Contents 1 Nomenclature and syntax 1.1 Display 2 Applications 3 Features and benefits 4 Comparison with other identifier schemes 5 Resolution 6 IDF organizational structure 7 Standardization 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Nomenclature and syntax[edit] A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a character string divided into two parts, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a slash. prefix/suffix The prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier, and the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal Unicode characters are allowed in these strings, which are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner. The prefix usually takes the form 10.NNNN, where NNNN is a series of at least 4 numbers greater than or equal to 1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants.[11][12] The prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like 10.NNNN.N.[13] For example, in the DOI name 10.1000/182, the prefix is 10.1000 and the suffix is 182. The "10." part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace,[A] and the characters 1000 in the prefix identify the registrant; in this case the registrant is the International DOI Foundation itself. 182 is the suffix, or item ID, identifying a single object (in this case, the latest version of the DOI Handbook). DOI names can identify creative works (such as texts, images, audio or video items, and software) in both electronic and physical forms, performances, and abstract works[14] such as licenses, parties to a transaction, etc. The names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article. The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata that is associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the indecs Content Model. Display[edit] The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format doi:10.1000/182.[15] Contrary to the DOI Handbook, CrossRef, a major DOI registration agency, recommends displaying a URL (for example, instead of the officially specified format (for example, doi:10.1000/182)[16][17] This URL is persistent (there are a contract that ensures persistence in DOI.ORG domain), so it is a PURL — providing the location of an HTTP proxy server which will redirect web accesses to the correct online location of the linked item.[8][18] The CrossRef recommendation is primarily based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyper-linked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to actually bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their browser in order to go to the appropriate page for the document the DOI represents.

Applications[edit] Major applications of the DOI system currently include: scholarly materials (journal articles, books, ebooks,etc.) through CrossRef, a consortium of around 3,000 publishers; Airiti, a leading provider of electronic academic journals in Chinese and Taiwanese; and the Japan Link Center (JaLC) an organization providing link management and DOI assignment for electronic academic journals in Japanese. research datasets through DataCite, a consortium of leading research libraries, technical information providers, and scientific data centers; European Union official publications through the EU publications office; the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure project at Tsinghua University and the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), two initiatives sponsored by the Chinese government. Permanent global identifiers for commercial video content through the Entertainment ID Registry, commonly known as EIDR. In the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's publication service OECD iLibrary, each table or graph in an OECD publication is shown with a DOI name that leads to an Excel file of data underlying the tables and graphs. Further development of such services is planned.[19] A multilingual European DOI registration agency activity, mEDRA, and a Chinese registration agency, Wanfang Data, are active in non-English language markets.

Features and benefits[edit] The IDF designed the DOI system to provide a form of persistent identification, in which each DOI name permanently and unambiguously identifies the object to which it is associated. It also associates metadata with objects, allowing it to provide users with relevant pieces of information about the objects and their relationships. Included as part of this metadata are network actions that allow DOI names to be resolved to web locations where the objects they describe can be found. To achieve its goals, the DOI system combines the Handle System and the indecs Content Model with a social infrastructure. The Handle System ensures that the DOI name for an object is not based on any changeable attributes of the object such as its physical location or ownership, that the attributes of the object are encoded in its metadata rather than in its DOI name, and that no two objects are assigned the same DOI name. Because DOI names are short character strings, they are human-readable, may be copied and pasted as text, and fit into the URI specification. The DOI name-resolution mechanism acts behind the scenes, so that users communicate with it in the same way as with any other web service; it is built on open architectures, incorporates trust mechanisms, and is engineered to operate reliably and flexibly so that it can be adapted to changing demands and new applications of the DOI system.[20] DOI name-resolution may be used with OpenURL to select the most appropriate among multiple locations for a given object, according to the location of the user making the request.[21] However, despite this ability, the DOI system has drawn criticism from librarians for directing users to non-free copies of documents that would have been available for no additional fee from alternative locations.[22] The indecs Content Model as used within the DOI system associates metadata with objects. A small kernel of common metadata is shared by all DOI names and can be optionally extended with other relevant data, which may be public or restricted. Registrants may update the metadata for their DOI names at any time, such as when publication information changes or when an object moves to a different URL. The International DOI Foundation (IDF) oversees the integration of these technologies and operation of the system through a technical and social infrastructure. The social infrastructure of a federation of independent registration agencies offering DOI services was modelled on existing successful federated deployments of identifiers such as GS1 and ISBN.

