Contents 1 Description 2 Anatomy and appearance 3 Taxonomy 4 Distribution and habitat 5 Ecology 5.1 Feeding 6 Reproduction 6.1 Brood care 6.1.1 Open brooding 6.1.2 Cave brooding 6.1.3 Ovophile mouthbrooding 6.1.4 Larvophile mouthbrooding 6.2 Mating 7 Speciation 8 Population status 8.1 Lake Victoria 9 Food and game fish 9.1 Tilapia 9.2 Game fish 10 Aquarium fish 11 Hybrids and selective breeding 11.1 Aquarium hybrids 12 Genera 13 Images of cichlids 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links


Description[edit] Cichlids span a wide range of body sizes, from species as small as 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in length (e.g., female Neolamprologus multifasciatus) to much larger species approaching 1 m (3.3 ft) in length (Boulengerochromis and Cichla). As a group, cichlids exhibit a similar diversity of body shapes, ranging from strongly laterally compressed species (such as Altolamprologus, Pterophyllum, and Symphysodon) to species that are cylindrical and highly elongated (such as Julidochromis, Teleogramma, Teleocichla, Crenicichla, and Gobiocichla).[4] Generally, however, cichlids tend to be of medium size, ovate in shape, and slightly laterally compressed, and generally similar to the North American sunfishes in morphology, behavior, and ecology.[5] Many cichlids, particularly tilapia, are important food fishes, while others are valued game fish (e.g. Cichla species). The family also includes many familiar aquarium fish, including the angelfish, oscars, and discus.[4][6] Cichlids have the largest number of endangered species among vertebrate families, most in the haplochromine group.[7] Cichlids are particularly well known for having evolved rapidly into a large number of closely related but morphologically diverse species within large lakes, particularly Tanganyika, Victoria, Malawi, and Edward.[8][9] Their diversity in the African Great Lakes is important for the study of speciation in evolution.[10] Many cichlids introduced into waters outside of their natural range have become nuisances.[11]


Anatomy and appearance[edit] Relationships within the Labrodei[1] Cichlids share a single key trait: the fusion of the lower pharyngeal bones into a single tooth-bearing structure. A complex set of muscles allows the upper and lower pharyngeal bones to be used as a second set of jaws for processing food, allowing a division of labor between the "true jaws" (mandibles) and the "pharyngeal jaws". Cichlids are efficient and often highly specialized feeders that capture and process a very wide variety of food items. This is assumed to be one reason why they are so diverse.[4] Cichlids vary in body shape, ranging from compressed and disc-shaped (such as Symphysodon and Heros), to triangular (such as Pterophyllum and Uaru) to elongated and cylindrical (such as Crenicichla and Biotoecus).[12] The features that distinguish them from the other families in Labroidei include:[13] A single nostril on each side of the forehead, instead of two No bony shelf below the orbit of the eye Division of the lateral line organ into two sections, one on the upper half of the flank and a second along the midline of the flank from about halfway along the body to the base of the tail (except for genera Teleogramma and Gobiocichla) A distinctively shaped otolith The small intestine's left-side exit from the stomach instead of its right side as in other Labroidei


Taxonomy[edit] Kullander (1998) recognizes eight subfamilies of cichlids: the Astronotinae, Cichlasomatinae, Cichlinae, Etroplinae, Geophaginae, Heterochromidinae, Pseudocrenilabrinae, and Retroculinae.[14] A ninth subfamily, Ptychochrominae, was later recognized by Sparks and Smith.[15] Cichlid taxonomy is still debated, and classification of genera cannot yet be definitively given. A comprehensive system of assigning species to monophyletic genera is still lacking, and there is not complete agreement on what genera should be recognized in this family.[12] As an example of the classification problems, Kullander[16] placed the African genus Heterochromis phylogenetically within Neotropical cichlids, although later papers concluded otherwise. Other problems center upon the identity of the putative common ancestor for the Lake Victoria superflock, and the ancestral lineages of Tanganyikan cichlids. Comparisons[17] between a morphologically-based phylogeny[18] and analyses of gene loci[19] produce differences at the genus level. There remains a consensus that the Cichlidae as a family is monophyletic.[20][21] In cichlid taxonomy, dentition was formerly used as a classifying characteristic. However, this was complicated by the fact that in many cichlids, tooth shape changes with age, due to wear, and cannot be relied upon. Genome sequencing and other technologies transformed cichlid taxonomy.[22]


