Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Description 4 Distribution 5 Species 5.1 Autumn crocus 6 Cultivation 7 Similar species 8 Metaphorical use 9 Culture 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links


Etymology[edit] The name of the genus is derived from the Greek κρόκος (krokos).[4] This, in turn, is probably a loan word from a Semitic language, related to Hebrew כרכום karkōm, Aramaic ܟܟܘܪܟܟܡܡܐ kurkama, and Arabic كركم kurkum, which mean "saffron" (Crocus sativus), "saffron yellow" or turmeric (see Curcuma).[5] The word ultimately traces back to the Sanskrit kunkumam (कुङ्कुमं) for "saffron"[6]. The English name is a learned 16th-century adoption from the Latin, but Old English already had croh "saffron".[7]


History[edit] Cultivation and harvesting of Crocus sativus for saffron was first documented in the Mediterranean, notably on the island of Crete. Frescos showing them are found at the Knossos site on Crete,[8] as well as from the comparably aged Akrotiri site on Santorini. The first crocus seen in the Netherlands, where crocus species are not native, were from corms brought back in the 1560s from Constantinople by the Holy Roman Emperor's ambassador to the Sublime Porte, Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. A few corms were forwarded to Carolus Clusius at the botanical garden in Leiden. By 1620, the approximate date of Ambrosius Bosschaert's painting (illustration, below), new garden varieties had been developed, such as the cream-colored crocus feathered with bronze at the base of the bouquet, similar to varieties still on the market. Bosschaert, working from a preparatory drawing to paint his composed piece spanning the whole of spring, exaggerated the crocus so that it passes for a tulip, but its narrow, grass-like leaves give it away. Crocus sativus & C. vernus, illustration by Amédée Masclef, from Atlas des plantes de France, 1891 Saffron gatherers appear in Minoan frescos on the island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea. Composed Bouquet of Spring Flowers, by Ambrosius Bosschaert, circa 1620 (Louvre Museum) Crocus angustifolius (Cloth of gold) from Curtis's Botanical Magazine, 1803


Description[edit] The cup-shaped, solitary, salverform flower tapers off into a narrow tube. Their colors vary enormously, although lilac, mauve, yellow, and white are predominant. The grass-like, ensiform leaf[9] shows generally a white central stripe along the leaf axis. The leaf margin is entire. Crocuses have three stamens while a very similar-looking plant, colchicum, have six stamens. In addition, crocus have one style, while colchicum have three. [10]


Distribution[edit] Crocuses are distributed across central and southern Europe, North Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia to western China.[1][2][3] Distribution map of 16 species of genus Crocus in Europe and Asia


