin ever obtained the formal degree of MD is not known. Darwin settled in 1756 as a physician at Nottingham, but met with little success and so moved the following year to Lichfield to try to establish a practice there. A few weeks after his arrival, using a novel course of treatment, he restored the health of a young man whose death seemed inevitable. This ensured his success in the new locale. Darwin was a highly successful physician for more than fifty years in the Midlands. George III invited him to be Royal Physician, but Darwin declined. In Lichfield, Darwin wrote "didactic poetry, developed his system of evolution, and invented amongst other things, a carriage steering mechanism, a manuscript copier and a speaking machine.


Personal life[edit] Joseph Wright of Derby, Erasmus Darwin (1770; Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery). Darwin married twice and had 14 children, including two illegitimate daughters by an employee, and, possibly, at least one further illegitimate daughter. In 1757 he married Mary (Polly) Howard (1740–1770). They had four sons and one daughter, two of whom (a son and a daughter) died in infancy: Charles Darwin (1758–1778) Erasmus Darwin II (1759–1799) Elizabeth Darwin (1763, survived 4 months) Robert Waring Darwin (1766–1848), father of the naturalist Charles Darwin William Alvey Darwin (1767, survived 19 days) The first Mrs. Darwin died in 1770. A governess, Mary Parker, was hired to look after Robert. By late 1771, employer and employee had become intimately involved and together they had two illegitimate daughters: Susanna Parker (1772–1856) Mary Parker Jr (1774–1859) Susanna and Mary Jr later established a boarding school for girls. In 1782, Mary Sr (the governess) married Joseph Day (1745–1811), a Birmingham merchant, and moved away. Darwin may have fathered another child, this time with a married woman. A Lucy Swift gave birth in 1771 to a baby, also named Lucy, who was christened a daughter of her mother and William Swift, but there is reason to believe the father was really Darwin.[4] Lucy Jr. married John Hardcastle in Derby in 1792 and their daughter, Mary, married Francis Boott, the physician. In 1775 Darwin met Elizabeth Pole, daughter of Charles Colyear, 2nd Earl of Portmore, and wife of Colonel Edward Pole (1718–1780); but as she was married, Darwin could only make his feelings known for her through poetry. When Edward Pole died, Darwin married Elizabeth and moved to her home, Radbourne Hall, four miles (6 km) west of Derby. The hall and village are these days known as Radbourne. In 1782, they moved to Full Street, Derby. They had four sons, one of whom died in infancy, and three daughters: Edward Darwin (1782–1829) Frances Ann Violetta Darwin (1783–1874), married Samuel Tertius Galton, was the mother of Francis Galton Emma Georgina Elizabeth Darwin (1784–1818) Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin (1786–1859) John Darwin (1787–1818) Henry Darwin (1789–1790), died in infancy. Harriet Darwin (1790–1825), married Admiral Thomas James Maling


Death[edit] Darwin died suddenly on 18 April 1802, weeks after having moved to Breadsall Priory, just north of Derby. His body is buried in All Saints Church, Breadsall. Erasmus Darwin is commemorated on one of the Moonstones, a series of monuments in Birmingham.