Distribution and habitat[edit] Pelmatolapia mariae, caught on a hook and line, in Australia. Originally from Africa, the species established feral populations in Australia.[23] Cichlids are one of the largest vertebrate families in the world. They are most diverse in Africa and South America. Africa alone is estimated to host at least 1,600 species.[12] Central America and Mexico have about 120 species, as far north as the Rio Grande in southern Texas. Madagascar has its own distinctive species (Katria, Oxylapia, Paratilapia, Paretroplus, Ptychochromis, and Ptychochromoides), only distantly related to those on the African mainland.[13][24] Native cichlids are largely absent in Asia, except for 9 species in Israel, Lebanon, and Syria (Astatotilapia flaviijosephi, Oreochromis aureus, O. niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Coptodon zillii, and Tristramella spp.), two in Iran (Iranocichla), and three in India and Sri Lanka (Etroplus and Pseudetroplus).[12] If disregarding Trinidad and Tobago (where the few native cichlids are members of genera that are widespread in the South American mainland), the three species from the genus Nandopsis are the only cichlids from the Antilles in the Caribbean, specifically Cuba and Hispaniola. Europe, Australia, Antarctica, and North America north of the Rio Grande drainage have no native cichlids, although in Florida, Mexico, Japan and northern Australia, feral populations of cichlids have become established as exotics.[23][25][26][27][28][29][30] Although most cichlids are found at relatively shallow depths, several exceptions do exist. The deepest known occurrence are Trematocara at more than 300 m (980 ft) below the surface in Lake Tanganyika.[31] Others found in relatively deep waters include species such as Alticorpus macrocleithrum and Pallidochromis tokolosh down to 150 m (490 ft) below the surface in Lake Malawi,[32][33] and the whitish (nonpigmented) and blind Lamprologus lethops, which is believed to live as deep as 160 m (520 ft) below the surface in the Congo River.[34] Cichlids are less commonly found in brackish and saltwater habitats, though many species tolerate brackish water for extended periods; Cichlasoma urophthalmus, for example, is equally at home in freshwater marshes and mangrove swamps, and lives and breeds in saltwater environments such as the mangrove belts around barrier islands.[4] Several species of Tilapia, Sarotherodon, and Oreochromis are euryhaline and can disperse along brackish coastlines between rivers.[12] Only a few cichlids, however, inhabit primarily brackish or salt water, most notably Etroplus maculatus, Etroplus suratensis, and Sarotherodon melanotheron.[35] The perhaps most extreme habitats for cichlids are the warm hypersaline lakes where the members of the genera Alcolapia and Danakilia are found. Lake Abaeded in Eritrea encompasses the entire distribution of D. dinicolai, and its temperature ranges from 29 to 45 °C (84 to 113 °F).[36] With the exception of the species from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Madagascar, cichlids have not reached any oceanic island and have a predominantly Gondwanan distribution, showing the precise sister relationships predicted by vicariance: Africa-South America and India-Madagascar.[37] The dispersal hypothesis, in contrast, requires cichlids to have negotiated thousands of kilometers of open ocean between India and Madagascar without colonizing any other island or, for that matter, crossing the Mozambique Channel to Africa. Although the vast majority of Malagasy cichlids are entirely restricted to fresh water, Ptychochromis grandidieri and Paretroplus polyactis are commonly found in coastal brackish water and they are apparently salt tolerant,[38][39] as is also the case for Etroplus maculatus and E. suratensis from India and Sri Lanka.[40][41]


Ecology[edit] This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Feeding[edit] The bumblebee cichlid, Pseudotropheus crabro, is specialised in feeding on parasites from the catfish Bagrus meridionalis.[42] Many cichlids are primarily herbivores, feeding on algae (e.g. Petrochromis) and plants (e.g. Etroplus suratensis). Small animals, particularly invertebrates, are only a minor part of their diets. Other cichlids are detritivores and eat organic material, called Aufwuchs; among these species are the tilapiines of the genera Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia. Other cichlids are predatory and eat little or no plant matter. These include generalists that catch a variety of small animals, including other fishes and insect larvae (e.g. Pterophyllum), as well as variety of specialists. Trematocranus is a specialized snail-eater, while Pungu maclareni feeds on sponges. A number of cichlids feed on other fish, either entirely or in part. Crenicichla species are stealth-predators that lunge from concealment at passing small fish, while Rhamphochromis species are open-water pursuit predators that chase down their prey.[43] Paedophagous cichlids such as the Caprichromis species eat other species' eggs or young, in some cases ramming the heads of mouthbrooding species to force them to disgorge their young.[44][45][46][47] Among the more unusual feeding strategies are those of Corematodus, Docimodus evelynae, Plecodus, Perissodus, and Genyochromis spp., which feed on scales and fins of other fishes, a behavior known as lepidophagy,[48][49][50] along with the death-mimicking behaviour of Nimbochromis and Parachromis species, which lay motionless, luring small fish to their side prior to ambush.[51][52] This variety of feeding styles has helped cichlids to inhabit similarly varied habitats. Its pharyngeal teeth (teeth in the throat) afford cichlids so many "niche" feeding strategies, because the jaws pick and hold food, while the pharyngeal teeth crush the prey.