Species[edit] Crocus tommasinianus (Section Crocus, Series Verni) Crocus vernus subsp. vernus (Section Crocus, Series Verni) Crocus vernus subsp. albiflorus (Section Crocus, Series Verni) Crocus ligusticus (Section Crocus, Series Longiflori) Crocus ochroleucus (Section Crocus, Series Kotschyani) Crocus sativus (Section Crocus, Series Crocus) Crocus mathewii (Section Crocus, Series Crocus) Crocus sieberi subsp. sublimis 'Tricolor' (Section Nudiscapus, Series Reticulati) Crocus speciosus (Section Nudiscapus, Series Speciosi) The taxonomic classification proposed by Brian Mathew in 1982 was based mainly on three character states: the presence or absence of a prophyll (a basal spathe); the aspect of the style; the corm tunic. The seven species discovered since then have been integrated into this classification.[11] Molecular analysis carried out at the University of Copenhagen suggests this classification should be reviewed. In particular, the DNA data suggest there are no grounds for isolating C. banaticus in its own subgenus Crociris, though it is a unique species in the genus. Because it has a prophyll at the base of the pedicel, it therefore would fall within section Crocus, although its exact relationship to the rest of the subgenus remains unclear. Another anomalous species, C. baytopiorum, should now be placed in a series of its own, series Baytopi. C. gargaricus subsp. herbertii has been raised to species status, as C. herbertii. Perhaps most surprisingly, autumn-flowering C. longiflorus, the type species of series Longiflori (long regarded by Mathew as "a disparate assemblage"), now seems to lie within series Verni. In addition, the position of C. malyi is currently unclear. DNA analysis and morphological studies suggest further that series Reticulati, Biflori and Speciosi are "probably inseparable". C. adanensis and C. caspius should probably be removed from Biflori; C. adanensis falls in a clade with C. paschei as a sister group to the species of series Flavi; C. caspius appears to be sister to the species of series Orientales. The study shows "no support for a system of sections as currently defined", although, despite the many inconsistencies between Mathew's 1982 classification and the current hypothesis, "the main assignment of species to the sections and series of that system is actually supported". The authors state, "further studies are required before any firm decisions about a hierarchical system of classification can be considered" and conclude "future re-classification is likely to involve all infrageneric levels, subgenera, sections and series".[12] Below is the classification proposed by Brian Mathew in 1982, adapted in accordance with the above findings: A. Section Crocus : species with a basal prophyll Series Verni: corms with reticulated fibers, spring-flowering (apart from Crocus longiflorus), flowers for the most part without conspicuous outer striping, bracts absent Crocus etruscus Parl. Crocus ilvensis Peruzzi & Carta[13] Crocus kosaninii Pulevic Crocus longiflorus Raf. - Italian crocus (formerly in Series Longiflori)[12] Crocus tommasinianus Herb. - Woodland crocus, Tommasini's crocus Crocus vernus (L.) Hill - Spring crocus, Dutch crocus Crocus vernus subsp. albiflorus (Kit. ex Schult.) Asch. & Graebn. Crocus vernus subsp. vernus Series Baytopi (new Series): corms with strongly reticulated fibers; leaves numerous, narrowly linear; spring-flowering, bracts absent; anthers extrorsely dehiscent[12] Crocus baytopiorum Mathew (formerly in Series Verni)[12] Series Scardici: spring-flowering, leaves have no pale stripe on the upper surface Crocus pelistericus Pulevic Crocus scardicus Kos. Series Versicolores: spring-flowering, corms with tunics, which for the most part have parallel fibers, flowers with conspicuous exterior striping Crocus cambessedesii J. Gay Crocus versicolor Ker Gawl. - cloth-of-silver crocus Crocus corsicus Vanucchi ex Maw Crocus imperati Ten. Crocus imperati subsp. imperati Crocus imperati subsp. suaveolens (Bertol.) B.Mathew Crocus minimus DC. Series Longiflori: autumn-flowering, yellow anthers, styles much divided Crocus goulimyi Turrill (see also Constantine Goulimis) Crocus ligusticus M.G. Mariotti (Syn. Crocus medius Balb.) Crocus niveus Bowles Crocus nudiflorus Smith. Crocus serotinus Salisb. - late crocus Crocus serotinus subsp. clusii (J.Gay) B.Mathew Crocus serotinus subsp. salzmannii (J.Gay) B.Mathew Crocus serotinus subsp. serotinus Series Kotschyani: autumn-flowering, anthers white, styles for the most part three-forked Crocus autranii Albov. Crocus gilanicus B. Matthew (discovered in 1973 and named after Gilan province in Iran where it was first found) Crocus karduchorum Kotschy ex Maw Crocus kotschyanus K. Koch - Kotschy's crocus (syn. C. zonatus) Crocus kotschyanus subsp. cappadocicus B.Mathew Crocus kotschyanus subsp. hakkariensis B.Mathew Crocus kotschyanus subsp. kotschyanus Crocus kotschyanus subsp. suworowianus (K.Koch) B.Mathew Crocus ochroleucus Boiss. & Gaill. Crocus scharojanii Ruprecht Crocus scharojanii subsp. scharojanii Crocus scharojanii subsp. lazicus (Boiss.) B.Mathew Crocus vallicola Herb. Series Crocus: autumn-flowering, anthers yellow, style distinctly three-branched Crocus asumaniae B. Mathew & T. Baytop Crocus cartwrightianus Herb. Crocus sativus L. - saffron crocus (a sterile triploid mutant or hybrid), presumably derived from Crocus cartwrightianus Crocus hadriaticus Herb. Crocus hadriaticus subsp. hadriaticus Crocus hadriaticus subsp. parnassicus (B.Mathew) B.Mathew Crocus hadriaticus subsp. parnonicus B.Mathew Crocus moabiticus Bornm. & Dinsmore ex Bornm. Crocus mathewii H. Kemdorff & E. Pasche (1994) Crocus naqabensis Al-Eisawi (2001) Crocus oreocreticus B.L. Burtt Crocus pallasii Goldb. Crocus pallasii subsp. dispathaceus (Bowles) B.Mathew Crocus pallasii subsp. haussknechtii (Boiss. & Reut. ex Maw) B.Mathew Crocus pallasii subsp. pallasii Crocus pallasii subsp. turcicus B.Mathew Crocus thomasii Ten. Position unclear[12] Crocus malyi Vis. (formerly in Series Versicolores) Crocus banaticus Heuff. (formerly in obsolete Subgenus Crociris) B. Section Nudiscapus: species without a basal prophyll Series Reticulati: corm tunic for the most part decidedly covered with reticulated fibers, flower produced in winter or spring, style three-forked or much divided Crocus abantensis T.Baytop & B.Mathew Crocus ancyrensis (Herb.) Maw - Ankara crocus Crocus angustifolius Weston - cloth-of-gold crocus Crocus cancellatus Herb. Crocus cancellatus subsp. cancellatus Crocus cancellatus subsp. damascenus (Herb.) B.Mathew Crocus cancellatus subsp. lycius B.Mathew Crocus cancellatus subsp. mazziaricus (Herb.) B.Mathew Crocus