Contents 1 Biology 2 Infraspecific taxa 3 Cultivation 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


Biology[edit] Note the small entrance to the trap underneath the swollen 'balloon', and the colourless patches that confuse prey trapped inside The cobra plant is not only restricted to nutrient-poor acidic bogs and seepage slopes, but many colonies actually thrive in ultramafic soils, which are in fact basic soils, within its range. In common with most carnivorous plants, the cobra lily is adapted to supplementing its nitrogen requirements through carnivory, which helps to compensate for the lack of available nitrogen in such habitats. Because many carnivorous species live in hostile environments, their root systems are commonly as highly modified as their leaves. Darlingtonia californica is no exception. The cobra lily is able to survive fire by regenerating from its roots, but despite this important role the roots are very delicate organs. While the temperatures in much of the species's range can exceed 25 °C, their roots die back after exposure to temperatures not much higher than 10 °C. Temperature plays a large part in the functioning of all plants, but it is very rare for individual organs to have such different temperature tolerances. The physiological mechanisms and evolutionary benefits of this discrepancy are not fully understood.[2] The cobra lily is unique among the three genera of American pitcher plants. It does not trap rainwater in its pitcher. Instead, it regulates the level of water inside physiologically by releasing or absorbing water into the trap that has been pumped up from the roots. It was once believed that this variety of pitcher plant did not produce any digestive enzymes and relied on symbiotic bacteria and protozoa to break down the captured insects into easily absorbed nutrients. Recent studies have indicated that Darlingtonia secretes at least one proteolytic enzyme that digests captured prey.[3] The cells that absorb nutrients from the inside of the pitcher are the same as those on the roots that absorb soil nutrients. The efficiency of the plant's trapping ability is attested to by its leaves and pitchers, which are, more often than not, full of insects and their remains.[4] In addition to the use of lubricating secretions and downward-pointing hairs common to all North American pitcher plants to force their prey into the trap, this species carefully hides the tiny exit hole from trapped insects by curling it underneath and offering multiple translucent false exits. Upon trying many times to leave via the false exits, the insect will tire and fall down into the trap. The slippery walls and hairs prevent the trapped prey from escaping. The only other species that utilizes this technique is the Parrot Pitcher Plant, Sarracenia psittacina. A remaining mystery surrounding the cobra lily is its means of pollination. Its flower is unusually shaped and complex, typically a sign of a close pollinator-plant specialization, but none have been identified. The flower is yellowish purple in color and grows on a stalk with a similar length to the stalk. It has five sepals, green in color, which are longer than the red-veined petals. While pollination has not yet been observed in action, it is generally expected that the pollinator is either a fly attracted to the flower's unpleasant smell or some nocturnal insect, as no extensive study has been performed to observe potential nighttime pollinators.[citation needed]


Infraspecific taxa[edit] Two infraspecific taxa are recognized:[5] D. californica f. californica (autonym) D. californica f. viridiflora B.Rice


Cultivation[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Plants in cultivation Darlingtonia californica can be one of the most difficult carnivorous plants to keep in cultivation, but this depends on the area in which they are cultivated. They prefer cool to warm day-time temperatures and cold or cool night-time temperatures. The problem is that cobra lilies typically grow in bogs or streambanks that are fed by cold mountain water, and grow best when the roots are kept cooler than the rest of the plant. It is best to mimic these conditions in cultivation, and water the plants with cold, purified water. On hot days, it helps to place ice cubes of purified water on the soil surface. They prefer sunny conditions if in a humid, warm location, and prefer part-shade if humidity is low or fluctuates often. Plants can adapt to low humidity conditions, but optimum growth occurs under reasonable humidity. A single plant in cultivation, clearly showing the first pitcher of the season. The first few pitchers at the beginning of each growing season are much larger than the others Growing cobra lilies from seed is extremely slow and cobra seedlings are difficult to maintain, so these plants are best propagated from the long stolons they grow in late winter and spring. When a minute cobra plant is visible at the end of the stolon (usually in mid to late spring), the whole stolon may be cut into sections a few inches long, each with a few roots attached. Lay these upon cool, moist, shredded long-fibered sphagnum moss and place in a humid location with bright light. In many weeks, cobra plants will protrude from each section of stolon. Northernmost natural population Like many other carnivorous plants of temperate regions, cobra lilies require a cold winter dormancy in order to live long-term. Plants die down to their rhizomes in frigid winters and will maintain their leaves in cool winters during their dormancy period. This period lasts from 3 to 5 months during the year, and all growth stops. As spring approaches, mature plants may send up a single, nodding flower, and a few weeks later the plant will send up a few large pitchers. The plant will continue to produce pitchers throughout the summer, however much smaller than the early spring pitchers. Many carnivorous plant enthusiasts have succeeded in cultivating these plants, and have developed or discovered three color morphs: all green, all red, and red-green bicolor. Wild-type plants are all green in moderate light and bicolor in intense sunlight.


See also[edit] Darlingtonia Botanical Wayside, Florence, Oregon


References[edit] ^ The Jepson Herbarium - University of California, Berkeley ^ Adlassnig, W.; Peroutka, M.; Lambers, H.; Lichtscheidl, I. K. (2005). "The Roots of Carnivorous Plants" (PDF). Plant and Soil. 274 (1–2): 127–140. doi:10.1007/s11104-004-2754-2.  ^ ISBN 0-88192-356-7 Carnivorous Plants of the World a. Pietropaolo p. 61 ^ ISBN 0-88192-356-7 Carnivorous Plants of the World a. Pietropaolo p. 58 ^ McPherson, S. & D. Schnell 2011. Sarraceniaceae of North America. Redfern Natural History Productions Ltd., Poole. Schnell, D.; Catling, P.; Folkerts, G.; Frost, C.; Gardner, R.; et al. (2000). "Darlingtonia californica". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2000: e.T39714A10259059. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2000.RLTS.T39714A10259059.en. Retrieved 9 January 2018. 