Reproduction[edit] A substrate brooding female managuense cichlid, Parachromis managuense, guards a clutch of eggs in the aquarium. Cichlids have highly organized breeding activities.[12] Brood care[edit] All species show some form of parental care for both eggs and larvae, often nurturing free-swimming young until they are weeks or months old. Communal parental care, where multiple monogamous pairs care for a mixed school of young have also been observed in multiple cichlid species, including Amphilophus citrinellus, Etroplus suratensis, and Tilapia rendalli.[53][54][55] Comparably, the fry of Neolamprologus brichardi, a species that commonly lives in large groups, are protected not only by the adults, but also by older juveniles from previous spawns.[56] Several cichlids, including discus (Symphysodon spp.), some Amphilophus species, Etroplus, and Uaru species, feed their young with a skin secretion from mucous glands.[4][57] The species Neolamprologus pulcher uses a cooperative breeding system, in which one breeding pair has many helpers which are subordinate to the dominant breeders. Parental care falls into one of four categories:[57] substrate or open brooders, secretive cave brooders (also known as guarding speleophils[58]), and at least two types of mouthbrooders, ovophile mouthbrooders and larvophile mouthbrooders.[59] Open brooding[edit] Open- or substrate-brooding cichlids lay their eggs in the open, on rocks, leaves, or logs. Examples of open-brooding cichlids include Pterophyllum and Symphysodon species and Anomalochromis thomasi. Male and female parents usually engage in differing brooding roles. Most commonly, the male patrols the pair's territory and repels intruders, while the female fans water over the eggs, removing the infertile and leading the fry while foraging. However, both sexes are able to perform the full range of parenting behaviours.[59] Cave brooding[edit] Secretive cave-spawning cichlids lay their eggs in caves, crevices, holes, or discarded mollusc shells, frequently attaching the eggs to the roof of the chamber. Examples include Pelvicachromis spp., Archocentrus spp., and Apistogramma spp.[57] Free-swimming fry and parents communicate in captivity and in the wild. Frequently, this communication is based on body movements, such as shaking and pelvic fin flicking. In addition, open- and cave-brooding parents assist in finding food resources for their fry. Multiple neotropical cichlid species perform leaf-turning and fin-digging behaviors.[59] A female Cyphotilapia frontosa mouthbrooding fry, which can be seen looking out her mouth Ovophile mouthbrooding[edit] Ovophile mouthbrooders incubate their eggs in their mouths as soon as they are laid, and frequently mouthbrood free-swimming fry for several weeks. Examples include many East African Rift lakes (Lake Malawi, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria) endemics, e.g.: Maylandia, Pseudotropheus, Tropheus, and Astatotilapia burtoni, along with some South American cichlids such as Geophagus steindachneri. Larvophile mouthbrooding[edit] Larvophile mouthbrooders lay eggs in the open or in a cave and take the hatched larvae into the mouth. Examples include some variants of Geophagus altifrons, and some Aequidens, Gymnogeophagus, and Satanoperca, as well as Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus.[4][57] Mouthbrooders, whether of eggs or larvae, are predominantly females. Exceptions that also involve the males include eretmodine cichlids (genera Spathodus, Eretmodus, and Tanganicodus), some Sarotherodon species (such as Sarotherodon melanotheron[60]), Chromidotilapia guentheri, and some Aequidens species.[4][59][61] This method appears to have evolved independently in several groups of African cichlids.[12] Mating[edit] Cichlids mate either monogamously or polygamously.[4] The mating system of a given cichlid species is not consistently associated with its brooding system. For example, although most monogamous cichlids are not mouthbrooders, Chromidotilapia, Gymnogeophagus, Spathodus and Tanganicodus all include - or consist entirely of - monogamous mouthbrooders. In contrast, numerous open- or cave-spawning cichlids are polygamous; examples include many Apistogramma, Lamprologus, Nannacara, and Pelvicachromis species.[4][62] Most adult male cichlids, specifically in the Haplochromini tribe of cichlids, exhibit a unique pattern of oval-shaped, color dots on their anal fins. These phenomena are known as egg-spots and aid in the mouthbrooding mechanisms of cichlids. The egg-spots consist of carotenoid based pigment cells, which indicates a high cost to the organism, when considering that fish are not able to synthesize their own carotenoids.[63] The mimicry of egg-spots is utilized by males for the fertilization process. Mouthbrooding females lay eggs and immediately snatch them up with their mouths. Over millions of years, male cichlids have evolved egg-spots to initiate the fertilization process more efficiently.[64] When the females are snatching up the eggs into their mouth, the males gyrate their anal fins, which illuminates the egg-spots on his tail. Afterwards, the female, believing these are her eggs, places her mouth to the anal fin (specifically the genital papilla) of the male, which is when he discharges sperm into her mouth and fertilizes the eggs.[63] The genuine color of egg spots is a yellow, red or orange inner circle with a colorless ring surrounding the shape. Through phylogenetic analysis, using the mitochondrial ND2 gene, it was hypothesized that the true egg spots evolved in the common ancestor of the Astatoreochromis-lineage and the modern Haplochrominis. This ancestor was most likely riverine in origin, based upon the most parsimonious representation of habitat type in the cichlid family.[65] The presence of egg-spots in a turbid riverine environment, would seem particularly beneficial and necessary for intra-species communication.[65] There are two pigmentation genes that are found to be associated with egg-spot patterning and color arrangement. These are fhl2-a and fhl2-b, which are paralogs.[64] These genes aid in pattern formation and cell-fate determination in early embryonic development. The highest expression of these genes was temporally correlated with egg-spot formation. A SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) was also seen to be associated with egg-spots. Specifically, it was evident upstream of the transcriptional start site of fhl2 in only haplochrominis species with egg-spots [64]


Speciation[edit] Cichlids of the African rift lake system evolved from an original hybrid swarm.[66] Cichlids provide scientists with a unique perspective of speciation, having become extremely diverse in the more recent geological past. It is widely believed that one of the contributing factors to their diversification are the various forms of prey processing displayed by cichlid pharyngeal jaw apparatus. These different jaw apparatus allow for a broad range of feeding strategies including: algae scraping, snail crushing, planktivores, piscivores, and insectivores.[67] Some cichlids can also show phenotypic plasticity in their pharyngeal jaws, which can also help lead to speciation. In response to different diets or food scarcity, members of the same species can display different jaw morphologies that are better suited to different feeding strategies. As species members begin to concentrate around different food sources and continue their life cycle, they most likely spawn with like individuals. This can reinforce the jaw morphology and given enough time, create new species.[68] Such a process can happen through allopatric speciation, when species diverge according to different food sources in different areas, or through sympatric speciation, in which multiple species evolve from a shared ancestor. In Lake Apoyo in Nicaragua, Amphilophus zaliosus and its sister species Amphilophus citrinellus display many of the criteria needed for sympatric speciation.[69] In the African rift lake system, cichlid species in numerous distinct lakes evolved from a shared hybrid swarm.[66]


