Contents 1 Early life 2 Career 3 Private life 4 Publications 5 References 6 External links

Early life[edit] Darwin was born at Newnham Grange in Cambridge,[3] England into a scientific dynasty, the son of the mathematician Sir George Howard Darwin and a grandson of Charles Darwin. His mother was Lady Darwin, Maud du Puy of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His elder sister was the artist Gwen Raverat, and his younger sister Margaret married Geoffrey Keynes, the brother of the economist John Maynard Keynes. His younger brother William Robert Darwin was a London stockbroker. Darwin was educated at Marlborough College (1901-6) and then won a place studying Mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge graduating MA in 1910.

Career[edit] He secured a post-graduate position at the Victoria University of Manchester, working under Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr on Rutherford's atomic theory. In 1912, his interests developed into using his mathematical skills assisting Henry Moseley on X-ray diffraction. His two 1914 papers on diffraction of X-rays from perfect crystals became often cited classics. In a further paper of 1922, he introduced the mosaic crystal model. On the outbreak of World War I, he was commissioned and sent to France as a censor. A year later William Lawrence Bragg had him transferred to the Royal Engineers to participate in the work on the localisation of enemy artillery by sound ranging.[4] When that was on a sound footing he was transferred to the RAF to study aircraft noise. From 1919 to 1922 he was a lecturer and fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge where he worked with R.H. Fowler on statistical mechanics and, what came to be known as, the Darwin–Fowler method. He then worked for a year at the California Institute of Technology before becoming Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh in 1924, working on quantum optics and magneto-optic effects. He was the first in 1928, to calculate the fine structure of the hydrogen atom under P.A.M. Dirac's relativistic theory of the electron. In 1936 Darwin became master of Christ's College, beginning his career as an active and able administrator, becoming director of the National Physical Laboratory on the approach of war in 1938. He served in the role into the post-war period, unafraid to seek improved laboratory performance through re-organisation, but spending much of the war years working on the Manhattan Project co-ordinating the American, British, and Canadian efforts. He was appointed KBE in 1942.

Private life[edit] In 1925 he married Katharine Pember, a mathematician and daughter of Francis William Pember. They had four sons and a daughter: Cecily Darwin (born 1926) became an X-ray crystallographer and in 1951 married John Littleton of Philadelphia. George Pember Darwin (1928–2001) worked developing computers, and then (1964) married Angela Huxley, daughter of David Bruce Huxley. She was also a granddaughter of the writer Leonard Huxley and a great-granddaughter of Thomas Huxley, "Darwin's Bulldog". Henry Galton Darwin (1929–1992) was with the British Foreign Office, and married Jane Christie. Francis William Darwin (1932–1999) was a zoologist and taught at the University of London, and married in 1976. Edward Leonard Darwin (born 1934) became a civil engineer. In his spare time, Darwin also served as a wartime vice-president of the Simplified Spelling Society.[5] On his retirement, his attention turned to issues of population, genetics and eugenics. His conclusions were pessimistic and entailed a resigned belief in an inevitable Malthusian catastrophe, as described in his 1952 book The Next Million Years. He first argued in this book that voluntary birth control (family planning) establishes a selective system that ensures its own failure. The cause is that people with the strongest instinct for wanting children will have the largest families and they will hand on the instinct to their children, while those with weaker instincts will have smaller families and will hand on that instinct to their children. In the long run society will consist mainly of people with the strongest instinct to reproduce. This would ultimately have dysgenic effects.[6] In later years he travelled widely, an enthusiastic collaborator across national borders and an able communicator of scientific ideas. He died at Newnham Grange in Cambridge (the house where he was born) on New Year's Eve 1962/3; he was cremated at Cambridge Crematorium on 4 January 1963. He and his late wife are commemorated with a memorial at St Botolph's Church, Cambridge; she was cremated, the funeral was in Wimbledon, where she had been living. Biography portal

Publications[edit] The New Conceptions of Matter (1931) The Next Million Years (1952)

References[edit] ^ a b Thomson, G. P. (1963). "Charles Galton Darwin. 1887-1962". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 9: 69–85. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1963.0004.  ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Charles Galton Darwin", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews . ^ ^ Van der Kloot, W (2005). "Lawrence Bragg's role in the development of sound-ranging in World War I". Notes Rec. R. Soc. Lond. 59: 273–284. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2005.0095.  ^ "The Simplified Spelling Society Officers and Committee Members". The Spelling Society. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2009.  ^ Carl Jay Bajema (ed) Eugenics. Then and Now, Dowden, Hutchinson, & Ross Inc. , 1976, p. 294-298.