Comparison with other identifier schemes[edit] A DOI name differs from commonly used Internet pointers to material, such as the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), in that it identifies an object itself as a first-class entity, rather than the specific place where the object is located at a certain time. It implements the Uniform Resource Identifier (Uniform Resource Name) concept and adds to it a data model and social infrastructure.[23] A DOI name also differs from standard identifier registries such as the ISBN, ISRC, etc. The purpose of an identifier registry is to manage a given collection of identifiers, whereas the primary purpose of the DOI system is to make a collection of identifiers actionable and interoperable, where that collection can include identifiers from many other controlled collections.[24] The DOI system offers persistent, semantically-interoperable resolution to related current data and is best suited to material that will be used in services outside the direct control of the issuing assigner (e.g., public citation or managing content of value). It uses a managed registry (providing social and technical infrastructure). It does not assume any specific business model for the provision of identifiers or services and enables other existing services to link to it in defined ways. Several approaches for making identifiers persistent have been proposed. The comparison of persistent identifier approaches is difficult because they are not all doing the same thing. Imprecisely referring to a set of schemes as "identifiers" doesn't mean that they can be compared easily. Other "identifier systems" may be enabling technologies with low barriers to entry, providing an easy to use labeling mechanism that allows anyone to set up a new instance (examples include Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL), URLs, Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs), etc.), but may lack some of the functionality of a registry-controlled scheme and will usually lack accompanying metadata in a controlled scheme. The DOI system does not have this approach and should not be compared directly to such identifier schemes. Various applications using such enabling technologies with added features have been devised that meet some of the features offered by the DOI system for specific sectors (e.g., ARK). A DOI name does not depend on the object's location and, in this way, is similar to a Uniform Resource Name (URN) or PURL but differs from an ordinary URL. URLs are often used as substitute identifiers for documents on the Internet (better characterised as Uniform Resource Identifiers) although the same document at two different locations has two URLs. By contrast, persistent identifiers such as DOI names identify objects as first class entities: two instances of the same object would have the same DOI name.

Resolution[edit] DOI name resolution is provided through the Handle System, developed by Corporation for National Research Initiatives, and is freely available to any user encountering a DOI name. Resolution redirects the user from a DOI name to one or more pieces of typed data: URLs representing instances of the object, services such as e-mail, or one or more items of metadata. To the Handle System, a DOI name is a handle, and so has a set of values assigned to it and may be thought of as a record that consists of a group of fields. Each handle value must have a data type specified in its <type> field, which defines the syntax and semantics of its data. While a DOI persistently and uniquely identifies the object to which it is assigned, DOI resolution may not be persistent, due to technical and administrative issues. To resolve a DOI name, it may be input to a DOI resolver, such as Another approach, which avoids typing or cutting-and-pasting into a resolver is to include the DOI in a document as a URL which uses the resolver as an HTTP proxy, such as (preferred)[25] or, both of which support HTTPS. For example, the DOI 10.1000/182 can be included in a reference or hyperlink as This approach allows users to click on the DOI as a normal hyperlink. Indeed, as previously mentioned, this is how CrossRef recommends that DOIs always be represented (preferring HTTPS over HTTP), so that if they are cut-and-pasted into other documents, emails, etc., they will be actionable. Other DOI resolvers and HTTP Proxies include,, At the beginning of the year 2016, a new class of alternative DOI resolvers was started by This service is unusual in that it tries to find a non-paywalled version of a title and redirects you to that instead of the publisher's version.[26][27] Since then, other open-access favoring DOI resolvers have been created, notably in October 2016.[28] While traditional DOI resolvers solely rely on the Handle System, alternative DOI resolvers first consult open access resources such as BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).[26][28] An alternative to HTTP proxies is to use one of a number of add-ons and plug-ins for browsers, thereby avoiding the conversion of the DOIs to URLs,[29] which depend on domain names and may be subject to change, while still allowing the DOI to be treated as a normal hyperlink. For example. the CNRI Handle Extension for Firefox, enables the browser to access Handle System handles or DOIs like hdl:4263537/4000 or doi:10.1000/1 directly in the Firefox browser, using the native Handle System protocol. This plug-in can also replace references to web-to-handle proxy servers with native resolution. A disadvantage of this approach for publishers is that, at least at present, most users will be encountering the DOIs in a browser, mail reader, or other software which does not have one of these plug-ins installed.