Writings[edit] Botanical works and the Lichfield Botanical Society[edit] Darwin formed the Lichfield Botanical Society (despite the name, composed of only three men, Erasmus Darwin, Sir Brooke Boothby and Mr John Jackson, proctor of Lichfield Cathedral[notes 1])[5][6] to translate the works of the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus from Latin into English. This took seven years. The result was two publications: A System of Vegetables between 1783 and 1785, and The Families of Plants in 1787. In these volumes, Darwin coined many of the English names of plants that we use today.[7] Darwin then wrote The Loves of the Plants, a long poem, which was a popular rendering of Linnaeus' works. Darwin also wrote Economy of Vegetation, and together the two were published as The Botanic Garden. Among other writers he influenced were Anna Seward and Maria Jacson. Zoonomia[edit] Darwin's most important scientific work, Zoonomia (1794–1796), contains a system of pathology and a chapter on 'Generation'. In the latter, he anticipated some of the views of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, which foreshadowed the modern theory of evolution. Erasmus Darwin's works were read and commented on by his grandson Charles Darwin the naturalist. Erasmus Darwin based his theories on David Hartley's psychological theory of associationism.[8] The essence of his views is contained in the following passage, which he follows up with the conclusion that one and the same kind of living filament is and has been the cause of all organic life: Would it be too bold to imagine, that in the great length of time, since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, would it be too bold to imagine, that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which THE GREAT FIRST CAUSE endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions, and associations; and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down those improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end![9] Erasmus Darwin also anticipated survival of the fittest in Zoönomia mainly when writing about the "three great objects of desire" for every organism: "lust, hunger, and security."[9] A similar "survival of the fittest" view in Zoönomia is Erasmus' view on how a species "should" propagate itself. Erasmus' idea that "the strongest and most active animal should propagate the species, which should thence become improved".[9] Today, this is called the theory of survival of the fittest. Interestingly, his grandson Charles Darwin, much less libidinous and who led more of an invalid life, and who is not known to have illegitimately fathered children, or fathered children he did not plan, acknowledge and raise, posited the different and fuller theory of natural selection. Charles' theory was that natural selection is the inheritance of changed genetic characteristics that are better adaptations to the environment; these are not necessarily based in "strength" and "activity", which themselves ironically can lead to the overpopulation that results in natural selection yielding nonsurvivors of genetic traits. Erasmus Darwin was familiar with the earlier proto-evolutionary thinking of James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, and cited him in his 1803 work Temple of Nature. Poem on evolution[edit] Erasmus Darwin offered the first glimpse of his theory of evolution, obliquely, in a question at the end of a long footnote to his popular poem The Loves of the Plants (1789), which was republished throughout the 1790s in several editions as The Botanic Garden. His poetic concept was to anthropomorphise the stamen (male) and pistil (female) sexual organs, as bride and groom. In this stanza on the flower Curcuma (also Flax and Turmeric) the "youths" are infertile, and he devotes the footnote to other examples of neutered organs in flowers, insect castes, and finally associates this more broadly with many popular and well-known cases of vestigial organs (male nipples, the third and fourth wings of flies, etc.) Woo'd with long care, CURCUMA cold and shy Meets her fond husband with averted eye: Four beardless youths the obdurate beauty move With soft attentions of Platonic love. Darwin's final long poem, The Temple of Nature was published posthumously in 1803. The poem was originally titled The Origin of Society. It is considered his best poetic work. It centres on his own conception of evolution. The poem traces the progression of life from micro-organisms to civilised society. The poem contains a passage that describes the struggle for existence.[10] His poetry was admired by Wordsworth, although Coleridge was intensely critical, writing, "I absolutely nauseate Darwin's poem".[6] It often made reference to his interests in science; for example botany and steam engines. Education of women[edit] The last two leaves of Darwin's A plan for the conduct of female education in boarding schools (1797) contain a book list, an apology for the work, and an advert for "Miss Parkers School". The work probably resulted from his liaison with Mary Parker.[citation needed] The school advertised on the last page is the one he set up in Ashbourne, Derbyshire for their two illegitimate children, Susanna and Mary. Darwin regretted that a good education had not been generally available to women in Britain in his time, and drew on the ideas of Locke, Rousseau, and Genlis in organising his thoughts. Addressing the education of middle class girls, Darwin argued that amorous romance novels were inappropriate and that they should seek simplicity in dress. He contends that young women should be educated in schools, rather than privately at home, and learn appropriate subjects. These subjects include physiognomy, physical exercise, botany, chemistry, mineralogy, and experimental philosophy. They should familiarise themselves with arts and manufactures through visits to sites like Coalbrookdale, and Wedgwood's potteries; they should learn how to handle money, and study modern languages. Darwin's educational philosophy took the view that men and women should have different, capabilities, skills, spheres, and interests, where the woman's education was designed to support and serve male agency, accomplishment and financial reward and relieve him from daily responsibility for children and chores of life.[11] In the context of the times, this program may be read as a modernising influence in the sense that the woman was at least to learn about the "man's world", although not be allowed to participate in it. However, the text was written seven years after A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft, which has the central argument that women should be educated in a rational manner to give them the opportunity to contribute to society. Some women of Darwin's era were receiving more substantial educations and participating in the broader world. An example is Susanna Wright, who was raised in Lancashire and became an American colonist associated with the Midlands Enlightenment. It is not known whether Darwin and Wright knew each other, although they definitely knew many people in common. Other women who received substantial educations and who participated in the broader world albeit sometimes anonymously, whom Darwin definitely knew, were Maria Jacson and Anna Seward.


