Contents 1 Greek 1.1 Pronunciation 1.1.1 Ancient Greek 1.1.2 Koine Greek 1.1.3 Modern Greek 1.2 Transliteration 1.3 Greek numeral 1.4 Xi 2 Cyrillic 3 International Phonetic Alphabet 4 Chiasmus 5 Symbolism 6 Character encodings 6.1 Greek chi 6.2 Coptic khi 6.3 Latin chi 6.4 Mathematical chi 7 Math and science 8 See also 9 References


Greek The Greek alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a cross-shaped chi Pronunciation Ancient Greek Its value in Ancient Greek was an aspirated velar stop /kʰ/ (in the Western Greek alphabet: /ks/). Koine Greek In Koine Greek and later dialects it became a fricative ([x]/[ç]) along with Θ and Φ. Modern Greek In Modern Greek, it has two distinct pronunciations: In front of high or front vowels (/e/ or /i/) it is pronounced as a voiceless palatal fricative [ç], as in German ich or like the h in some pronunciations of the English words hew and human. In front of low or back vowels (/a/, /o/ or /u/) and consonants, it is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative ([x]), as in German ach. Transliteration Chi is romanized as ⟨ch⟩ in most systematic transliteration conventions, but sometimes ⟨kh⟩ is used.[1] In addition, in Modern Greek, it is often also romanized as ⟨h⟩ or ⟨x⟩ in informal practice. Greek numeral In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 600. Xi In ancient times, some local forms of the Greek alphabet used the chi instead of xi to represent the /ks/ sound. This was borrowed into the early Latin language, which led to the use of the letter X for the same sound in Latin, and many modern languages that use the Latin alphabet.


Cyrillic Chi was also included in the Cyrillic script as the letter Х, with the phonetic value /x/ or /h/.


International Phonetic Alphabet In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the minuscule chi is the symbol for the voiceless uvular fricative.


Chiasmus Chi is the basis for the name literary Chiastic structure and the name of Chiasmus.


Symbolism In Plato's Timaeus, it is explained that the two bands that form the soul of the world cross each other like the letter Χ. Plato's analogy, along with several other examples of chi as a symbol occur in Thomas Browne's discourse The Garden of Cyrus (1658). Chi or X is often used to abbreviate the name Christ, as in the holiday Christmas (Xmas). When fused within a single typespace with the Greek letter Rho, it is called the labarum and used to represent the person of Jesus Christ.


Character encodings Greek chi Character Χ χ ᵡ ᵪ ☧ Unicode name GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI MODIFIER LETTER SMALL CHI GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER CHI CHI RHO Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex Unicode 935 U+03A7 967 U+03C7 7521 U+1D61 7530 U+1D6A 9767 U+2627 UTF-8 206 167 CE A7 207 135 CF 87 225 181 161 E1 B5 A1 225 181 170 E1 B5 AA 226 152 167 E2 98 A7 Numeric character reference Χ Χ χ χ ᵡ ᵡ ᵪ ᵪ ☧ ☧ Named character reference Χ χ DOS Greek 148 94 173 AD DOS Greek-2 210 D2 243 F3 Windows 1253 214 D6 246 F6 TeX \chi [2] Coptic khi Character Ⲭ ⲭ ⳩ Unicode name COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER KHI COPTIC SMALL LETTER KHI COPTIC SYMBOL KHI RHO Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex Unicode 11436 U+2CAC 11437 U+2CAD 11497 U+2CE9 UTF-8 226 178 172 E2 B2 AC 226 178 173 E2 B2 AD 226 179 169 E2 B3 A9 Numeric character reference Ⲭ Ⲭ ⲭ ⲭ ⳩ ⳩ Latin chi Character Ꭓ ꭓ ꭔ ꭕ Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER CHI LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI WITH LOW RIGHT RING LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI WITH LOW LEFT SERIF Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex Unicode 42931 U+A7B3 43859 U+AB53 43860 U+AB54 43861 U+AB55 UTF-8 234 158 179 EA 9E B3 234 173 147 EA AD 93 234 173 148 EA AD 94 234 173 149 EA AD 95 Numeric character reference Ꭓ Ꭓ ꭓ ꭓ ꭔ ꭔ ꭕ ꭕ Mathematical chi Character 𝚾 𝛘 𝛸 𝜒 𝜲 𝝌 Unicode name MATHEMATICAL BOLD CAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL BOLD SMALL CHI MATHEMATICAL ITALIC CAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL ITALIC SMALL CHI MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC SMALL CHI Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex Unicode 120510 U+1D6BE 120536 U+1D6D8 120568 U+1D6F8 120594 U+1D712 120626 U+1D732 120652 U+1D74C UTF-8 240 157 154 190 F0 9D 9A BE 240 157 155 152 F0 9D 9B 98 240 157 155 184 F0 9D 9B B8 240 157 156 146 F0 9D 9C 92 240 157 156 178 F0 9D 9C B2 240 157 157 140 F0 9D 9D 8C UTF-16 55349 57022 D835 DEBE 55349 57048 D835 DED8 55349 57080 D835 DEF8 55349 57106 D835 DF12 55349 57138 D835 DF32 55349 57164 D835 DF4C Numeric character reference 𝚾 𝚾 𝛘 𝛘 𝛸 𝛸 𝜒 𝜒 𝜲 𝜲 𝝌 𝝌 Character 𝝬 𝞆 𝞦 𝟀 Unicode name MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD CAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD SMALL CHI MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD ITALIC SMALL CHI Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex Unicode 120684 U+1D76C 120710 U+1D786 120742 U+1D7A6 120768 U+1D7C0 UTF-8 240 157 157 172 F0 9D 9D AC 240 157 158 134 F0 9D 9E 86 240 157 158 166 F0 9D 9E A6 240 157 159 128 F0 9D 9F 80 UTF-16 55349 57196 D835 DF6C 55349 57222 D835 DF86 55349 57254 D835 DFA6 55349 57280 D835 DFC0 Numeric character reference 𝝬 𝝬 𝞆 𝞆 𝞦 𝞦 𝟀 𝟀 These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.


Math and science In statistics, the term chi-squared or χ 2 {\displaystyle \chi ^{2}} has various uses, including the chi-squared distribution, the chi-squared test, and chi-squared target models. In algebraic topology, Chi is used to represent the Euler characteristic of a surface. In neurology, the optic chiasm is named for the letter Chi because of its Χ-shape.[3] In chemistry, the mole fraction[4][5] and electronegativity[6] may be denoted by the lowercase χ {\displaystyle \chi } . In rhetoric, both chiastic structure (a literary device) and the figure of speech Chiasmus derive from their names from the shape of the letter Chi. In engineering, chi is used as a symbol for the reduction factor of relevant buckling loads in the EN 1993, a European Standard for the design of steel structures. In graph theory, a lowercase chi is used to represent a graph's chromatic number.


See also Look up Χ or χ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Chi (disambiguation) Х, х - Kha (Cyrillic)


References ^ Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 0370-03FF) ^ Asimov, Isaac (1963). The Human Brain. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2008). Chemistry (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 201. ISBN 0547125321.  ^ Rickard, James N. Spencer, George M. Bodner, Lyman H. (2010). Chemistry : structure and dynamics (5th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. p. 357. ISBN 9780470587119.  ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "Electronegativity". Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chi_(letter)&oldid=804447993" Categories: Greek lettersPhonetic transcription symbolsHidden categories: Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesArticles containing Greek-language text


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