Sister chromatids[edit] Main article: Sister chromatids Chromatids may be sister or non-sister chromatids. A sister chromatid is either one of the two chromatids of the same chromosome joined together by a common centromere. A pair of sister chromatids is called a dyad. Once sister chromatids have separated (during the anaphase of mitosis or the anaphase II of meiosis during sexual reproduction), they are again called chromosomes. Although having the same genetic mass as the individual chromatids that made up its parent, the daughter "molecules" are called chromosomes in a similar way that one child of a pair of twins is not referred to as a single twin. The DNA sequence of two sister chromatids is completely identical (apart from very rare DNA copying errors). Sometimes sister chromatids do not separate during cell division, leading to a situation known as nondisjunction where one daughter cell lacks the chromosome while the other gets both copies of it. Conditions arising from nondisjunction include Edwards Syndrome, Down Syndrome and Turner Syndrome. [3] Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is the exchange of genetic information between two sister chromatids. SCEs can occur during mitosis or meiosis. SCEs appear to primarily reflect DNA recombinational repair processes responding to DNA damage (see articles Sister chromatids and Sister chromatid exchange). Non-sister chromatids, on the other hand, refers to either of the two chromatids of paired homologous chromosomes, that is, the pairing of a paternal chromosome and a maternal chromosome. In chromosomal crossovers, non-sister (homologous) chromatids form chiasmata to exchange genetic material during the prophase I of meiosis (See Homologous recombination).


References[edit] ^ "What is a Chromatid?". About.com. Retrieved 18 July 2017.  ^ "Definition of CHROMATID". www.Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 18 July 2017.  ^ "Chromatid". biologydictionary.net. Retrieved 26 September 2017.  3. "Chromosomes, Chromatids and Chromatin" www.khanacademy.org. Retrieved 13 September 2017. v t e Cytogenetics: chromosomes Basic concepts Karyotype Ploidy Genetic material/Genome Chromatin Euchromatin Heterochromatin Chromosome Chromatid Nucleosome Nuclear organization Types Autosome/Sex chromosome (or allosome or heterosome) Macrochromosome/Microchromosome Circular chromosome/Linear chromosome Extra chromosome (or accessory chromosome) Supernumerary chromosome A chromosome/B chromosome Lampbrush chromosome Polytene chromosome Dinoflagellate chromosomes Homologous chromosome Isochromosome Satellite chromosome Centromere position Metacentric Submetacentric Telocentric Acrocentric Holocentric Centromere number Acentric Monocentric Dicentric Polycentric Processes and evolution Mitosis Meiosis Structural alterations Chromosomal inversion Chromosomal translocation Numerical alterations Aneuploidy Euploidy Polyploidy Paleopolyploidy Polyploidization Structures Telomere: Telomere-binding protein (TINF2) Protamine Histone H1 H2A H2B H3 H4 Centromere A B C1 C2 E F H I J K M N O P Q T See also Extrachromosomal DNA Plasmid List of organisms by chromosome count List of chromosome lengths for various organisms List of sequenced genomes International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature Look up chromatid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chromatid&oldid=816735557" Categories: ChromosomesMolecular geneticsCell biologyMitosisTelomeres


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