External links[edit] NPL biography Charles Galton Darwin at Find a Grave Online book: The Next Million Years, 1953 Academic offices Preceded by Norman McLean Master of Christ's College, Cambridge 1936–1939 Succeeded by Charles Earle Raven Government offices Preceded by William Lawrence Bragg Managing Director of the National Physical Laboratory 1938–1949 Succeeded by Edward Bullard Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 73846789 LCCN: n91034826 ISNI: 0000 0000 6304 4239 GND: 116027959 SELIBR: 238568 SUDOC: 082104565 BNF: cb11237553x (data) BIBSYS: 97047616 ICCU: IT\ICCU\CUBV\052775 IATH: w6zs2z2p Retrieved from "" Categories: 1887 births1962 deathsPeople from CambridgeRoyal Flying Corps officersPeople educated at Marlborough CollegeAlumni of Trinity College, CambridgeAcademics of the University of EdinburghEnglish eugenicistsDarwin–Wedgwood familyEnglish physicistsFellows of the Royal SocietyKnights Commander of the Order of the British EmpireRecipients of the Military CrossMasters of Christ's College, CambridgeAcademics of the Victoria University of ManchesterRoyal Medal winnersPresidents of the Physical SocietyScientists of the National Physical LaboratoryHidden categories: EngvarB from August 2014Use dmy dates from August 2014Articles with hCardsFind a Grave template with ID same as WikidataWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiersWikipedia articles with SBN identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers

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Charles DarwinCambridgeCambridgeTrinity College, CambridgeFine StructureDarwin LagrangianDarwin DriftDarwin–Radau EquationRoyal MedalFellow Of The Royal SocietyPhysicistNational Physical Laboratory, UKVictoria University Of ManchesterRoyal EngineersChrist's College, CambridgeCalifornia Institute Of TechnologyUniversity Of EdinburghManhattan ProjectErnest RutherfordNiels BohrCharles DarwinGeorge Howard DarwinGwen RaveratGeoffrey KeynesOrder Of The British EmpireMilitary CrossFellow Of The Royal SocietyPhysicistNational Physical Laboratory, UKSecond World WarGeorge Howard DarwinCharles DarwinCambridgeSir George Howard DarwinMaud Du PuyPhiladelphia, PennsylvaniaGwen RaveratGeoffrey KeynesJohn Maynard KeynesMarlborough CollegeTrinity College, CambridgeVictoria University Of ManchesterErnest RutherfordNiels BohrAtomHenry MoseleyX-rayDiffractionMosaic CrystalWorld War IWilliam Lawrence BraggRoyal EngineersChrist's College, CambridgeR.H. FowlerStatistical MechanicsCalifornia Institute Of TechnologyNatural PhilosophyUniversity Of EdinburghQuantum OpticsMagneto-opticP.A.M. DiracTheory Of RelativityElectronNational Physical Laboratory, UKManhattan ProjectKBEFrancis William PemberX-ray CrystallographyComputer ScienceDavid Bruce HuxleyLeonard Huxley (writer)Thomas HuxleyHenry Galton DarwinForeign OfficeZoologyUniversity Of LondonSimplified Spelling SocietyGeneticsEugenicsPessimismMalthusian CatastropheNewnham GrangeSt Botolph's Church, CambridgePortal:BiographyBiographical Memoirs Of Fellows Of The Royal SocietyDigital Object IdentifierJohn J. O'Connor (mathematician)Edmund F. RobertsonMacTutor History Of Mathematics ArchiveUniversity Of St AndrewsDigital Object IdentifierFind A GraveNorman McLeanChrist's College, CambridgeCharles Earle RavenWilliam Lawrence BraggNational Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)Edward BullardHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Name IdentifierIntegrated Authority FileLIBRISSystème Universitaire De DocumentationBibliothèque Nationale De FranceBIBSYSIstituto Centrale Per Il Catalogo UnicoInstitute For Advanced Technology In The HumanitiesHelp:CategoryCategory:1887 BirthsCategory:1962 DeathsCategory:People From CambridgeCategory:Royal Flying Corps OfficersCategory:People Educated At Marlborough CollegeCategory:Alumni Of Trinity College, CambridgeCategory:Academics Of The University Of EdinburghCategory:English EugenicistsCategory:Darwin–Wedgwood FamilyCategory:English PhysicistsCategory:Fellows Of The Royal SocietyCategory:Knights Commander Of The Order Of The British EmpireCategory:Recipients Of The Military CrossCategory:Masters Of Christ's College, CambridgeCategory:Academics Of The Victoria University Of ManchesterCategory:Royal Medal WinnersCategory:Presidents Of The Physical SocietyCategory:Scientists Of The National Physical LaboratoryCategory:EngvarB From August 2014Category:Use Dmy Dates From August 2014Category:Articles With HCardsCategory:Find A Grave Template With ID Same As WikidataCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ISNI IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SELIBR IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BIBSYS IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SBN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SNAC-ID IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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