Population status[edit] In 2010, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified 184 species as vulnerable, 52 as endangered, and 106 as critically endangered.[70] At present, the IUCN only lists Yssichromis sp. nov. "argens" as extinct in the wild, and six species are listed as entirely extinct, but it is acknowledged that many more possibly belong in these categories (for example, Haplochromis aelocephalus, H. apogonoides, H. dentex, H. dichrourus and numerous other members of the genus Haplochromis have not been seen since the 1980s, but are maintained as Critically Endangered in the small chance that tiny –but currently unknown– populations survive).[70] Lake Victoria[edit] Main article: Lake Victoria § Cichlid fish Haplochromis thereuterion has declined, but still survives in low numbers.[71] Because of the introduced Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and water hyacinth, deforestation that led to water siltation, and overfishing, many Lake Victoria cichlid species have become extinct or been drastically reduced. By around 1980, lake fisheries yielded only 1% cichlids, a drastic decline from 80% in earlier years.[72] By far the largest Lake Victoria group are the haplochromine cichlids, with more than 500 species, but at least 200 of these (approximately 40%) have become extinct,[73][74][75] and many others are seriously threatened.[76] Initially it was feared that the percentage of extinct species was even higher,[77] but some species have been rediscovered after the Nile perch started to decline in the 1990s.[74][78] Some species have survived in nearby small satellite lakes,[78] or in refugia among rocks or papyrus sedges (protecting them from the Nile perch),[79] or have adapted to the human-induced changes in the lake itself.[74][75] The species were often specialists and these were not affected to the same extent. For example, the piscivorous haplochromines were particularly hard hit with a high number of extinctions,[80] while the zooplanktivorous haplochromines reached densities in 2001 that were similar to before the drastic decline, although consisting of fewer species and with some changes in their ecology.[74]


Food and game fish[edit] Although cichlids are mostly small- to medium-sized, many are notable as food and game fishes. With few thick rib bones and tasty flesh, artisan fishing is not uncommon in Central America and South America, as well as areas surrounding the African rift lakes.[72] Tilapia[edit] The most important food cichlids, however, are the tilapiines of North Africa. Fast growing, tolerant of stocking density, and adaptable, tilapiine species have been introduced and farmed extensively in many parts of Asia and are increasingly common aquaculture targets elsewhere. Farmed tilapia production is about 1,500,000 t (1,500,000 long tons; 1,700,000 short tons) annually, with an estimated value of US$1.8 billion,[81] about equal to that of salmon and trout. Unlike those carnivorous fish, tilapia can feed on algae or any plant-based food. This reduces the cost of tilapia farming, reduces fishing pressure on prey species, avoids concentrating toxins that accumulate at higher levels of the food chain, and makes tilapia the preferred "aquatic chickens" of the trade.[72] Game fish[edit] Many large cichlids are popular game fish. The peacock bass (Cichla species) of South America is one of the most popular sportfish. It was introduced in many waters around the world.[where?] In Florida, this fish generates millions of hours of fishing and sportfishing revenue of more than US$8 million a year.[82] Other cichlids preferred by anglers include the oscar, Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus), and jaguar guapote (Parachromis managuensis).[82]


Aquarium fish[edit] Further information: List of cichlid fish of South America The discus, Symphysodon spp., has been popular among aquarium enthusiasts. Since 1945, cichlids have become increasingly popular as aquarium fish.[4][57][59][83][84][85][86] The most common species in hobbyist aquaria is Pterophyllum scalare from the Amazon River basin in tropical South America, known in the trade as the "angelfish". Other popular or readily available species include the oscar (Astronotus ocellatus), convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) and discus fish (Symphysodon).[4]


Hybrids and selective breeding[edit] The "red Texas" cichlid is not a Texas cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) but an intergeneric hybrid of Herichthys and Amphilophus parents. Some cichlids readily hybridize with related species, both in the wild and under artificial conditions.[87] Other groups of fishes, such as European cyprinids, also hybridize.[88] Unusually, cichlid hybrids have been put to extensive commercial use, in particular for aquaculture and aquaria.[6][89] The hybrid red strain of tilapia, for example, is often preferred in aquaculture for its rapid growth. Tilapia hybridization can produce all-male populations to control stock density or prevent reproduction in ponds.[6] Aquarium hybrids[edit] The most common aquarium hybrid is perhaps the blood parrot cichlid, which is a cross of several species, especially from species in the genus Amphilophus. (There are many hypotheses, but the most likely is: [ Amphilophus Labiatus x ([Vieja Synspillus] x [Heros Severus])) With a Triangular-shaped mouth, an abnormal spine, and an occasionally missing caudal fin (known as the "love heart" parrot cichlid), the fish is controversial among aquarists. Some have called blood parrot cichlids "the Frankenstein monster of the fish world".[90] Another notable hybrid, the flowerhorn cichlid, was very popular in some parts of Asia from 2001 until late 2003, and is believed to bring good luck to its owner.[91] The popularity of the flowerhorn cichlid declined in 2004.[92] Owners released many specimens into the rivers and canals of Malaysia and Singapore, where they threaten endemic communities.[93] A leucistic long-finned form of the oscar, A. ocellatus Numerous cichlid species have been selectively bred to develop ornamental aquarium strains. The most intensive programs have involved angelfish and discus, and many mutations that affect both coloration and fins are known.[4][94][95] Other cichlids have been bred for albino, leucistic, and xanthistic pigment mutations, including oscars, convict cichlid and Pelvicachromis pulcher.[4][57] Both dominant and recessive pigment mutations have been observed.[96] In convict cichlids, for example, a leucistic coloration is recessively inherited,[97] while in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus, red coloration is caused by a dominant inherited mutation.[98] This selective breeding may have unintended consequences. For example, hybrid strains of Mikrogeophagus ramirezi have health and fertility problems.[99] Similarly, intentional inbreeding can cause physical abnormalities, such as the notched phenotype in angelfish.[100]


