Contents 1 Classification history 2 Notable characteristics 3 Formation of mouth and anus 4 Origins and evolution 5 Classification 6 See also 7 References 8 External links


Classification history[edit] Previously, Deuterostomia also included the phyla Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Chaetognatha, and Phoronida based on embryological characteristics. However, Superphylum Deuterostomia was redefined in 1995 based on DNA molecular sequence analyses when the lophophorates were removed from it and combined with other protostome animals to form superphylum Lophotrochozoa.[4] The phylum Chaetognatha (arrow worms) may belong here, but molecular studies have placed them in the protostomes more often. Extinct deuterostome groups may include the phylum Vetulicolia. Echinodermata and Hemichordata form the clade Ambulacraria.


Notable characteristics[edit] In both deuterostomes and protostomes, a zygote first develops into a hollow ball of cells, called a blastula. In deuterostomes, the early divisions occur parallel or perpendicular to the polar axis. This is called radial cleavage, and also occurs in certain protostomes, such as the lophophorates. Most deuterostomes display indeterminate cleavage, in which the developmental fate of the cells in the developing embryo are not determined by the identity of the parent cell. Thus, if the first four cells are separated, each cell is capable of forming a complete small larva; and if a cell is removed from the blastula, the other cells will compensate. In deuterostomes the mesoderm forms as evaginations of the developed gut that pinch off, forming the coelom. This is called enterocoely. Both the Hemichordata and Chordata have gill slits, and primitive fossil echinoderms also show signs of gill slits.[5] A hollow nerve cord is found in all chordates, including tunicates (in the larval stage). Some hemichordates also have a tubular nerve cord. In the early embryonic stage, it looks like the hollow nerve cord of chordates. Because of the highly modified nervous system of echinoderms, it is not possible to discern much about their ancestors in this matter, but based on different facts it is quite possible that all the present deuterostomes evolved from a common ancestor that had pharyngeal gill slits, a hollow nerve cord, circular and longitudinal muscles and a segmented body.[6] It could have resembled the small group of Cambrian urochordate deuterostomes named Vetulicolia.


Formation of mouth and anus[edit] All chordates (which includes all vertebrates), such as birds and mammals, are deuterostomes. Shown here is a barred owl. Main article: Embryological origins of the mouth and anus The defining characteristic of the deuterostome is the fact that the blastopore (the opening at the bottom of the forming gastrula) becomes the anus, whereas in protostomes the blastopore becomes the mouth. The deuterostome mouth develops at the opposite end of the embryo from the blastopore and a digestive tract develops in the middle, connecting the two.


Origins and evolution[edit] The majority of animals more complex than jellyfish and other Cnidarians are split into two groups, the protostomes and deuterostomes. Chordates (which include all the vertebrates) are deuterostomes.[7] Consensus relationships among deuterostome taxa. Phylogenomic evidence suggests the enteropneust family, Torquaratoridae, fall within the Ptychoderidae. Based on 16S +18S rRNA sequence data and phylogenomic studies from multiple sources.[8] It seems likely that the 555 million year old Kimberella was a member of the protostomes.[9][10] That implies that the protostome and deuterostome lineages split some time before Kimberella appeared — at least 558 million years ago, and hence well before the start of the Cambrian 541 million years ago,[7] i.e. during the later part of the Ediacaran Era (circa 635-542 Mya, around the end of global Marinoan glaciation in the late Neoproterozoic). The oldest discovered proposed deuterostome is Saccorhytus coronarius, which lived approximately 540 million years ago.[2][11] The researchers that made the discovery believe that the Saccorhytus is a common ancestor to all previously-known deuterostomes.[11] Fossils of one major deuterostome group, the echinoderms (whose modern members include sea stars, sea urchins and crinoids), are quite common from the start of Series 2 of the Cambrian, 521 million years ago.[12] The Mid Cambrian fossil Rhabdotubus johanssoni has been interpreted as a pterobranch hemichordate.[13] Opinions differ about whether the Chengjiang fauna fossil Yunnanozoon, from the earlier Cambrian, was a hemichordate or chordate.[14][15] Another Chengjiang fossil, Haikouella lanceolata, also from the Chengjiang fauna, is interpreted as a chordate and possibly a craniate, as it shows signs of a heart, arteries, gill filaments, a tail, a neural chord with a brain at the front end, and possibly eyes — although it also had short tentacles round its mouth.[15] Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia, also from the Chengjiang fauna, are regarded as fish.[16][17] Pikaia, discovered much earlier but from the Mid Cambrian Burgess Shale, is also regarded as a primitive chordate.[18] On the other hand, fossils of early chordates are very rare, as non-vertebrate chordates have no bone tissue or teeth, and fossils of no Post-Cambrian non-vertebrate chordates are known aside from the Permian-aged Paleobranchiostoma, trace fossils of the Ordovician colonial tunicate Catellocaula, and various Jurassic-aged and Tertiary-aged spicules tentatively attributed to ascidians. Below is a cladogram with some of the extinct species. It is indicated when approximately clades radiated into newer clades in millions of years ago (Mya).[19] Nephrozoa (575) Deuterostomia Chordata Cephalochordata Olfactores Urochordata Craniata (including Vertebrata) Ambulacraria (526) Echinodermata Hemichordata Cambroernida (†) Saccorhytus coronarius (†540) Vetulocystids (†) Vetulicolians (†) Yunnanozoon (†) Protostomia (550) Ecdysozoa Spiralia Kimberella († 555)


