Contents 1 Description 1.1 Summary 1.2 Formal 2 Biology 3 Ecology 4 Pest status 5 Genera 6 Phylogenetics 7 Common names 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links 11.1 Species lists


Description[edit] The head of a Tipula sp. Summary[edit] The adult crane fly, resembling an oversized mosquito, has a slender body and stilt-like legs that are deciduous, easily coming off the body. The wingspan is generally about 1.0 to 6.5 cm. The antennae have up to 39 segments.[3] It is also characterized by a V-shaped suture on the back of the thorax and by its wing venation.[4] The rostrum is long; in some species it is as long as the head and thorax together.[5] Formal[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera Tipulidae are large to medium-sized flies (7–35 mm) with elongated legs, wings, and abdomen. Their colour is yellow, brown or grey. Ocelli are absent. The rostrum (a snout) is short to very short with a beak-like point called the nasus (rarely absent). The apical segment of the maxillary palpi is flagelliform and much longer than the subapical segment. The antennae have 13 segments (exceptionally 14–19). These are whorled, serrate, or ctenidial. There is a distinct V-shaped suture between the mesonotal prescutum and scutum (near the level of the wing bases). The wings are monochromatic, longitudinally striped or marbled. In females the wings are sometimes rudimentary. The sub-costal vein (Sc) joins through Sc2 with the radial vein, Sc1 is at most a short stump. There are four, rarely (when R2 is reduced) three branches of the radial vein merging into the alar margin. The discoidal wing cell is usually present. The wing has two anal veins. Sternite 9 of the male genitalia has, with few exceptions, two pairs of appendages. Sometimes appendages are also present on sternite 8. The female ovipositor has sclerotized valves and the cerci have a smooth or dentate lower margin. The valves are sometimes modified into thick bristles or short teeth. Tipulinae Dolichopezinae The larva is elongated, usually cylindrical. The posterior two-thirds of the head capsule is enclosed or retracted within the prothoracic segment. The larva is metapneustic (with only one pair of spiracles, these on the anal segment of the abdomen), but often with vestigial lateral spiracles (rarely apneustic). The head capsule is sclerotized anteriorly and deeply incised ventrally and often dorsolaterally. The mandibles are opposed and move in the horizontal or oblique plane. The abdominal segments have transverse creeping welts. The terminal segments of the abdomen are glabrous, often partially sclerotized and bearing posterior spiracles. The spiracular disc is usually surrounded by lobe-like projections and anal papillae or lobes.


Biology[edit] A pair of crane flies (Tipulidae) mating Crane fly molting The adult female usually contains mature eggs as she emerges from her pupa, and often mates immediately if a male is available. Males also search for females by walking or flying. Copulation takes a few minutes to hours and may be accomplished in flight. Adults have a lifespan of 10 to 15 days.[7] The female immediately oviposits, usually in wet soil or mats of algae. Some lay eggs on the surface of a water body or in dry soils, and some reportedly simply drop them in flight. Most crane fly eggs are black in color. They often have a filament, which may help anchor the egg in wet or aquatic environments.[6] Crane fly larvae (leatherjackets) have been observed in many habitat types on dry land and in water,[6] including marine, brackish, and fresh water.[5] They are cylindrical in shape, but taper toward the front end, and the head capsule is often retracted into the thorax. The abdomen may be smooth, lined with hairs, or studded with projections or welt-like spots. Projections may occur around the spiracles.[5] Larvae may eat algae, microflora, and living or decomposing plant matter, including wood. Some are predatory.[6][8]


Ecology[edit] The thorax of a crane fly Larval habitats include all kinds of freshwater, semiaquatic environments. Some Tipulinae, including Dolichopeza Curtis, are found in moist to wet cushions of mosses or liverworts. Ctenophora Meigen species are found in decaying wood or sodden logs. Nephrotoma Meigen and Tipula Linnaeus larvae are found in dry soils of pasturelands, lawns, and steppe. Tipulidae larvae are also found in rich organic earth and mud, in wet spots in woods where the humus is saturated, in leaf litter or mud, decaying plant materials, or fruits in various stages of putrefaction. Larvae can be important in the soil ecosystem, because they process organic material and increase microbial activity.[6] Larvae and adults are also valuable prey items for many animals, including insects, spiders, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals.[5] The larvae of some species consume other living aquatic insects and invertebrates,[9] which could potentially include mosquito larvae.[10] Many adults, however, have such short lifespans that they do not eat at all.[10] Despite widely held beliefs that adult crane flies (or "mosquito hawks") prey on mosquito populations, the adult crane fly is anatomically incapable of killing or consuming other insects.[11]