Lunar Society[edit] The Lunar Society: these dates indicate the year in which Darwin became friends with these people, who, in turn, became members of the Lunar Society. The Lunar Society existed from 1765 to 1813. Before 1765: Matthew Boulton, originally a buckle maker in Birmingham John Whitehurst of Derby, maker of clocks and scientific instruments, pioneer of geology After 1765: Josiah Wedgwood, potter 1765 Dr. William Small, 1765, man of science, formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy at the College of William and Mary, where Thomas Jefferson was an appreciative pupil Richard Lovell Edgeworth, 1766, inventor James Watt, 1767, improver of steam engine James Keir, 1767, pioneer of the chemical industry Thomas Day, 1768, eccentric and author Dr. William Withering, 1775, the death of Dr. Small left an opening for a physician in the group. Joseph Priestley, 1780, experimental chemist and discoverer of many substances. Samuel Galton, 1782, a Quaker gunmaker with a taste for science, took Darwin's place after Darwin moved to Derby. Darwin also established a lifelong friendship with Benjamin Franklin, who shared Darwin's support for the American and French revolutions. The Lunar Society was instrumental as an intellectual driving force behind England's Industrial Revolution. The members of the Lunar Society, and especially Darwin, opposed the slave trade. He attacked it in The Botanic Garden (1789–1791), and in The Loves of Plants (1789), The Economy of Vegetation (1791), and the Phytologia (1800).[12]


Other activities[edit] In addition to the Lunar Society, Erasmus Darwin belonged to the influential Derby Philosophical Society, as did his brother-in-law Samuel Fox (see family tree below). He experimented with the use of air and gases to alleviate infections and cancers in patients. A Pneumatic Institution was established at Clifton in 1799 for clinically testing these ideas. He conducted research into the formation of clouds, on which he published in 1788. He also inspired Robert Weldon's Somerset Coal Canal caisson lock. Mary Shelley in her introduction to the 1831 edition of Frankenstein notes that some unspecified "experiments of Dr. Darwin" were part of the evening discussion topics leading up to her inspiration and creation of her novel.[13] Cosmological speculation[edit] Contemporary literature dates the cosmological theories of the Big Bang and Big Crunch to the 19th and 20th centuries. However Erasmus Darwin had speculated on these sorts of events in The Botanic Garden, A Poem in Two Parts: Part 1, The Economy of Vegetation, 1791:[14] Roll on, ye Stars! exult in youthful prime, Mark with bright curves the printless steps of Time; Near and more near your beamy cars approach, And lessening orbs on lessening orbs encroach; — Flowers of the sky! ye too to age must yield, Frail as your silken sisters of the field. Star after star from Heaven's high arch shall rush, Suns sink on suns, and systems, systems crush, Headlong, extinct, to one dark centre fall, And death and night and chaos mingle all: — Till o'er the wreck, emerging from the storm, Immortal Nature lifts her changeful form, Mounts from her funeral pyre on wings of flame, And soars and shines, another and the same! Inventions[edit] Darwin was the inventor of several devices, though he did not patent any. He believed this would damage his reputation as a doctor, and encouraged his friends to patent their own modifications of his designs.[15] A horizontal windmill, which he designed for Josiah Wedgwood (who would be Charles Darwin's other grandfather, see family tree below). A carriage that would not tip over (1766). A steering mechanism for his carriage, known today as the Ackermann linkage, that would be adopted by cars 130 years later (1759).[15] A speaking machine, which was a mechanical larynx made of wood, silk, and leather and pronounced several sounds so well ‘as to deceive all who heard it unseen’(at Clifton in 1799).[16] A canal lift for barges. A minute artificial bird.[15] A copying machine (1778). A variety of weather monitoring machines. Rocket engine[edit] In notes dating to 1779, Darwin made a sketch of a simple hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine, with gas tanks connected by plumbing and pumps to an elongated combustion chamber and expansion nozzle, a concept not to be seen again until one century later.