Classification[edit] See also: List of bilateral animal orders Here are the following phyla/subgroups of the deuterostomes. Superphylum Deuterostomia Phylum Chordata (vertebrates, tunicates, and lancelets) Subphylum Cephalochordata – 1 class (lancelets) Subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata) – 4 classes (tunicates) Subphylum Vertebrata (Craniata) – 9 classes (vertebrates – mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and fish) Infraphylum Agnatha (Cyclostomata or incertae sedis) – 2 classes (jawless fish – hagfish and lampreys) Infraphylum Gnathostomata – 7 classes (jawed vertebrates – mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, bony fish, and cartilaginous fish) Superclass incertae sedis – 1 class (cartilaginous fish – sharks, skates, rays, and chimaeras) Superclass Osteichthyes – 2 classes (bony fish, 98.8 percent of all fish – ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish) Superclass Tetrapoda – 4 classes (four-limbed vertebrates – mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds) Phylum Hemichordata – 3 classes (hemichordates, known as acorn worms) Phylum Echinodermata (echinoderms – sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers) Subphylum Asterozoa – 2 classes (sea stars and brittle stars) Subphylum Crinozoa – 1 class (sea lilies) Subphylum Echinozoa – 2 classes (sea urchins and sea cucumbers)


See also[edit] Life timeline


References[edit] ^ Wade, Nicholas (30 January 2017). "This Prehistoric Human Ancestor Was All Mouth". New York Times. Retrieved 31 January 2017.  ^ a b Han, Jian; Morris, Simon Conway; Ou, Qiang; Shu, Degan; Huang, Hai (2017). "Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China)". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature21072. ISSN 0028-0836.  ^ Martín-Durán, José M.; Passamaneck, Yale J.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Hejnol, Andreas (2016). "The developmental basis for the recurrent evolution of deuterostomy and protostomy". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 1: 0005. doi:10.1038/s41559-016-0005.  ^ Halanych, K.M.; Bacheller, J.; Liva, S.; Aguinaldo, A. A.; Hillis, D.M. & Lake, J.A. (17 March 1995). "18S rDNA evidence that the Lophophorates are Protostome Animals". Science. 267 (5204): 1641–1643. Bibcode:1995Sci...267.1641H. doi:10.1126/science.7886451. PMID 7886451.  ^ Developmental and evolutionary origins of the pharyngeal apparatus ^ Smith, Andrew B. (2012). "Cambrian problematica and the diversification of deuterostomes". BMC Biology. 10 (79): 1–3. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-79. Retrieved 2015-11-04.  ^ a b Erwin, Douglas H.; Eric H. Davidson (1 July 2002). "The last common bilaterian ancestor". Development. 129 (13): 3021–3032. PMID 12070079.  ^ Tassia, Michael G.; Cannon, Johanna T.; Konikoff, Charlotte E.; Shenkar, Noa; Halanych, Kenneth M.; Swalla, Billie J. (2016-10-04). "The Global Diversity of Hemichordata". PLoS ONE. 11 (10): e0162564. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162564. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5049775 . PMID 27701429.  ^ New data on Kimberella, the Vendian mollusc-like organism (White sea region, Russia): palaeoecological and evolutionary implications (2007), "Fedonkin, M.A.; Simonetta, A; Ivantsov, A.Y.", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Special publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 157–179, doi:10.1144/SP286.12, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 156823511 CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Butterfield, N.J. (December 2006). "Hooking some stem-group "worms": fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale". BioEssays. 28 (12): 1161–6. doi:10.1002/bies.20507. PMID 17120226.  ^ a b Ghosh, Pallab (30 January 2017). "Scientists find 'oldest human ancestor'". BBC. Retrieved 30 January 2017.  ^ Bengtson, S. (2004). Lipps, J.H.; Waggoner, B.M., eds. "Early Skeletal Fossils in Neoproterozoic–Cambrian Biological Revolutions" (PDF). Paleontological Society Papers. 10: 67–78. Retrieved 2008-07-18.  ^ Bengtson, S.; Urbanek, A. (October 2007). "Rhabdotubus, a Middle Cambrian rhabdopleurid hemichordate". Lethaia. 19 (4): 293–308. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1986.tb00743.x. Retrieved 2008-09-23.  ^ Shu, D.; Zhang, X. & Chen, L. (April 1996). "Reinterpretation of Yunnanozoon as the earliest known hemichordate". Nature. 380 (6573): 428–430. Bibcode:1996Natur.380..428S. doi:10.1038/380428a0. Retrieved 2008-09-23.  ^ a b Chen, J-Y.; Hang, D-Y. & Li, C.W. (December 1999). "An early Cambrian craniate-like chordate". Nature. 402 (6761): 518–522. Bibcode:1999Natur.402..518C. doi:10.1038/990080. Retrieved 2008-09-23.  ^ Shu, D-G.; Conway Morris, S.; Han, J.; et al. (January 2003). "Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys". Nature. 421 (6922): 526–529. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..526S. doi:10.1038/nature01264. PMID 12556891. Retrieved 2008-09-21.  ^ Shu, D-G.; Conway Morris, S. & Zhang, X-L. (November 1999). "Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China" (PDF). Nature. 402 (6757): 42–46. Bibcode:1999Natur.402...42S. doi:10.1038/46965. Retrieved 2008-09-23.  ^ Shu, D-G.; Conway Morris, S. & Zhang, X-L. (November 1996). "A Pikaia-like chordate from the Lower Cambrian of China". Nature. 384 (6605): 157–158. Bibcode:1996Natur.384..157S. doi:10.1038/384157a0. Retrieved 2008-09-23.  ^ Han, Jian; Morris, Simon Conway; Ou, Qiang; Shu, Degan; Huang, Hai. "Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China)". Nature. 542 (7640): 228–231. doi:10.1038/nature21072. 