Pest status[edit] The common European crane fly, Tipula paludosa, and the marsh crane fly, T. oleracea, are agricultural pests in Europe. Crane fly larvae of economic importance live in the top layers of soil where they feed on the roots, root hairs, crown, and, sometimes the leaves of crops, stunting their growth or killing the plants. They are pests on a variety of commodities. Since the late 1900s, T. paludosa and T. oleracea have become invasive in the United States.[12][13][14] The larvae have been observed on many crops, including vegetables, fruits, cereals, pasture, lawn grasses, and ornamental plants. In 1935, Lord's Cricket Ground in London was among venues affected by leatherjackets. Several thousand were collected by ground staff and burned, because they caused bald patches on the wicket and the pitch took unaccustomed spin for much of the season.[15]


Genera[edit] Global diversity of Tipulidae Subfamily Ctenophorinae Ctenophora Meigen, 1803 Dictenidia Brulle, 1833 Phoroctenia Coquillett, 1910 Pselliophora Osten Sacken, 1887 Tanyptera Latreille, 1804 Subfamily Cylindrotominae Cylindrotoma Macquart, 1834 Diogma Edwards, 1938 Liogma Osten Sacken, 1869 Phalacrocera Schiner, 1863 Stibadocera Enderlein, 1912 Stibadocerella Brunetti, 1918 Stibadocerina Alexander, 1929 Stibadocerodes Alexander, 1928 Triogma Schiner, 1863 Subfamily Dolichopezinae Dolichopeza Curtis, 1825 Subfamily Tipulinae Acracantha Skuse, 1890 Angarotipula Savchenko, 1961 Austrotipula Alexander, 1920 Brachypremna Osten Sacken, 1887 Brithura Edwards, 1916 Clytocosmus Skuse, 1890 Elnoretta Alexander, 1929 Euvaldiviana Alexander, 1981 Goniotipula Alexander, 1921 Holorusia Loew, 1863 Hovapeza Alexander, 1951 Hovatipula Alexander, 1955 Idiotipula Alexander, 1921 Indotipula Edwards, 1931 Ischnotoma Skuse, 1890 Keiseromyia Alexander, 1963 Leptotarsus Guerin-Meneville, 1831 Macgregoromyia Alexander, 1929 Megistocera Wiedemann, 1828 Nephrotoma Meigen, 1803 Nigrotipula Hudson & Vane-Wright, 1969 Ozodicera Macquart, 1834 Platyphasia Skuse, 1890 Prionocera Loew, 1844 Prionota van der Wulp, 1885 Ptilogyna Westwood, 1835 Scamboneura Osten Sacken, 1882 Sphaerionotus de Meijere, 1919 Tipula Linnaeus, 1758 Tipulodina Enderlein, 1912 Valdiviana Alexander, 1929 Zelandotipula Alexander, 1922


Phylogenetics[edit] The phylogenetic position of the Tipulidae remains uncertain. The classical viewpoint that they are an early branch of Diptera[16][17]—perhaps (with the Trichoceridae) the sister group of all other Diptera—is giving way to modern views that they are more highly derived[18]. This is thanks to evidence from molecular studies, which is consistent with the more derived larval characters similar to those of 'higher' Diptera[19]. The Pediciidae and Tipulidae are sister groups (the "limoniids" are a paraphyletic clade)[2] and the Cylindrotominae appear to be a relict group that was much better represented in the Tertiary.[20] Tipulidae probably evolved from ancestors in the Upper Jurassic, the Architipulidae.