Genera[edit] The genus list is as per FishBase. Studies are continuing, however, on the members of this family, particularly the haplochromine cichlids of the African rift lakes.[13] Abactochromis Oliver & Arnegard 2010 Acarichthys Eigenmann 1912 Acaronia Myers 1940 Alcolapia Thys van den Audenaerde 1969 Alticorpus Stauffer & McKaye 1988 Altolamprologus Poll 1986 Amatitlania Schmitter-Soto, 2007 Amphilophus Agassiz, 1859 Andinoacara Musilova, Rican, & Novak 2009 Anomalochromis Greenwood 1985 Apistogramma Regan 1913 Apistogrammoides Meinken 1965 Aristochromis Trewavas, 1935 Astatoreochromis Pellegrin 1904 Astatotilapia Pellegrin 1904 Astronotus Swainson 1839 Aulonocara Regan 1922 Aulonocranus Regan 1920 Australoheros Rican & Kullander 2006 Baileychromis Poll 1986 Bathybates Boulenger 1898 Benitochromis Lamboj 2001 Benthochromis Poll 1986 Biotodoma Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 Biotoecus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903 Boulengerochromis Pellegrin 1904 Buccochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Bujurquina Kullander 1986 Callochromis Regan 1920 Caprichromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Caquetaia Fowler 1945 Cardiopharynx Poll 1942 Chaetobranchopsis Steindachner, 1875 Chaetobranchus Heckel, 1840 Chalinochromis Poll 1974 Champsochromis Boulenger 1915 Cheilochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Chetia Trewavas 1961 Chilochromis Boulenger 1902 Chilotilapia Boulenger 1908 Chromidotilapia Boulenger 1898 Cichla Bloch & Schneider 1801 Cichlasoma Swainson 1839 Cleithracara Kullander & Nijssen 1989 Coelotilapia[101] Congochromis Stiassny & Schliewen 2007 Congolapia Copadichromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Coptodon[101] Corematodus Boulenger 1897 Crenicara Steindachner 1875 Crenicichla Heckel 1840 Cryptoheros Allgayer 2001 Ctenochromis Pfeffer 1893 Ctenopharynx Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Cunningtonia Boulenger 1906 Cyathochromis Trewavas 1935 Cyathopharynx Regan 1920 Cyclopharynx Poll 1948 Cynotilapia Regan 1922 Cyphotilapia Regan 1920 Cyprichromis Scheuermann 1977 Cyrtocara Boulenger 1902 Danakilia Thys van den Audenaerde 1969 Dicrossus Steindachner 1875 Dimidiochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Diplotaxodon Trewavas 1935 Divandu Lamboj & Snoeks 2000 Docimodus Boulenger 1897 Eclectochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Ectodus Boulenger 1898 Enigmatochromis Lamboj 2009 Eretmodus Boulenger 1898 Etia Schliewen & Stiassny 2003 Etroplus Cuvier 1830 Exochochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Fossorochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Genyochromis Trewavas 1935 Geophagus Heckel 1840 Gephyrochromis Boulenger 1901 Gnathochromis Poll 1981 Gobiocichla Kanazawa 1951 Grammatotria Boulenger 1899 Greenwoodochromis Poll 1983 Guianacara Kullander & Nijssen 1989 Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro 1918 Haplochromis Hilgendorf 1888 Haplotaxodon Boulenger 1906 Hemibates Regan 1920 Hemichromis Peters 1857 Hemitaeniochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Hemitilapia Boulenger 1902 Herichthys Baird & Girard 1854 Heroina Kullander, 1996 Heros Heckel, 1840 Heterochromis Regan 1922 Heterotilapia[101] Hoplarchus Kaup,1860 Hypselecara Kullander 1986 Hypsophrys Agassiz 1859 Interochromis Yamaoka, Hori & Kuwamura 1988 Iodotropheus Oliver & Loiselle 1972 Iranocichla Coad 1982 Julidochromis Boulenger 1898 Katria Stiassny & Sparks 2006 Konia Trewavas 1972 Krobia Kullander & Nijssen 1989 Labeotropheus Ahl 1926 Labidochromis Trewavas 1935 Laetacara Kullander 1986 Lamprologus Schilthuis 1891 Lepidiolamprologus Pellegrin 1904 Lestradea Poll 1943 Lethrinops Regan 1922 Lichnochromis Trewavas 1935 Limbochromis Greenwood 1987 Limnochromis Regan 1920 Limnotilapia Regan 1920 Lobochilotes Boulenger 1915 Maylandia Meyer & Foerster 1984 Mazarunia Kullander 1990 Mchenga Stauffer & Konings, 2006 Melanochromis Trewavas, 1935 Mesonauta Günther, 1862 Microchromis Johnson 1975 Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madson 1968 Myaka Trewavas 1972 Mylochromis Regan 1920 Naevochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Nandopsis Gill, 1862 Nannacara Regan 1905 Nanochromis Pellegrin 1904 Neolamprologus Colombe & Allgayer 1985 Nimbochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Nosferatu De la Maza-Benignos, Ornelas-García, Lozano-Vilano, García Ramírez & Doadrio, 2015[102] Nyassachromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Ophthalmotilapia Pellegrin 1904 Oreochromis Günther 1889 Orthochromis Greenwood 1954 Otopharynx Regan 1920 Oxylapia Kiener & Maugé 1966 Pallidochromis Turner 1994 Parachromis Agassiz 1859 Paracyprichromis Poll 1986 Parananochromis Greenwood 1987 Paraneetroplus Regan 1905 Paratilapia Bleeker, 1868 Paretroplus Bleeker, 1868 Pelmatochromis Steindachner 1894 Pelmatolapia[101] Pelvicachromis Thys van den Audenaerde 1968 Perissodus Boulenger 1898 Petenia Günther, 1862 Petrochromis Boulenger 1898 Petrotilapia Trewavas 1935 Pharyngochromis Greenwood 1979 Placidochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Plecodus Boulenger 1898 Protomelas Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Pseudocrenilabrus Fowler 1934 Pseudosimochromis Nelissen 1977 Pseudotropheus Regan 1922 Pterochromis Trewavas 1973 Pterophyllum Heckel 1840 Ptychochromis Steindachner 1880 Ptychochromoides Kiener & Mauge 1966 Pungu Trewavas 1972 Reganochromis Whitley 1929 Retroculus Eigenmann & Bray 1894 Rhamphochromis Regan 1922 Rocio Schmitter-Soto, 2007 Sargochromis Regan 1920 Sarotherodon Rppell 1852 Satanoperca Günther, 1862 Schwetzochromis Poll 1948 Sciaenochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Serranochromis Regan 1920 Simochromis Boulenger 1898 Spathodus Boulenger 1900 Steatocranus Boulenger 1899 Stigmatochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Stomatepia Trewavas 1962 Symphysodon Heckel 1840 Taeniacara Myers 1935 Taeniochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Taeniolethrinops Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Tahuantinsuyoa Kullander 1991 Tangachromis Poll 1981 Tanganicodus Poll 1950 Teleocichla Kullander 1988 Teleogramma Boulenger 1899 Telmatochromis Boulenger 1898 Theraps Günther, 1862 Thoracochromis Greenwood 1979 Thorichthys Meek 1904 Thysochromis Daget 1988 Tilapia Smith, 1840 See also: Tilapiine cichlids Tomocichla Regan 1908 Tramitichromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Trematocara Boulenger 1899 Trematocranus Trewavas 1935 Triglachromis Poll & Thys van den Audenaerde 1974 Tristramella Trewavas 1942 Tropheops Trewavas 1984 Tropheus Boulenger 1898 Tylochromis Regan 1920 Tyrannochromis Eccles & Trewavas 1989 Uaru Heckel 1840 Variabilichromis Colombe & Allgayer 1985 Xenochromis Boulenger 1899 Xenotilapia Boulenger 1899