IDF organizational structure[edit] The International DOI Foundation (IDF), a non-profit organisation created in 1998, is the governance body of the DOI system.[30] It safeguards all intellectual property rights relating to the DOI system, manages common operational features, and supports the development and promotion of the DOI system. The IDF ensures that any improvements made to the DOI system (including creation, maintenance, registration, resolution and policymaking of DOI names) are available to any DOI registrant. It also prevents third parties from imposing additional licensing requirements beyond those of the IDF on users of the DOI system. The IDF is controlled by a Board elected by the members of the Foundation, with an appointed Managing Agent who is responsible for co-ordinating and planning its activities. Membership is open to all organizations with an interest in electronic publishing and related enabling technologies. The IDF holds annual open meetings on the topics of DOI and related issues. Registration agencies, appointed by the IDF, provide services to DOI registrants: they allocate DOI prefixes, register DOI names, and provide the necessary infrastructure to allow registrants to declare and maintain metadata and state data. Registration agencies are also expected to actively promote the widespread adoption of the DOI system, to cooperate with the IDF in the development of the DOI system as a whole, and to provide services on behalf of their specific user community. A list of current RAs is maintained by the International DOI Foundation. The IDF is recognized as one of the federated registrars for the Handle System by the DONA Foundation (of which the IDF is a board member), and is responsible for assigning Handle System prefixes under the top-level 10 prefix.[31] Registration agencies generally charge a fee to assign a new DOI name; parts of these fees are used to support the IDF. The DOI system overall, through the IDF, operates on a not-for-profit cost recovery basis.

Standardization[edit] The DOI system is an international standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization in its technical committee on identification and description, TC46/SC9.[32] The Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 26324, Information and documentation – Digital Object Identifier System met the ISO requirements for approval. The relevant ISO Working Group later submitted an edited version to ISO for distribution as an FDIS (Final Draft International Standard) ballot,[33] which was approved by 100% of those voting in a ballot closing on 15 November 2010.[34] The final standard was published on 23 April 2012.[1] DOI is a registered URI under the info URI scheme specified by IETF RFC 4452. info:doi/ is the infoURI Namespace of Digital Object Identifiers.[35] The DOI syntax is a NISO standard, first standardised in 2000, ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2005 Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier.[36] The maintainers of the DOI system have deliberately not registered a DOI namespace for URNs, stating that: URN architecture assumes a DNS-based Resolution Discovery Service (RDS) to find the service appropriate to the given URN scheme. However no such widely deployed RDS schemes currently exist.... DOI is not registered as a URN namespace, despite fulfilling all the functional requirements, since URN registration appears to offer no advantage to the DOI System. It requires an additional layer of administration for defining DOI as a URN namespace (the string urn:doi:10.1000/1 rather than the simpler doi:10.1000/1) and an additional step of unnecessary redirection to access the resolution service, already achieved through either http proxy or native resolution. If RDS mechanisms supporting URN specifications become widely available, DOI will be registered as a URN. — International DOI Foundation, Factsheet: DOI System and Internet Identifier Specifications[37]

See also[edit] Bibcode CrossRef DataCite Digital identity Handle System Metadata standards Object identifier ORCID PMID Publisher Item Identifier (PII) Permalink Scientific literature Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) Uniform Resource Name

Notes[edit] ^ Other registries are identified by other strings at the start of the prefix. Handle names that begin with "100." are also in use, as for example in the following citation: Hammond, Joseph L., Jr.; Brown, James E.; Liu, Shyan-Shiang S. (May 1975). "Development of a Transmission Error Model and an Error Control Model l". Technical Report RADC-TR-75-138. Rome Air Development Center. Bibcode:1975STIN...7615344H. hdl:100.2/ADA013939. 