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Darlingtonia californica (category) Calflora Database: Darlingtonia californica (California pitcherplant) USDA Plants Profile for Darlingtonia californica (California pitcherplant) Darlingtonia State Natural Site Botanical Society of America, Darlingtonia californica - the cobra lily U.C. Photos gallery - Darlingtonia californica RHS Gardening - Darlingtonia californica Growing Darlingtonia californica - ICPS v t e Carnivorous and protocarnivorous plants Carnivorous genera († extinct) Aldrovanda †Archaeamphora Brocchinia Byblis Catopsis Cephalotus Darlingtonia Dionaea Drosera †Droserapites †Droserapollis †Droseridites Drosophyllum †Fischeripollis Genlisea Heliamphora Nepenthes †Palaeoaldrovanda Philcoxia Pinguicula Roridula Sarracenia †Saxonipollis Triphyophyllum Utricularia Protocarnivorous genera Aracamunia Capsella Colura Dipsacus Drymocallis Geranium Ibicella Lathraea Paepalanthus Passiflora Plumbago Proboscidea Stylidium See also International Carnivorous Plant Society Insectivorous Plant Society List of carnivorous plants List of carnivorous plant periodicals Pitcher plant Taxon identifiers Wd: Q1138945 EoL: 71356 FNA: 220003859 GBIF: 5939805 GRIN: 410907 iNaturalist: 52652 IPNI: 76771-2 ITIS: 22004 IUCN: 39714 NCBI: 4355 Plant List: kew-2757503 PLANTS: DACA5 Tropicos: 28900017 VASCAN: 9565 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Darlingtonia_californica&oldid=820720340" Categories: IUCN Red List least concern speciesSarraceniaceaeCarnivorous plants of North AmericaFlora of CaliforniaFlora of OregonFlora of the Klamath MountainsFlora of the Sierra Nevada (U.S.)Natural history of the California Coast RangesPlants and pollinatorsStoloniferous plantsRhizomatous plantsPlants described in 1853Taxa named by John TorreyVulnerable flora of CaliforniaHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformatsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2016Articles needing additional references from July 2016All articles needing additional references


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Conservation StatusLeast ConcernIUCN Red ListTaxonomy (biology)EPlantFlowering PlantEudicotsAsteridsEricalesSarraceniaceaeJohn TorreyBinomial NomenclatureSynonym (taxonomy)Help:IPA/EnglishPitcher PlantSpeciesCarnivorous PlantGenusFamily (biology)Native PlantNorthern CaliforniaOregonLeafCobraWilliam D. BrackenridgeMount ShastaJohn TorreyWilliam DarlingtonEnlargeUltramafic RockSarraceniaceaeSymbiosisProteolysisSarracenia PsittacinaPollinationFlowerSepalsPollinatorWikipedia:Citation NeededInfraspecific Name (botany)Autonym (botany)Barry Rice (botanist)Wikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalEnlargeBogRootPurified WaterSoilHumidityEnlargeSeedGerminationStolonRootSphagnumEnlargeDormancyRhizomeSexual MaturityFlowerPitcher PlantDarlingtonia Botanical WaysideFlorence, OregonPlant And SoilDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-88192-356-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-88192-356-7The IUCN Red List Of Threatened SpeciesIUCNDigital Object IdentifierWikimedia CommonsTemplate:Carnivorous PlantsTemplate Talk:Carnivorous PlantsCarnivorous PlantProtocarnivorous PlantAldrovandaArchaeamphoraBrocchinia ReductaByblis (plant)Catopsis BerteronianaCephalotusVenus FlytrapDroseraDroserapitesDroserapollisDroseriditesDrosophyllumFischeripollisGenliseaHeliamphoraNepenthesPalaeoaldrovandaPhilcoxiaPinguiculaRoridulaSarraceniaSaxonipollisTriphyophyllumUtriculariaAracamuniaCapsella (plant)ColuraDipsacusDrymocallisGeranium ViscosissimumIbicellaLathraeaPaepalanthus BromelioidesPassifloraPlumbagoProboscidea (plant)StylidiumInternational Carnivorous Plant SocietyInsectivorous Plant SocietyList Of Carnivorous PlantsList Of Carnivorous Plant PeriodicalsPitcher PlantHelp:Taxon IdentifiersWikidataEncyclopedia Of LifeFlora Of North AmericaGlobal Biodiversity Information FacilityGermplasm Resources Information NetworkINaturalistInternational Plant Names IndexIntegrated Taxonomic Information SystemIUCN Red ListNational Center For Biotechnology InformationThe Plant ListNatural Resources Conservation ServiceTropicosHelp:CategoryCategory:IUCN Red List Least Concern SpeciesCategory:SarraceniaceaeCategory:Carnivorous Plants Of North AmericaCategory:Flora Of CaliforniaCategory:Flora Of OregonCategory:Flora Of The Klamath MountainsCategory:Flora Of The Sierra Nevada (U.S.)Category:Natural History Of The California Coast RangesCategory:Plants And PollinatorsCategory:Stoloniferous PlantsCategory:Rhizomatous PlantsCategory:Plants Described In 1853Category:Taxa Named By John TorreyCategory:Vulnerable Flora Of CaliforniaCategory:Articles With 'species' MicroformatsCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From July 2016Category:Articles Needing Additional References From July 2016Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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