Images of cichlids[edit] The oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) is one of the most popular cichlids in the fishkeeping hobby. The butterfly peacock bass (Cichla ocellaris) was introduced intentionally in Florida as gamefish. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is farmed extensively as food fish in many parts of the world. The angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) has long been commercially bred for the aquarium trade. Sexual dimorphism is common in cichlids. Shown here are a male (front, with egg spots) and a female (rear) Maylandia lombardoi. A pair of blue rams (Mikrogeophagus ramirezi), male in front, female behind. Many cichlids form strong pair bonds while breeding. A discus (Symphysodon spp.) is guarding its eggs. Advanced broodcare is one of the defining characteristics of cichlids. Lake Malawi, Eastern Africa, is home to numerous cichild species including this Livingston's cichlid (Nimbochromis livingstonii). Also from Lake Malawi Also from Lake Malawi A shell-brooding cichlid of the genus Lamprologus from Lake Tanganyika in East Africa The Texas cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) is the only cichlid native to the United States. Pelvicachromis pulcher is a West African riverine cichlid, and part of the aquarists dwarf cichlid group. The flowerhorn cichlid is a man-made hybrid that has recently gained popularity among aquarists, particularly in Asia. Ivanacara adoketa, a dwarf cichlid from Brazil The red terror cichlid is a highly aggressive species from the rivers of Northeast South America.


References[edit] ^ a b Stiassny, M.L.J.; Jensen, J.S. (1987). "Labroid intrarelationships revisited: morphological complexity, key innovations, and the study of comparative diversity". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 151: 269–319.  ^ "List of Nominal Species of Cichlidae, in Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). FishBase,". February 2012.  ^ Stiassny, M., G. G. Teugels & C. D. Hopkins (2007). The Fresh and Brackish Water Fishes of Lower Guinea, West-Central Africa - Vol. 2. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. p. 269. ISBN 978-90-74752-21-3. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Loiselle, P.V. (1994). The Cichlid Aquarium. Tetra Press. ISBN 1-56465-146-0.  ^ Helfman G.; Collette B.; Facey D. (1997). The Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Publishing, Inc. pp. 256–257. ISBN 0-86542-256-7.  ^ a b c Chapman, F. A. (1992). "Culture of Hybrid Tilapia: A Reference Profile" (PDF). Circular 1051. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.  ^ Reid, G. M. (December 1990). "Captive breeding for the conservation of cichlid fishes" (fee required). Journal of Fish Biology. 37: 157–166. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05031.x.  ^ Salzburger W.; Mack T.; Verheyen E.; Meyer A. (2005). "Out of Tanganyika: Genesis, explosive speciation, key-innovations and phylogeography of the haplochromine cichlid fishes" (PDF). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 5 (17): 17. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-5-17. PMC 554777 . PMID 15723698.  ^ Snoeks, J. (ed.) (2004). The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: identification, distribution and taxonomy. Cichlid Press. ISBN 0-9668255-8-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Kornfield, Irv; Smith, Peter (November 2000). "African Cichlid Fishes: Model Systems for Evolutionary Biology". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 31: 163–196. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.31.1.163.  ^ Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. "Fact sheet for Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852)". Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2006.  ^ a b c d e f g Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.  ^ a b c Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Cichlidae" in FishBase. April 2006 version. ^ Kullander, S.O. (1998). "A phylogeny and classification of the South American Cichlidae (Teleostei: Perciformes)". In L.R. Malabarba; R.E. Reis; R.P. Vari; Z.M. Lucena; C.A.S. Lucena. Phylogeny and classification of neotropical fishes. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 461–498. ISBN 978-85-7430-035-1.  ^ Sparks, J.S.; Smith, W.L. (2004). "Phylogeny and biogeography of cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae)". Cladistics. 20 (6): 501–517. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2004.00038.x.  ^ Phylogeny of major groups of cichlids ^ Multilocus Phylogeny of Cichlid Fishes (Pisces: Perciformes): Evolutionary Comparison of Microsatellite and Single-Copy Nuclear Loci by Streelman, Zardoya, Meyer and Karl (1998) (Mol. Biol. 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Further reading[edit] Barlow, G. W. (2000). The Cichlid fishes. Cambridge MA: Perseus Publishing. "Cichlidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. : National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., 2004-05-11). Sany, R. H. (2012). Taxonomy of Cichlids and Angel. (Web publication).