Major publications[edit] Erasmus Darwin, A Botanical Society at Lichfield. A System of Vegetables, according to their classes, orders... translated from the 13th edition of Linnaeus’ Systema Vegetabiliium. 2 vols., 1783, Lichfield, J. Jackson, for Leigh and Sotheby, London. Erasmus Darwin, A Botanical Society at Lichfield. The Families of Plants with their natural characters...Translated from the last edition of Linnaeus’ Genera Plantarum. 1787, Lichfield, J. Jackson, for J. Johnson, London. Erasmus Darwin, The Botanic Garden, Part I, The Economy of Vegetation. 1791 London, J. Johnson. Part II, The Loves of the Plants. 1789, London, J. Johnson. Erasmus Darwin, Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life, 1794, Part I. London, J. Johnson, Part I–III. 1796, London, J. Johnson. Darwin, Erasmus (1797). A plan for the conduct of female education, in boarding schools, private families, and public seminaries. By Erasmus Darwin, M.D. F.R.S. author of Zoonomia, and of The botanic garden. ; To which are added, Rudiments of taste, in a series of letters from a mother to her daughters. ; Embellished with an elegant frontispiece (4to, 128 pages). Derby: J. Johnson. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  (last two leaves contain a book list, an apology for the work, and an advert for "Miss Parkers School".) Erasmus Darwin, Phytologia; or, The Philosophy of Agriculture and Gardening. 1800, London, J. Johnson. Erasmus Darwin, The Temple of Nature; or, The Origin of Society. 1803, London, J. Johnson.


Family tree[edit]


Appearances[edit] Charles Sheffield, an author noted largely for hard science fiction, wrote a number of stories featuring Darwin in a manner quite similar to Sherlock Holmes. These stories were collected in a book, The Amazing Dr. Darwin. Darwin's opposition to slavery in poetry was included by Benjamin Zephaniah in a reading. This inspired the establishment of the Genomic Dub Collective, whose album includes quotations from Erasmus "Ras" Darwin, his grandson Charles Darwin and Haile Selassie. The forgetting of Erasmus' designs for a rocket is a major plot point in Stephen Baxter's tale of alternate universes, Manifold: Origin. Phrases from Darwin's poem The Botanic Garden are used as chapter headings in The Pornographer of Vienna by Lewis Crofts. British poet J.H. Prynne took on the pseudonym Erasmus W. Darwin for his "plant time" bulletins in the pages of Bean News (1972). A building on the Nottingham Trent University Clifton Campus is named after him. It is the centre for science teaching, academic offices and study space. Erasmus Darwin appears as a character in Sergey Lukyanenko's novel New Watch as a Dark Other and a prophet living in Regent's Park Estate.


Surviving houses[edit] Erasmus Darwin House, his home in Lichfield, is now a museum dedicated to Erasmus Darwin and his life's work. A school in nearby Chasetown recently converted to Academy status and is now known as Erasmus Darwin Academy.


Works[edit] Darwin, Erasmus. (1794–96). Zoonomia. J. Johnson (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00549-4) King-Hele, Desmond, ed. (2007). The collected letters of Erasmus Darwin. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 9780521821568. Retrieved 7 March 2015. 


See also[edit] Erasmus Darwin House – The Museum of Erasmus Darwin in Lichfield, Staffordshire Evolutionary ideas of the renaissance and enlightenment History of evolutionary thought


Notes[edit] ^ fl. 1740s–1790s. Also Bookseller and Printer in Lichfield. When Darwin left Lichfield in 1781, Jackson took over his botanical garden. (Desmond 1994, Jackson, John p. 377) (Seward 1804, p. 70) His daughter, Miss Mary A(nn) Jackson of Lichfield (Britten & Boulger 1889, p. 180) (fl. 1830s–1840s), was a botanical illustrator, (Desmond 1994, Jackson, Mary Ann p. 377) and author of Botanical Terms illustrated (1842) and Pictorial Flora (1840)