cancellatus subsp. pamphylicus B.Mathew Crocus cvijicii Kos. Crocus dalmaticus Vis. Crocus gargaricus Herb. Crocus herbertii B. Mathew (became a "true" species)[12] Crocus hermoneus Kotschy ex Maw Crocus jablanicensis N. Randj. & V. Randj. Crocus reticulatus Steven ex Adams Crocus reticulatus subsp. hittiticus (T.Baytop & B.Mathew) B.Mathew Crocus reticulatus subsp. reticulatus Crocus robertianus C.D. Brickell Crocus rujanensis Randjel. & D.A. Hill (1990) Crocus sieberi J. Gay - Sieber's crocus, Cretan crocus Crocus sieberi subsp. atticus (Boiss. & Orph.) B.Mathew Crocus sieberi subsp. nivalis (Bory & Chaub.) B.Mathew Crocus sieberi subsp. sieberi Crocus sieberi subsp. sublimis (Herb.) B.Mathew Crocus sieheanus Barr ex B.L. Burtt Crocus veluchensis Herb. Series Biflori: tunics of corms split into rings at the base, either entire or with toothlike projections, leathery in texture, spring- or late-winter flowering, style three-forked Crocus aerius Herb. Crocus almehensis C.D. Brickell & B. Mathew Crocus biflorus Mill. - silvery crocus, Scotch crocus Crocus biflorus subsp. biflorus Crocus biflorus subsp. adamii (J.Gay) K.Richt. Crocus biflorus subsp. alexandri (Nicic ex Velen.) B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. artvinensis (J.Philippow) B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. atrospermus Kernd. & Pasche Crocus biflorus subsp. caelestis Kernd. & Pasche Crocus biflorus subsp. caricus Kernd. & Pasche Crocus biflorus subsp. crewei (Hook.f.) B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. fibroannulatus Kernd. & Pasche Crocus biflorus subsp. ionopharynx Kernd. & Pasche Crocus biflorus subsp. isauricus (Siehe ex Bowles) B.Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. leucostylosus Kernd. & Pasche Crocus biflorus subsp. melantherus B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. nubigena (Herb.) B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. pseudonubigena B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. pulchricolor (Herb.) B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. punctatus B.Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. stridii (Papan. & Zacharof) B.Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. tauri (Maw) B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. weldenii (Hoppe & Fuernr.) B. Mathew Crocus biflorus subsp. yataganensis Kernd. & Pasche Crocus chrysanthus Herb. - Golden crocus, Snow crocus Crocus chrysanthus subsp. chrysanthus Crocus chrysanthus subsp. multifolius Papan. & Zacharof Crocus cyprius Boiss. & Kotschy Crocus danfordiae Maw Crocus danfordiae subsp. danfordiae Crocus danfordiae subsp. kurdistanicus Maroofi & Assadi Crocus hartmannianus Holmboe Crocus kerndorffiorum Pasche (1993) Crocus leichtlinii (Dewar) Bowles Crocus nerimaniae Yüzbasioglu & Varol (2004) Crocus pestalozzae Boiss. Crocus wattiorum (B. Mathew, 1995) B. Mathew (2000) Crocus demirizianus O.Erol & L.Can (2012) Crocus yakarianus Yıldırım & O.Erol (2013) Series Speciosi: corm tunic splits into rings at the base, leathery or membranous, foliage after the flowers, autumn-flowering, style much divided Crocus pulchellus Herb. - hairy crocus Crocus speciosus M. Bieb. - Bieberstein's crocus, large purple crocus Crocus speciosus subsp. ilgazensis B.Mathew Crocus speciosus subsp. speciosus Crocus speciosus subsp. xantholaimos B.Mathew Series Orientales: corm with parallel fibers or lightly reticulated, numerous leaves, spring-flowering, style three-forked Crocus alatavicus Semenova & Reg. Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer (formerly in Series Biflori) Crocus korolkowii Regel ex Maw - celandine crocus Crocus michelsonii B. Fedtsch. Series Flavi: tunics of the corms membranous, split into parallel fibers, spring-flowering, styles much divided Crocus adanensis T. Baytop & B. Mathew (formerly in Series Biflori) Crocus antalyensis Mathew Crocus antalyensis subsp. antalyensis Crocus antalyensis subsp. striatus O.Erol & M.Koçyiğit (2010) Crocus antalyensis subsp. gemicii L.Sik & O.Erol (2011) Crocus candidus E.D. Clarke Crocus flavus Weston - Yellow crocus Crocus flavus subsp. flavus Crocus flavus subsp. dissectus T.Baytop & B.Mathew Crocus flavus subsp. sarichinarensis Rukšans Crocus graveolens Boiss. &Reut. Crocus hyemalis Boiss. Crocus olivieri Gray Crocus olivieri subsp. olivieri - Balkan and Turkey Crocus olivieri subsp. balansae (J.Gay ex Baker) B. Mathew - endemic round İzmir, West-Turkey Crocus olivieri subsp. istanbulensis B. Mathew, Istanbul, Turkey. Crocus paschei H. Kerndorff Crocus vitellinus Wahl. Series Aleppici: tunics of the corms membranous, with split, parallel fibers, foliage produced at the same time as the flowers, fall- or winter-flowering Crocus aleppicus Baker Crocus boulosii Greuter Crocus veneris Tappein ex Poech Series Carpetani: undersurface of the leaves rounded with grooves, upper surface channeled, spring-flowering, style whitish, obscurely divided Crocus carpetanus Boiss. & Reut. Crocus nevadensis Amo & Campo Series Intertexti: corm tunic fibrous with fibers interwoven, spring-flowering Crocus fleischeri J.Gay. Series Laevigatae: corm tunic membranous or splitting into parallel fibers, sometimes leathery, foliage produced at the same time as flowers, autumn-flowering, anthers white, style much divided Crocus boryi J.Gay Crocus laevigatus Bory & Chaub. Crocus tournefortii J.Gay. Crocus alatavicus Crocus aleppicus Crocus ancyrensis Crocus banaticus Crocus biflorus Crocus cancellatus Crocus carpetanus Crocus cartwrightianus 'Albus' Crocus caspius Crocus chrysanthus 'Zwanenburg Bronze' Crocus corsicus Crocus etruscus 'Zwanenburg' Crocus flavus Crocus goulimyi Crocus graveolens Crocus hyemalis Crocus imperati 'De Jager' Crocus kotschyanus Crocus laevigatus 'Fontenayi' Crocus longiflorus Crocus malyi Crocus minimus Crocus nevadensis Crocus nudiflorus Crocus olivieri Crocus pallasii Crocus pulchellus Crocus serotinus subsp. clusii Crocus serotinus subsp. salzmannii Crocus scharojanii Crocus tournefortii Crocus versicolor Autumn crocus[edit] Some species, known as "autumn crocus", flower in late summer and autumn, often before their leaves appear. They should not be confused with a different genus of autumn-flowering plants, Colchicum. Autumn-flowering species of crocus include: C. banaticus (syn. C. iridiflorus) C. cancellatus C. goulimyi C. hadriaticus C. kotschyanus (syn. C. zonatus) C. laevigatus C. ligusticus (syn. C. medius ) C. niveus C. nudiflorus C. ochroleucus C. pulchellus C. sativus (saffron crocus) C. serotinus C. speciosus C. tournefortii C. laevigatus has a long flowering period which starts in late autumn or early winter and may continue into February.