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cichlidae. Cichlid at Curlie (based on DMOZ) The Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi by Dr. Michael Oliver. Vision in Cichlids: Ecomorphology of vision in haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria by Dr. H.J. van der Meer.  "Cichlid". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 360.  Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cichlid&oldid=820274524" Categories: CichlidaeLabroideiFishkeepingHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listCS1 maint: Extra text: authors listAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from May 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksUse dmy dates from November 2013Articles with 'species' microformatsArticles needing additional references from October 2014All articles needing additional referencesVague or ambiguous geographic scope from October 2014Articles with DMOZ linksWikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference


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Pterophyllum ScalareTaxonomy (biology)EAnimalChordateActinopterygiiPerciformesLabroideiCharles Lucien BonaparteSubfamiliesAstronotinaeCichlasomatinaeCichlinaeEtroplinaeGeophaginaeHeterochromidinaePseudocrenilabrinaePtychochrominaeRetroculinaeGenusHelp:IPA/EnglishFishFamily (biology)PerciformesLabroideiLabridaePomacentridaeEmbiotocidaeSpeciesBinomial NomenclatureVertebrateUndescribed TaxonFreshwater AquariumFishkeepingAquariumNeolamprologus MultifasciatusBoulengerochromisCichlaAltolamprologusPterophyllumSymphysodonJulidochromisTeleogrammaTeleocichlaCrenicichlaGobiocichlaCentrarchidaeTilapiaAquariumFreshwater AngelfishAstronotus OcellatusSymphysodonEndangered SpeciesVertebrateHaplochromineAdaptive RadiationSpecies FlockLake TanganyikaLake VictoriaLake MalawiLake EdwardSpeciationIntroduced SpeciesEnlargePharyngeal TeethOral JawMandiblePharyngeal JawsSymphysodonHeros (genus)PterophyllumUaruCrenicichlaBiotoecusLateral LineTeleogrammaGobiocichlaOtolithSmall IntestineStomachSven O. KullanderSubfamilyAstronotinaeCichlasomatinaeCichlinaeEtroplinaeGeophaginaeHeterochromidinaePseudocrenilabrinaeRetroculinaePtychochrominaeGeneraSpeciesMonophylyAfricaHeterochromisPhylogeneticNeotropicalLake VictoriaLake TanganyikaGene LocusDentitionDNA SequencingEnlargePelmatolapia MariaeAfricaSouth AmericaCentral AmericaMexicoRio GrandeTexasMadagascarKatria KatriaOxylapiaParatilapiaParetroplusPtychochromisPtychochromoidesAsiaIsraelLebanonSyriaAstatotilapia FlaviijosephiOreochromis AureusOreochromis NiloticusSarotherodon GalilaeusCoptodon ZilliiTristramellaIranIranocichlaIndiaSri LankaEtroplusPseudetroplusTrinidad And TobagoNandopsisAntillesCaribbeanCubaHispaniolaEuropeAntarcticaNorth AmericaFloridaIntroduced SpeciesTrematocaraLake TanganyikaAlticorpus MacrocleithrumPallidochromis TokoloshLake MalawiBiological PigmentLamprologus LethopsCongo RiverBrackish WaterSeawaterCichlasoma UrophthalmusMarshMangroveBarrier IslandTilapiaSarotherodonOreochromisEuryhalineEtroplus MaculatusEtroplus SuratensisSarotherodon MelanotheronHypersaline LakeAlcolapiaDanakiliaEritreaDanakilia DinicolaiGondwananVicarianceMozambique ChannelPtychochromis GrandidieriParetroplus PolyactisOrange ChromideGreen ChromideWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalEnlargePseudotropheus CrabroBagrus MeridionalisHerbivoresAlgaePetrochromisPlantsEtroplus SuratensisInvertebrateDetritivoreAufwuchsTilapiineOreochromisSarotherodonTilapia (genus)CarnivoreInsectLarvaPterophyllumTrematocranusSnailPungu MaclareniPoriferaCrenicichlaRhamphochromisPaedophagyCaprichromisMouthbroodingCorematodusDocimodusPlecodusPerissodusGenyochromisLepidophagyNimbochromisParachromisPharyngeal TeethEnlargeParachromis ManaguenseEgg (biology)LarvaAmphilophus CitrinellusEtroplus SuratensisTilapia RendalliNeolamprologus BrichardiJuvenile (organism)SymphysodonAmphilophusEtroplusUaruSecretionNeolamprologus PulcherMouthbrooderPterophyllumAnomalochromis ThomasiShell DwellerPelvicachromis PulcherConvict CichlidApistogrammaPelvic FinEnlargeCyphotilapia FrontosaEast African RiftLake MalawiLake TanganyikaLake VictoriaMaylandiaPseudotropheusTropheusAstatotilapia BurtoniSouth AmericaGeophagus SteindachneriGeophagus AltifronsAequidensGymnogeophagusSatanopercaOreochromis MossambicusOreochromis NiloticusSpathodusEretmodusTanganicodusSarotherodonSarotherodon MelanotheronChromidotilapia GuentheriAequidensMonogamousPolygamousChromidotilapiaGymnogeophagusSpathodusTanganicodusApistogrammaLamprologusNannacaraPelvicachromisEnlargeRift Valley LakesHybrid SwarmPharyngeal JawPhenotypic PlasticityAllopatric SpeciationSympatric SpeciationApoyo Lagoon Natural ReserveNicaraguaAmphilophus ZaliosusAmphilophus CitrinellusRift Valley