References[edit] ^ Graves, Joseph L. The Emperor's New Clothes: Biological Theories of Race at the Millennium. p. 57. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ Burke's Landed Gentry, Darwin formerly of Downe, 1966 ^ "Darwin, Erasmus (DRWN750E)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  ^ "Darwin Correspondence Project".  ^ Uglow 2002a. ^ a b Uglow 2002b. ^ George 2014. ^ Allen, Richard C. 1999. David Hartley on human nature. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-4233-0 ^ a b c Erasmus Darwin, Zoonomia: Project Gutenberg text XXIX.4.8 ^ Zirkle, Conway (April 25, 1941). "Natural Selection before the 'Origin of Species'". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society. 84 (1): 71–123. ISSN 0003-049X. JSTOR 984852.  ^ DNB entry for Erasmus Darwin. Oxford. ^ Darwin, Erasmus (1800). Phytologia, or the philosophy of agriculture and gardening (1st ed.). London: J. Johnson. p. 77.  ^ Shelley, Mary. "Introduction" Frankenstein (1831 edition) Gutenberg "Many and long were the conversations between Lord Byron and Shelley, to which I was a devout but nearly silent listener. ... They talked of the experiments of Dr. Darwin, (I speak not of what the Doctor really did, or said that he did, but, as more to my purpose, of what was then spoken of as having been done by him,) who preserved a piece of vermicelli in a glass case, till by some extraordinary means it began to move with voluntary motion." [underlining added] ^ Charles Mackay, ed. (1896). A Thousand and One Gems of English Poetry. Routledge.  ^ a b c Smith 2005. ^ "Project Update: The Speaking Machine". Erasmus Darwin House. 9 January 2013. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)


Sources[edit] Britten, J; Boulger, GS (1889). "Biographical Index of British and Irish Botanists". Journal of Botany, British and Foreign. 27. Retrieved 7 March 2015.  Carter, Philip (Spring 2013). "Shapers of the West Midlands Enlightenment" (PDF). West Midlands History Issue 1. pp. 13–16. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  Desmond, Ray (1994) [1977]. Dictionary of British and Irish botanists and horticulturalists : including plant collectors, flower painters and garden designers (2 ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780850668438. Retrieved 28 February 2015.  Fara, Patricia (2003). Sex, Botany and Empire: The Story of Carl Linnaeus and Joseph Banks. Cambridge: Icon Books. ISBN 9781840464443. Retrieved 22 February 2015.  George, Sam (June 2005). "'Not Strictly Proper For A Female Pen': Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Sexuality of Botany". Comparative Critical Studies. 2 (2): 191–210. doi:10.3366/ccs.2005.2.2.191. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  Linné, Carl von (1785) [1774]. Systema vegetabilium (13th edition of Systema Naturae) [A System of Vegetables 2 vols. 1783–1785]. Lichfield: Lichfield Botanical Society. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  Schofield, R. E. (1963). The Lunar Society, A Social History of Provincial Science and Industry in Eighteenth Century England. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 3 March 2015.  Uglow, Jenny (2002a). The lunar men: five friends whose curiosity changed the world. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 9780374194406. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  Biographies and criticism[edit] Fara, Patricia (2012). Erasmus Darwin : sex, science, and serendipity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199582662. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  George, Sam (30 January 2014). "Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education". Science & Education. 23 (3): 673–694. Bibcode:2014Sc&Ed..23..673G. doi:10.1007/s11191-014-9677-y. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  King-Hele, Desmond. 1963. Doctor Darwin. Scribner's, N.Y. King-Hele, Desmond. 1977. Doctor of Revolution: the life and genius of Erasmus Darwin. Faber, London. King-Hele, Desmond. 1999. Erasmus Darwin: a life of unequalled achievement Giles de la Mare Publishers. King-Hele, Desmond (ed) 2002. Charles Darwin's 'The Life of Erasmus Darwin' Cambridge University Press. Krause, Ernst 1879. Erasmus Darwin, with a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin. Murray, London. Pearson, Hesketh. 1930. Doctor Darwin. Dent, London. Porter, Roy, 1989. 'Erasmus Darwin: doctor of evolution?' in 'History, Humanity and Evolution: Essays for John C. Greene, ed. James R. Moore. Priestman, Martin. The Poetry of Erasmus Darwin: Enlightened Spaces, Romantic Times. 2014: Ashgate. ISBN 9781472419569. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  Seward, Anna (1804). Memoirs of the Life of Dr. Darwin: Chiefly During His Residence in Lichfield: With Anecdotes of His Friends, and Criticisms on His Writing. Philadelphia: W.M. Poyntell. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  Smith, Christopher (2005). The Genius of Erasmus Darwin. Ashgate Publishing. p. 416. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  Uglow, Jenny (21 September 2002b). "Sexing the plants". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2015. 