Cultivation[edit] About 30 of the species are cultivated, including Crocus sativus for saffron production. The varieties cultivated for decoration mainly represent five species: C. vernus, C. chrysanthus, C. flavus, C. sieberi, and C. tommasinianus. Among the first flowers to bloom in spring, crocuses are popular with gardeners. Their flowering time varies from the late winter C. tommasinianus to the later large hybridized and selected Giant "Dutch crocuses" (C. vernus). Crocus flowers and leaves are protected from frost by a waxy cuticle; in areas where snow and frost occasionally occur in the early spring, it is not uncommon to see early flowering crocuses blooming through a light late snowfall. field of flowering purple crocuses Crocus 'E.A. Bowles', a C. chrysanthus hybrid Crocus cultivars C. sieberi corms, showing the net-like papery outer covering Purple crocuses with closed flowers Crocuses appearing through the snow Most crocus species and hybrids should be planted in a sunny position, in gritty (sandy), well-drained soil, although a few prefer shadier sites in moist soil. Some are suitable for naturalising in grass. The corms should be planted about 3 to 4 cm deep; in heavy soils, a quantity of sharp grit should be worked in to improve drainage. Some crocuses, especially C. tommasinianus and its selected forms and hybrids (such as 'Whitewell Purple' and 'Ruby Giant'), seed prolifically and are ideal for naturalising. They can, however, become weeds in rock gardens, where they will often appear in the middle of choice, mat-forming alpine plants, and can be difficult to remove.