Common names[edit] Numerous other common names have been applied to the crane fly. Many of the names are more or less regional in the U.S., including mosquito hawk, mosquito eater, gallinipper, and gollywhopper.[21] They are also known as daddy longlegs around the world,[3] not to be confused with daddy-long-legs that refers to arachnids of the order Opiliones or the family Pholcidae. The larvae of crane flies are known commonly as leatherjackets.[3]


See also[edit] Tipularia discolor, the crane fly orchid


References[edit] ^ Alexander C.P., Byers G.W. (1981) Tipulidae. in: McAlpine J.F. et al. (Ed.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, pp. 153–1902 ISBN 0-660-10731-7 pdf download manual ^ a b Petersen, Matthew J.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Wiegmann, Brian M.; Courtney, Gregory W. (2010). "Phylogenetic synthesis of morphological and molecular data reveals new insights into the higher-level classification of Tipuloidea (Diptera)". Systematic Entomology. 35 (3): 526–545. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2010.00524.x.  ^ a b c d Watson, L. and M. J. Dallwitz. 2003 onwards. Tipulidae. British Insects: The Families of Diptera. Version: 1 January 2012. ^ a b Pritchard, G. (1983). Biology of Tipulidae. Annual Review of Entomology 28(1), 1-22. ^ a b c d e de Jong, H., et al. (2008). Global diversity of craneflies (Insecta, Diptera: Tipulidea or Tipulidae sensu lato) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1), 457-67. ^ a b c d e Oosterbroek, P. Superfamily Tipuloidea, Family Tipulidae. Chapter 2 In: Evenhuis, N. L. (Ed.) Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions, Issue 86 of Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication. Apollo Press. 1989. ^ "Crane Flies :: Introduction".  ^ G Pritchard , 1983 Biology of Tipulidae Annual Review of Entomology Vol. 28: 1-22 pdf ^ "Crane Fly Larvae - EcoSpark".  ^ a b Blake Newton. "Crane Flies of Kentucky - University of Kentucky Entomology".  ^ "Mosquito Hawk? Skeeter Eater? Giant Mosquito? No, No, and No". Entomology Today.  ^ Rao, Sujaya; Listona, Aaron; Cramptonb, Lora; Takeyasu, Joyce (2006). "Identification of Larvae of Exotic Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Tipulidae) and T. oleracea in North America Using Mitochondrial cytB Sequences". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 99 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2006)099[0033:IOLOET]2.0.CO;2.  ^ Blackshaw R. P, Coll C. Economically important leatherjackets of grassland and cereals: biology, impact and control. Integr. Pest. Manag. Rev. 1999, 4:143-160.Blackshaw_and_Coll,_1999.pdf pdf ^ Jackson D. M, Campbell R. L. Biology of the European crane fly, Meigen, in western Washington (Tipulidae: Diptera). Washington State University Technical Bull. No. 81. 1975. ^ A. Ward. Cricket's Strangest Matches (1998 ed.). Robson Books, London. p. 111.  ^ Rohdendorf, B. 1974. The Historical Development of Diptera. Edmonton: Univ. Alberta. ^ Savchenko, E. N. 1966. Phylogeny and systematics of the Tipulidae. Fauna Ukraini 14:63–88. In Russian. ^ CSIRO, 2017. Australian Insect Families, <http://anic.ento.csiro.au/insectfamilies> ^ Gullan, P. J., Cranston, P. S. 2014. The insects: an outline of entomology. 5th edition. West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell. ^ Hennig, W. 1950. Die Larvenformen der Dipteren, Arb. 2. Berlin: Akad. Verlag. ^ Dictionary of American Regional English. 


Further reading[edit] Identification Pierre C.,1924, Diptères: Tipulidae Faune de France n° 8 Bibliotheque Virtuelle Numerique Out of date but online at no cost. In French. R. L. Coe, Paul Freeman & P. F. Mattingly Nematocera: families Tipulidae to Chironomidae (Tipulidae). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol 9 Part 2 i. pdf download manual Out of date but online at no cost J.F. McAlpine, B.V. Petersen, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, D.M. Wood. Eds. 1987 Manual of Nearctic Diptera Volume 1 Research Branch Agriculture Canada, 1987 pdf key to Nearctic genera E. N. Savchenko Family Tipulidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.