External links[edit] Wikispecies has information related to Deuterostomia Wikimedia Commons has media related to Deuterostomia. UCMP-Deuterostomes Deciphering deuterostome phylogeny: molecular, morphological and palaeontological perspectives Deuterostomia at Encyclopædia Britannica v t e Extant Animal phyla Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) A n i m a l i a Porifera (sponges) Diploblasts (Eumetazoa) Ctenophora (comb jellies) ParaHoxozoa Placozoa (Trichoplax) Planulozoa Cnidaria (jellyfish and relatives) Bilateria (Triploblasts) (see below↓) Bilateria Xenacoelomorpha Xenoturbellida (Xenoturbella) Acoelomorpha acoels nemertodermatids N e p h r o z o a Deuterostomia Chordata lancelets tunicates craniates / vertebrates Ambulacraria Echinodermata (starfish and relatives) Hemichordata acorn worms pterobranchs P r o t o s t o m i a Ecdysozoa Scalidophora Kinorhyncha (mud dragons) Priapulida (penis worms) N+L+P Nematoida Nematoda (roundworms) Nematomorpha (horsehair worms) L+P Loricifera Panarthropoda Arthropoda (arthropods) Tardigrada (waterbears) Onychophora (velvet worms) S p i r a l i a Gnathifera¹ Chaetognatha (arrow worms) Gnathostomulida (jaw worms) Micrognathozoa (Limnognathia) Syndermata Rotifera Acanthocephala Platytrochozoa R+M Mesozoa Orthonectida Dicyemida or Rhombozoa Rouphozoa¹ Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Gastrotricha (hairybacks) Lophotrochozoa Cycliophora (Symbion) Mollusca (molluscs) A+N Annelida (ringed worms) Nemertea (ribbon worms) Lophophorata Bryozoa Entoprocta or Kamptozoa Ectoprocta (moss animals) Brachiozoa Brachiopoda (lamp shells) Phoronida (horseshoe worms) Major groups within phyla Sponges Calcareous Hexactinellid Demosponge Homoscleromorpha Cnidarians Anthozoa inc. corals Medusozoa inc. jellyfish Myxozoa Vertebrates Jawless fish Cartilaginous fish Bony fish Amphibians Reptiles/Birds Mammals Echinoderms Sea lilies Asterozoa inc. starfish Echinozoa Nematodes Chromadorea Enoplea Secernentea Arthropods Chelicerates/Arachnids Myriapods Crustaceans Hexapods/Insects Platyhelminths Turbellaria Trematoda Monogenea Cestoda Bryozoans Phylactolaemata Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata Annelids Polychaetes Clitellata Echiura Molluscs Gastropods Cephalopods Bivalves Chitons Tusk shells Phyla with ≥5000 extant species bolded See also Diploblasts Monoblastozoa (nomen dubium) ¹Platyzoa Taxon identifiers Wd: Q150866 ADW: Deuterostomia EoL: 8814528 Fossilworks: 67145 ITIS: 914156 NCBI: 33511 Evolutionary biology portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deuterostome&oldid=820603636" Categories: DeuterostomesEdiacaran first appearancesHidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses authors parameterCS1 maint: Uses editors parameterArticles with 'species' microformats


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Deuterostome - Photos and All Basic Informations

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