Similar species[edit] Though some true crocuses bloom with the fall (autumnal) rains, after summer's heat and drought, the name autumn crocus is often used as a common name for Colchicum, which is in its own family (Colchicaceae) in the lily order Liliales, and which has six stamens; it is also known as meadow saffron, though unlike true saffron, the plant is toxic. The prairie crocus or pasque flower (Pulsatilla patens) belongs to the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).


Metaphorical use[edit] The financial community sometimes refers to companies or economic sectors that rise early after an economic downturn as "crocuses" in reference to the flower's ability to thrive in the late winter or early spring.[14]


Culture[edit] Crocus or Krokus (Greek: Κρόκος) was a mortal youth who, because he was unhappy with his love affair with Smilax, was turned by the gods into a plant bearing his name, the crocus.


References[edit] ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families ^ a b Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Crocus includes photos plus European distribution maps ^ a b Innes, C. (1985). The World of Iridaceae: 1-407. Holly Gare International Ltd., Ashington ^ κρόκος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ OED; Babiniotis dictionary ^ Tawney, C. H. (1924). The Ocean of Story, chapter 104. p. 13.  ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=crocus ^ C. Michael Hogan, Knossos fieldnotes, Modern Antiquarian (2007) ^ Ensiform: Having sharp edges and tapering to a slender point, like a sword blade. ^ A Handbook of Crocus and Colchicum for Gardeners, page 154 , etc ^ Gitte Petersen, Ole Seberg, Sarah Thorsøe, Tina Jørgensen & Brian Mathew: "A phylogeny of the genus Crocus (Iridaceae) based on sequence data from five plastid regions." Taxon, 57(2), 2008, pp. 487–499. JSTOR 25066017. ^ a b c d e f Brian Mathew, Gitte Petersen & Ole Seberg, A reassessment of Crocus based on molecular analysis, The Plantsman (N.S.) Vol 8, Part 1, pp. 50–57, March 2009 ^ Peruzzi Lorenzo, Carta Angelino. 2011 "Crocus ilvensis sp. nov. (sect. Crocus, Iridaceae), endemic to Elba Island (Tuscan Archipelago, Italy)", Nordic Journal of Botany, 29(1): 6–13. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.2010.01023.x ^ Example of Metaphorical Use


Bibliography[edit] E.A. Bowles, A Handbook of Crocus and Colchicum for Gardeners, Martin Hopkinson 1924 Brian Mathew, Christopher Grey-Wilson, Bulbs, (ill. Marjorie Blamey), Collins, 1981 Brian Mathew, Crocus: A Revision of the Genus Crocus, Timber Press, 1983. ISBN 0-917304-23-3 Brian Mathew, Flowering Bulbs for the Garden, Collingridge/Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1987. ISBN 0-600-35175-0 Novica Randjelovic, David A. Hill, Vladimir Randjelovic, 'The Genus Crocus L. in Serbia'. Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade, 1990 (in English) Maw, George. A Monograph of the Genus Crocus. London, Dulau and Co., 1886 Rix, Alison. "George Maw, Joseph Hooker and the genus Crocus", Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Volume 25 Issue 2, Pages 176–187, 2008 doi:10.1111/j.1467-8748.2008.00616.x The Pleasures of Crocus, Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture 1996 Walters, S. M., et. al., editor, ' 'The European Garden Flora: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass, Volume 1 ' ', Cambridge University Press, 1984