References[edit] ^ a b "ISO 26324:2012(en), Information and documentation — Digital object identifier system". ISO. Retrieved 2016-04-20.  ^ "The Handle System".  ^ "Factsheets".  ^ Witten, Ian H.; David Bainbridge & David M. Nichols (2010). How to Build a Digital Library (2nd ed.). Amsterdam; Boston: Morgan Kaufmann. pp. 352–253. ISBN 978-0-12-374857-7.  ^ Langston, Marc; Tyler, James (2004). "Linking to journal articles in an online teaching environment: The persistent link, DOI, and OpenURL". The Internet and Higher Education. 7 (1): 51–58. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2003.11.004.  ^ "How the 'Digital Object Identifier' works". BusinessWeek. BusinessWeek. 23 July 2001. Retrieved 20 April 2010. Assuming the publishers do their job of maintaining the databases, these centralized references, unlike current Web links, should never become outdated or broken.  ^ Paskin, Norman (2010), "Digital Object Identifier (DOI®) System", Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences (3rd ed.), Taylor and Francis, pp. 1586–1592  ^ a b Davidson, Lloyd A.; Douglas, Kimberly (December 1998). "Digital Object Identifiers: Promise and problems for scholarly publishing". Journal of Electronic Publishing. 4 (2). doi:10.3998/3336451.0004.203.  ^ "Welcome to the DOI System". 28 June 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ "DOI® News, April 2011: 1. DOI System exceeds 50 million assigned identifiers". 20 April 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "doi info & guidelines". Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2016. All DOI prefixes begin with "10" to distinguish the DOI from other implementations of the Handle System followed by a four-digit number or string (the prefix can be longer if necessary).  ^ "Factsheet—Key Facts on Digital Object Identifier System". International DOI Foundation. June 6, 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016. Over 18,000 DOI name prefixes within the DOI System  ^ "DOI Handbook—2 Numbering". International DOI Foundation. February 1, 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016. The registrant code may be further divided into sub-elements for administrative convenience if desired. Each sub-element of the registrant code shall be preceded by a full stop.  ^ "Frequently asked questions about the DOI system: 2. What can be identified by a DOI name?". International DOI Foundation. 17 February 2010 [update of earlier version]. Retrieved 23 April 2010.  ^ "DOI Handbook – Numbering". 13 February 2014. Section 2.6.1 Screen and print presentation. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.  ^ "DOI Display Guidelines".  ^ "New Crossref DOI display guidelines are on the way".  ^ Powell, Andy (June 1998). "Resolving DOI Based URNs Using Squid: An Experimental System at UKOLN". D-Lib Magazine. ISSN 1082-9873.  ^ Green, T. (2009). "We Need Publishing Standards for Datasets and Data Tables". Research Information. doi:10.1787/603233448430.  ^ Timmer, John (6 March 2010). "DOIs and their discontents". Ars Technica. Retrieved 5 March 2013.  ^ DeRisi, Susanne; Kennison, Rebecca; Twyman, Nick (2003). "Editorial: The what and whys of DOIs". PLoS Biology. 1 (2): e57. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0000057. PMC 261894 . PMID 14624257.  ^ Franklin, Jack (2003). "Open access to scientific and technical information: the state of the art". In Grüttemeier, Herbert; Mahon, Barry. Open access to scientific and technical information: state of the art and future trends. IOS Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-58603-377-4.  ^ "DOI System and Internet Identifier Specifications". 18 May 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ "DOI System and standard identifier registries". Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ International DOI Foundation (2014-08-07). "Resolution". DOI Handbook. Retrieved 19 March 2015.  ^ a b "DOAI". CAPSH (Committee for the Accessibility of Publications in Sciences and Humanities). Retrieved 6 August 2016.  ^ Schonfeld, Roger C. (2016-03-03). "Co-opting 'Official' Channels through Infrastructures for Openness". The Scholarly Kitchen. Retrieved 2016-10-17.  ^ a b Piwowar, Heather (2016-10-25). "Introducing oaDOI: resolve a DOI straight to OA". Retrieved 2017-03-17.  ^ "DOI System Tools".  ^ "Chapter 7: The International DOI Foundation". DOI Handbook. Retrieved 8 July 2015.  ^ "DONA Foundation Multi-Primary Administrators".  ^ "Digital object identifier (DOI) becomes an ISO standard". 10 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.  ^ "about_the_doi.html DOI Standards and Specifications". 28 June 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ "Overviews & Standards – Standards and Specifications: 1. ISO TC46/SC9 Standards". 18 November 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2011.  ^ "About "info" URIs – Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ "ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2000 Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier". Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ International DOI Foundation (2012).