External links[edit] Look up crane fly in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tipulidae. Wikispecies has information related to Tipulidae Ohioline.osu.edu, Ohio State University Fact Sheet Family Tipulidae at EOL IZ.carnegiemnh.org, Crane Flies of Pennsylvania, Extensive Specimen Collection, Carnegie Museum of Natural History NLBIF.eti.uva.nl, Catalog of Craneflies of the World Diptera.info, Image Gallery BugGuide.net, photo gallery, many species Gaga.jes.mlc.edu.tw, Tipulidae of Taiwan (in Chinese), with images under Latin binomials Insects.tamu.edu, Texas A&M Entomology Field Guide Crane Flies of PA Species lists[edit] West Palaearctic including Russia Australasian/Oceanian Nearctic Japan Authority control NDL: 00562096 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crane_fly&oldid=814125359" Categories: TipulidaeExtant Late Jurassic first appearancesHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformatsArticles with Chinese-language external links


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Daddy Longlegs (disambiguation)Nephrotoma AppendiculataTipulaTaxonomy (biology)EAnimalArthropodInsectFlyTipuloideaPierre André LatreilleFamily (biology)FlyFlyTipuloideaCylindrotominaeLimoniinaePediciidaeParaphylyOpilionesPholcidaeLarvaCosmopolitan DistributionTropicsGenusEntomologyCharles Paul AlexanderAcademic PublishingEnlargeMosquitoStiltsDeciduousWingspanAntenna (biology)Thorax (insect Anatomy)Rostrum (anatomy)Morphology Of DipteraEdit Section: BiologyEnlargePupaOvipositorAlgaeOceanBrackishFresh WaterSpiracleEnlargeSpiderFishAmphibianBirdMammalTipula PaludosaTipula OleraceaInvasive SpeciesOrnamental PlantLord's Cricket GroundWicketEnlargeCtenophorinaeCtenophora (genus)Johann Wilhelm MeigenDictenidiaPhorocteniaDaniel William CoquillettPselliophoraKarl Robert Osten-SackenTanypteraPierre André LatreilleCylindrotominaeCylindrotomaJustin Pierre Marie MacquartDiogmaFrederick Wallace EdwardsLiogmaKarl Robert Osten-SackenPhalacroceraIgnaz Rudolph SchinerStibadoceraGünther EnderleinStibadocerellaEnrico Adelelmo BrunettiStibadocerinaCharles Paul AlexanderStibadocerodesCharles Paul AlexanderTriogmaIgnaz Rudolph SchinerDolichopezinaeDolichopezaJohn Curtis (entomologist)TipulinaeAcracanthaFrederick A. Askew SkuseAngarotipulaAustrotipulaCharles Paul AlexanderBrachypremnaKarl Robert Osten-SackenBrithuraFrederick Wallace EdwardsClytocosmusFrederick A. Askew SkuseElnorettaCharles Paul AlexanderEuvaldivianaCharles Paul AlexanderGoniotipulaCharles Paul AlexanderHolorusiaHermann LoewHovapezaCharles Paul AlexanderHovatipulaCharles Paul AlexanderIdiotipulaCharles Paul AlexanderIndotipulaFrederick Wallace EdwardsIschnotomaFrederick A. Askew SkuseKeiseromyiaCharles Paul AlexanderLeptotarsusFélix Édouard Guérin-MénevilleMacgregoromyiaCharles Paul AlexanderMegistoceraChristian Rudolph Wilhelm WiedemannNephrotomaJohann Wilhelm MeigenNigrotipulaOzodiceraJustin Pierre Marie MacquartPlatyphasiaFrederick A. Askew SkusePrionoceraHermann LoewPrionotaPtilogynaJohn Obadiah WestwoodScamboneuraKarl Robert Osten-SackenSphaerionotusTipulaCarl Linnaeus10th Edition Of Systema NaturaeTipulodinaGünther EnderleinValdivianaCharles Paul AlexanderZelandotipulaCharles Paul AlexanderTrichoceridaeCladisticsSynapomorphyPediciidaeCladeCylindrotominaeTertiaryJurassicArachnidOpilionesPholcidaeLarvaTipularia DiscolorInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-660-10731-7Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierWilli HennigRoyal Entomological Society HandbooksGrigory Bey-BienkoWikispeciesHelp:Authority ControlNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:TipulidaeCategory:Extant Late Jurassic First AppearancesCategory:Articles With 'species' MicroformatsCategory:Articles With Chinese-language External LinksDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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