External links[edit] Crocus photos of International Bulb Society Crocus photos of Pacific Bulb Society Sorting Crocus Names E A Bowles Society The Alpine House - Crocus Group Todd Boland. Crocus to Brighten the Spring Garden. Dave's Garden, September 28, 2013 The Alpine Garden: Crocus Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crocus. Wikispecies has information related to Crocus Look up crocus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Taxon identifiers Wd: Q157806 APDB: 189777 EoL: 60624 FoC: 108403 GBIF: 2747303 GRIN: 3087 IPNI: 20293-1 ITIS: 43285 NCBI: 58949 PLANTS: CROCU Tropicos: 40016737 VASCAN: 1051 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crocus&oldid=817718553" Categories: CrocusIridaceae generaGarden plantsCormous plantsHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformatsArticles containing Arabic-language textArticles containing Sanskrit-language textArticles containing Greek-language text


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Crocus (mythology)Crocus (disambiguation)Taxonomy (biology)EPlantFlowering PlantMonocotyledonAsparagalesIridaceaeCrocoideaeCarl LinnaeusType SpeciesSynonym (taxonomy)GenusFlowering PlantIridaceaePerennial PlantCormSaffronStigma (botany)Crocus SativusSpeciesNative PlantAlpine TundraEuropeNorth AfricaMiddle EastAegean IslandsCentral AsiaXinjiang ProvinceChinaGreek LanguageSemitic LanguagesHebrew LanguageAramaic LanguageArabic LanguageSaffronTurmericCurcumaSanskritCrocus SativusSaffronKnossosAkrotiri (Santorini)SantoriniNetherlandsOgier Ghiselin De BusbecqCarolus ClusiusHortus Botanicus LeidenLeidenAmbrosius BosschaertHistory Of SaffronMinoan CivilizationFrescoSantoriniAegean SeaAmbrosius BosschaertLouvre MuseumCrocus AngustifoliusCurtis's Botanical MagazineLeafStamensEuropeNorth AfricaMiddle EastCentral AsiaChinaEdit Section: SpeciesEnlargeEnlargeCrocus VernusEnlargeCrocus VernusEnlargeEnlargeEnlargeEnlargeEnlargeEnlargeTaxonomy (biology)Brian MathewSpatheCarpelCormCrocus EtruscusCrocus LongiflorusCrocus TommasinianusCrocus VernusCrocus VersicolorCrocus CorsicusCrocus ImperatiCrocus MinimusCrocus GoulimyiWilliam Bertram TurrillConstantine GoulimisCrocus LigusticusCrocus NudiflorusCrocus SerotinusGilanCrocus KotschyanusCrocus OchroleucusCrocus ScharojaniiCrocus CartwrightianusCrocus SativusInfertilityTriploidMutantHybrid (biology)Crocus PallasiiCrocus MalyiCrocus BanaticusCrocus AncyrensisCrocus AngustifoliusCrocus CancellatusCrocus SieberiCrocus BiflorusCrocus ChrysanthusCrocus PulchellusCrocus SpeciosusCrocus CaspiusCrocus FlavusCrocus GraveolensCrocus HyemalisİzmirIstanbulCrocus AleppicusCrocus LaevigatusCrocus FlavusEdit Section: Autumn CrocusColchicumCrocus KotschyanusCrocus OchroleucusCrocus SativusCrocus SativusHybrid (biology)CultivarsRock GardenColchicumColchicaceaeLilialesSaffronPulsatilla PatensRanunculaceaeKrokus (mythology)Greek LanguageOEDBabiniotis DictionaryJSTORDigital Object IdentifierEdward Augustus BowlesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-917304-23-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-600-35175-0Digital Object IdentifierWikispeciesHelp:Taxon IdentifiersWikidataEncyclopedia Of LifeFlora Of ChinaGlobal Biodiversity Information FacilityGermplasm Resources Information NetworkInternational Plant Names IndexIntegrated Taxonomic Information SystemNational Center For Biotechnology InformationNatural Resources Conservation ServiceTropicosHelp:CategoryCategory:CrocusCategory:Iridaceae GeneraCategory:Garden PlantsCategory:Cormous PlantsCategory:Articles With 'species' MicroformatsCategory:Articles Containing Arabic-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Sanskrit-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Greek-language TextDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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