External links[edit] Wikidata has the property: DOI (P356) (see uses) Official website Short DOI – DOI Foundation service for converting long DOIs to shorter equivalents Factsheet: DOI System and Internet Identifier Specifications CrossRef DOI lookup v t e International numbering standards Standards ISO 2108: International Standard Book Number (ISBN) ISO 3297: International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) ISO 3901: International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) ISO 6166: International Securities Identification Number (ISIN) ISO/IEC 7812: Issuer identification number (IIN) ISO 10957: International Standard Music Number (ISMN) ISO 13616: International Bank Account Number (IBAN) ISO 15511: International Standard Identifier for Libraries... (ISIL) ISO 15706: International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) ISO 15707: International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC) ISO 17316: International Standard Link Identifier (ISLI) ISO 17442: Legal Entity Identifier (LEI) ISO 21047: International Standard Text Code (ISTC) ISO 26324: Digital Object Identifier System (DOI) ISO 27729: International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) CAE/IPI Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Authority control LCCN: sh99010374 GND: 7694956-4 BNF: cb135461391 (data) Retrieved from "" Categories: Academic publishingElectronic documentsIdentifiersIndex (publishing)Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from February 2011Pages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersPages using Columns-list with deprecated parametersOfficial website different in Wikidata and WikipediaWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersPages using RFC magic links

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NumberInternational Bank Account NumberInternational Standard Identifier For Libraries And Related OrganizationsInternational Standard Audiovisual NumberInternational Standard Musical Work CodeInternational Standard Link IdentifierLegal Entity IdentifierInternational Standard Text CodeInternational Standard Name IdentifierCAE NumberInterested Parties InformationVirtual International Authority FileTemplate:ISO StandardsTemplate Talk:ISO StandardsInternational Organization For StandardizationList Of International Organization For Standardization StandardsList Of ISO RomanizationsList Of IEC StandardsISO 1ISO 2Preferred NumberISO 4ISO 5ISO 6ISO 7ISO 9A440 (pitch Standard)ISO 31ISO 31-0ISO 31-1ISO 31-2ISO 31-3ISO 31-4ISO 31-5ISO 31-6ISO 31-7ISO 31-8ISO 31-9ISO 31-10ISO 31-11ISO 31-12ISO 31-13ISO 128ISO 216ISO 217ISO 226British Standard Pipe ThreadISO 233ISO 259EnvelopeKappa NumberVicat Softening PointISO 428ISO 518ISO 519ISO 639ISO 639-1ISO 639-2ISO 639-3ISO 639-5ISO 639-6ISO/IEC 646ISO 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11941ISO 11992ISO 12006ISO/IEC TR 12182ISO/IEC 12207Tag Image File Format / Electronic PhotographyPrologPrologPrologIsofixTopic MapsISO 13399ISO 13406-2110 FilmISO 13485ISO 13490ISO 13567Z NotationISO 13584International Bank Account NumberISO 14000ISO 14031ISO 14224PDF/UAHorsepowerISO/IEC 14443MPEG-4MPEG-4 Part 2MPEG-4 Part 3Delivery Multimedia Integration FrameworkH.264/MPEG-4 AVCMPEG-4 Part 11MPEG-4 Part 12MPEG-4 Part 14MPEG-4 Part 14MPEG-4 Part 14ISO 14644STEP-NCISO 14651ISO 14698ISO 14750Software MaintenanceC++ISO 14971ISO 15022ISO 15189ISO/IEC 15288Ada Semantic Interface SpecificationISO 15292ISO 15398Common CriteriaJPEG 2000Motion JPEG 2000HTMLPDF417ISO/IEC 15504International Standard Identifier For Libraries And Related OrganizationsISO 15686ISO/IEC 15693International Standard Audiovisual NumberISO 15706-2International Standard Musical Work CodeISO 15897ISO 15919ISO 15924ISO 15926ISO 15926 WIPPDF/XMaxiCodeECMAScriptPDF/VTISO 16750ISO/TS 16949ISO/IEC 17024ISO/IEC 17025ISO 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