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British Rail Research Division Derby Philosophical Society Derby Exhibition (1839) People Alkmund P. P. Burdett D'Ewes Coke Erasmus Darwin 6th Duke of Devonshire James Ferguson Arthur Keily R. K. Freeman Alfred E. Goodey Sir George Harpur Crewe Llewellynn Jewitt John Lombe William Mundy Joseph Pickford 5th Earl Ferrers George Sorocold Joseph Strutt Charles Sylvester Derby Silk Mill (Lombe's Mill) Pickford's House Museum Central Library v t e Charles Darwin Life Darwin–Wedgwood family Education Voyage on HMS Beagle Inception of theory Development of theory Publication of theory Reactions to On the Origin of Species Orchids to Variation Descent of Man to Emotions Insectivorous Plants to Worms Portraits of Darwin Religious views Health Women Writings Extracts from Letters to Henslow The Voyage of the Beagle Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection On the Origin of Species Fertilisation of Orchids Geological Observations on South America Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Insectivorous Plants The Power of Movement in Plants The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms Autobiography Correspondence The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin More Letters of Charles Darwin List of described taxa Related Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation History of evolutionary thought Pangenesis Darwin Industry Commemoration Things named for Darwin Darwinism Alternatives Eclipse Social Darwinism HMS Beagle Darwin Medal Darwin Awards Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 7419078 LCCN: n50037924 ISNI: 0000 0000 8339 0630 GND: 118671049 SELIBR: 183441 SUDOC: 029327687 BNF: cb120977765 (data) ULAN: 500355025 NLA: 35033441 NDL: 00620558 NKC: nlk20000083979 BNE: XX1301780 IATH: w6xg9rsv Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Erasmus_Darwin&oldid=811043763" Categories: Proto-evolutionary biologistsPeople of the Industrial RevolutionEnglish botanistsEnglish entomologistsMembers of the Lunar Society of BirminghamFellows of the Royal SocietyDarwin–Wedgwood familyPeople from LichfieldPeople from Nottinghamshire1731 births1802 deathsAlumni of St John's College, CambridgeAlumni of the University of EdinburghPaintings by Joseph Wright of Derby18th-century English medical doctorsEnglish physiologistsEnglish naturalistsEnglish poetsEnglish abolitionistsEnglish inventorsHidden categories: CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownEngvarB from September 2013Use dmy dates from September 2013Articles with hCardsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from October 2010Articles with Project Gutenberg linksArticles with Internet Archive linksWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with ULAN identifiersWikipedia articles with NLA identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers


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Erasmus Darwin (disambiguation)Joseph Wright Of DerbyDerby Museum And Art GalleryElstonNottinghamshireNewark-on-TrentBreadsallDerbySt John's College, CambridgeUniversity Of Edinburgh Medical SchoolCharles Darwin (1758-1778)Robert Waring DarwinRobert Darwin Of ElstonDarwin-Wedgwood FamilyMidlands EnlightenmentNatural PhilosophyPhysiologySociety For Effecting The Abolition Of The Slave TradeNatural HistoryEvolutionDarwin–Wedgwood FamilyCharles DarwinFrancis GaltonLunar Society Of BirminghamGeorge III Of The United KingdomPhysician To The KingEnlargeW. J. CoffeeEnlargeElstonNottinghamshireNewark-on-TrentRobert Darwin Of ElstonErasmus (disambiguation)Erasmus EarleOliver CromwellRobert Waring Darwin Of ElstonChesterfieldSt John's College, CambridgeUniversity Of CambridgeUniversity Of Edinburgh Medical SchoolLichfieldEnglish MidlandsGeorge III Of The United KingdomPhysician To The KingLichfieldEnlargeJoseph Wright Of DerbyBirmingham Museum And Art GalleryCharles Darwin (medical Student)Robert DarwinGovernessBoarding SchoolDerbyFrancis BoottCharles Colyear, 2nd Earl Of PortmoreRadbourne HallRadbourneSamuel Tertius GaltonFrancis GaltonFrancis Sacheverel DarwinThomas James MalingBreadsall PrioryDerbyLunar Society MoonstonesBirminghamSir Brooke BoothbyProctorLichfield CathedralCarl LinnaeusThe Loves Of The PlantsEconomy Of VegetationThe Botanic GardenAnna SewardMaria JacsonZoonomiaPathologyGenerationJean-Baptiste LamarckEvolutionCharles DarwinDavid Hartley (philosopher)AssociationismSurvival Of The FittestJames Burnett, Lord MonboddoThe Botanic GardenEvolutionStruggle For ExistenceWilliam WordsworthSamuel Taylor ColeridgeSteam EngineWikipedia:Citation NeededAshbourne, DerbyshireJohn LockeRousseauStéphanie Félicité Du Crest De Saint-AubinExperimental PhilosophyCoalbrookdaleA Vindication Of The Rights Of WomanMary WollstonecraftSusanna WrightMaria JacsonAnna SewardLunar SocietyMatthew BoultonJohn WhitehurstJosiah WedgwoodWilliam SmallCollege Of William And MaryThomas JeffersonRichard Lovell EdgeworthJames WattJames KeirThomas DayWilliam WitheringJoseph PriestleySamuel Galton, Jr.Benjamin FranklinIndustrial RevolutionAbolitionismDerby Philosophical SocietyClifton, BristolSomerset Coal CanalCaisson LockMary ShelleyFrankensteinBig BangBig CrunchWindmillJosiah WedgwoodCarriageCarriageAckermann LinkageClifton, BristolBoat LiftCopyingRocket EngineZoonomiaEdit Section: AppearancesCharles SheffieldHard Science FictionSherlock HolmesSlaveryBenjamin ZephaniahCharles DarwinHaile SelassieStephen Baxter (author)The Botanic GardenLewis CroftsJ.H. PrynneSergey LukyanenkoNew Watch (novel)Regent's Park EstateErasmus Darwin HouseLichfieldChasetownAcademy (English School)Cambridge University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-108-00549-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780521821568Erasmus Darwin HouseEvolutionary Ideas Of The Renaissance And EnlightenmentHistory Of Evolutionary ThoughtSUNY PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7914-4233-0Conway ZirkleProceedings Of The American Philosophical SocietyAmerican Philosophical SocietyInternational Standard Serial NumberJSTORDictionary Of National BiographyCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780850668438Patricia FaraInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781840464443Digital Object IdentifierLichfield Botanical SocietyJenny UglowInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780374194406Patricia FaraInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780199582662BibcodeDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781472419569Anna SewardJenny UglowWikisourceProject GutenbergInternet ArchiveTemplate:Derby MuseumTemplate Talk:Derby MuseumDerby Museum And Art GalleryFrancis Leggatt ChantreyErnest Ellis ClarkW. J. CoffeeDerby Sketching ClubHarry FidlerHarold GresleyGeorg HoltzendorffRichard HurlestonAlfred John KeeneHenry Lark PrattDavid Payne (artist)Ronald PopeSamuel RaynerLouise RaynerThomas Smith (Derby)William Tate (painter)Ernest TownsendGeorge Turner (artist)Joseph Wright Of DerbyAshford Black MarbleJohn Farey, Sr.William Martin (naturalist)MatlockiteJohn MaweWhite WatsonJohn WhitehurstBonnie Prince Charlie Room9th/12th Royal LancersWilliam GoateRobert KellsFrancis Octavius GrenfellDavid RusheDavid Spence (VC)General Johnson Saving A Wounded French Officer From The Tomahawk Of A North American IndianAllenton HippopotamusThe King Of RomeWilliam Richardson LintonWilliam Hunt PainterJoseph WhittakerJoseph Wright Of DerbyRichard ArkwrightGrotto In The Gulf Of SalernoA Philosopher Lecturing On The OrreryIndian WidowRomeo And Juliet: The Tomb SceneMiravan Breaking