LakesHybrid SwarmInternational Union For Conservation Of NatureVulnerable SpeciesEndangered SpeciesCritically EndangeredYssichromis Sp. Nov. "argens"Extinct In The WildHaplochromis AelocephalusHaplochromis ApogonoidesHaplochromis DentexHaplochromis DichrourusLake VictoriaEnlargeHaplochromisNile PerchNile TilapiaWater HyacinthDeforestationSiltationLake VictoriaPapyrus SedgePiscivorousPlanktivoreArtisan FishingRift Valley LakesTilapiineAquacultureSalmonTroutAlgaeFood ChainPeacock BassCichlaSport FishingWikipedia:Naming Conventions (geographic Names)FloridaOscar (fish)Mayan CichlidJaguar GuapoteList Of Cichlid Fish Of South AmericaEnlargeSymphysodonPterophyllum ScalareAmazon RiverFreshwater AngelfishOscar (fish)Convict CichlidSymphysodonEnlargeTexas CichlidHerichthysAmphilophusHybrid (biology)CyprinidaeTilapiaBlood Parrot CichlidAmphilophusTriangularVertebral ColumnCaudal FinParrotFlowerhorn CichlidAsiaMalaysiaSingaporeEnlargeLeucismSelective BreedingMutationAlbinoLeucismXanthochromismPigmentMutationOscar (fish)Convict CichlidPelvicachromis PulcherDominance (genetics)Dominance (genetics)Convict CichlidOreochromis Niloticus NiloticusUnintended ConsequenceRam CichlidInbreedingPhenotypePterophyllumFishBaseAbactochromisAcarichthysCarl H. EigenmannAcaroniaGeorge S. MyersAlcolapiaAlticorpusAltolamprologusMax PollAmatitlaniaAmphilophusLouis AgassizAndinoacaraAnomalochromisApistogrammaCharles Tate ReganApistogrammoidesAristochromisEthelwynn TrewavasAstatoreochromisJacques PellegrinAstatotilapiaAstronotusAulonocaraAulonocranusAustraloherosSven O. KullanderBaileychromisBathybatesGeorge Albert BoulengerBenitochromisBenthochromisBiotodomaBiotoecusBoulengerochromisBuccochromisBujurquinaCallochromisCaprichromisCaquetaiaCardiopharynxChaetobranchopsisFranz SteindachnerChaetobranchusJohann Jakob HeckelChalinochromisChampsochromisCheilochromisChetiaChilochromisChilotilapiaChromidotilapiaCichlaCichlasomaCleithracaraHan NijssenCoelotilapiaCongochromisCongolapiaCopadichromisCoptodonCorematodusCrenicaraCrenicichlaCryptoherosCtenochromisCtenopharynxCunningtoniaCyathochromisCyathopharynxCyclopharynxCynotilapiaCyphotilapiaCyprichromisCyrtocaraDanakiliaDicrossusDimidiochromisDiplotaxodonDivanduDocimodusEclectochromisEctodusEnigmatochromisEretmodusEtiaEtroplusGeorges CuvierExochochromisFossorochromisGenyochromisGeophagusGephyrochromisGnathochromisGobiocichlaGrammatotriaGreenwoodochromisGuianacaraGymnogeophagusHaplochromisHaplotaxodonHemibatesHemichromisHemitaeniochromisHemitilapiaHerichthysHeroina (genus)Heros GenusHeterochromisHeterotilapiaHoplarchusJohann Jakob KaupHypselecaraHypsophrysLouis AgassizInterochromisIodotropheusIranocichlaJulidochromisKatriaKonia (fish)Krobia (genus)LabeotropheusErnst AhlLabidochromisLaetacaraLamprologusLepidiolamprologusLestradeaLethrinopsLichnochromisLimbochromisLimnochromisLimnotilapiaLobochilotesMaylandiaMazaruniaMchengaMelanochromisMesonautaAlbert C. L. G. GüntherMicrochromisMikrogeophagusMyaka (genus)MylochromisNaevochromisNandopsisNannacaraNanochromisNeolamprologusNimbochromisNosferatu (genus)NyassachromisOphthalmotilapiaOreochromisOrthochromisOtopharynxOxylapiaPallidochromisParachromisParacyprichromisParananochromisParaneetroplusParatilapiaPieter BleekerParetroplusPelmatochromisPelmatolapiaPelvicachromisPerissodusPeteniaPetrochromisPetrotilapiaPharyngochromisPlacidochromisPlecodusProtomelasPseudocrenilabrusPseudosimochromisPseudotropheusPterochromisPterophyllumPtychochromisPtychochromoidesPungu (genus)ReganochromisRetroculusRhamphochromisRocioSargochromisSarotherodonSatanopercaSchwetzochromisSciaenochromisSerranochromisSimochromisSpathodusSteatocranusStigmatochromisStomatepiaSymphysodonTaeniacaraTaeniochromisTaeniolethrinopsTahuantinsuyoaTangachromisTanganicodusTeleocichlaTeleogrammaTelmatochromisTherapsThoracochromisThorichthysSeth Eugene MeekThysochromisTilapia (genus)TilapiaTomocichlaTramitichromisTrematocaraTrematocranusTriglachromisTristramellaTropheopsTropheusTylochromisTyrannochromisUaruVariabilichromisXenochromisXenotilapiaOscar (fish)FishkeepingCichla OcellarisFloridaSport FishingOreochromis NiloticusPterophyllum ScalareSexual DimorphismMaylandia LombardoiMikrogeophagus RamireziPair BondSymphysodonLake MalawiAfricaNimbochromis LivingstoniiShell DwellerLamprologusLake TanganyikaEast AfricaHerichthys CyanoguttatusPelvicachromis PulcherWest AfricaDwarf CichlidFlowerhorn CichlidHybrid (biology)AsiaIvanacara AdoketaDwarf CichlidBrazilCichlasomaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-90-74752-21-3Category:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-56465-146-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-86542-256-7Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book 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