Open The Tomb Of His AncestorsThe Alchemist Discovering PhosphorusVirgil's Tomb (Joseph Wright Paintings)The Blacksmith's ShopThe EarthstopperA Philosopher By LamplightSamuel Ward (taster)The Captive (painting)The Captive KingDovedale By MoonlightThomas And Ann BorrowVesuvius In Eruption (Wright Painting)Chelsea Porcelain FactoryDerby PorcelainRoyal Crown DerbyPinxton PorcelainAndrew PlancheWilliam Billingsley (artist)William DuesburyCreswellian CultureDerventio (Little Chester)Strutt's Park Roman FortDerby Racecourse Roman SettlementHanson Log BoatGreat Heathen ArmyHeath Wood Barrow CemeteryCodnor CastleDuffield Castle, DerbyshireIcknield StreetThe Street (Derbyshire)The Long Lane (Derbyshire)Atlas CoelestisBenjamin VulliamyWhitehurst & Son Sundial (1812)QRpediaAndrew Handyside And CompanyBritish Rail Research DivisionDerby Philosophical SocietyDerby Exhibition (1839)Alkmund Of DerbyPeter Perez BurdettD'Ewes CokeWilliam Cavendish, 6th Duke Of DevonshireJames Ferguson (Scottish Astronomer)Arthur KeilyRichard Knill FreemanAlfred E. GoodeyGeorge Harpur CreweLlewellynn JewittJohn LombeWilliam Mundy (MP)Joseph PickfordWashington Shirley, 5th Earl FerrersGeorge SorocoldJoseph Strutt (philanthropist)Charles SylvesterDerby Silk MillLombe's MillPickford's House MuseumDerby Central LibraryTemplate:Charles DarwinTemplate Talk:Charles DarwinCharles DarwinDarwin–Wedgwood FamilyCharles Darwin's EducationSecond Voyage Of HMS BeagleInception Of Darwin's TheoryDevelopment Of Darwin's TheoryPublication Of Darwin's TheoryReactions To On The Origin Of SpeciesDarwin From Orchids To VariationDarwin From Descent Of Man To EmotionsDarwin From Insectivorous Plants To WormsPortraits Of Charles DarwinReligious Views Of Charles DarwinCharles Darwin's HealthDarwin And WomenList Of Works By Charles DarwinExtracts From Letters To HenslowThe Voyage Of The BeagleZoology Of The Voyage Of H.M.S. BeagleThe Structure And Distribution Of Coral ReefsOn The Tendency Of Species To Form Varieties; And On The Perpetuation Of Varieties And Species By Natural Means Of SelectionOn The Origin Of SpeciesFertilisation Of OrchidsGeological Observations On South AmericaGeological Observations On The Volcanic IslandsThe Variation Of Animals And Plants Under DomesticationThe Descent Of Man, And Selection In Relation To SexThe Expression Of The Emotions In Man And AnimalsInsectivorous Plants (book)The Power Of Movement In PlantsThe Formation Of Vegetable Mould Through The Action Of WormsThe Autobiography Of Charles DarwinCorrespondence Of Charles DarwinThe Life And Letters Of Charles DarwinMore Letters Of Charles DarwinList Of Taxa Described By Charles DarwinVestiges Of The Natural History Of CreationHistory Of Evolutionary ThoughtPangenesisDarwin IndustryCommemoration Of Charles DarwinList Of Things Named After Charles DarwinDarwinismAlternatives To DarwinismEclipse Of DarwinismSocial DarwinismHMS BeagleDarwin MedalDarwin AwardsHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Name IdentifierIntegrated Authority FileLIBRISSystème Universitaire De DocumentationBibliothèque Nationale De FranceUnion List Of Artist NamesNational Library Of AustraliaNational Diet LibraryNational Library Of The Czech RepublicBiblioteca Nacional De EspañaInstitute For Advanced Technology In The HumanitiesHelp:CategoryCategory:Proto-evolutionary BiologistsCategory:People Of The Industrial RevolutionCategory:English BotanistsCategory:English EntomologistsCategory:Members Of The Lunar Society Of BirminghamCategory:Fellows Of The Royal SocietyCategory:Darwin–Wedgwood FamilyCategory:People From LichfieldCategory:People From NottinghamshireCategory:1731 BirthsCategory:1802 DeathsCategory:Alumni Of St John's College, CambridgeCategory:Alumni Of The University Of EdinburghCategory:Paintings By Joseph Wright Of DerbyCategory:18th-century English Medical DoctorsCategory:English PhysiologistsCategory:English NaturalistsCategory:English PoetsCategory:English AbolitionistsCategory:English InventorsCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCategory:EngvarB From September 2013Category:Use Dmy Dates From September 2013Category:Articles With HCardsCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From October 2010Category:Articles With Project Gutenberg LinksCategory:Articles With Internet Archive LinksCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ISNI IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SELIBR IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ULAN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With NLA IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SNAC-ID IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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