Contents 1 Structure 2 Function 3 Regulation 4 Interactions 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

Structure[edit] Crystal Structure of the human Cdk1 homolog, Cdk2 Cdk1 is a small protein (approximately 34 kilodaltons), and is highly conserved. The human homolog of Cdk1, CDC2, shares approximately 63% amino-acid identity with its yeast homolog. Furthermore, human CDC2 is capable of rescuing fission yeast carrying a cdc2 mutation.[7][9] Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. Cdk1, like other kinases, contains a cleft in which ATP fits. Substrates of Cdk1 bind near the mouth of the cleft, and Cdk1 residues catalyze the covalent bonding of the γ-phosphate to the oxygen of the hydroxyl serine/threonine of the substrate. In addition to this catalytic core, Cdk1, like other cyclin-dependent kinases, contains a T-loop, which, in the absence of an interacting cyclin, prevents substrate binding to the Cdk1 active site. Cdk1 also contains a PSTAIRE helix, which, upon cyclin binding, moves and rearranges the active site, facilitating Cdk1 kinase activities.[10]

Function[edit] Fig. 1 The diagram shows the role of Cdk1 in progression through the S. cerevisiae cell cycle. Cln3-Cdk1 leads to Cln1,2-Cdk1 activity, eventually resulting in Clb5,6-Cdk1 activity and then Clb1-4-Cdk1 activity.[5] When bound to its cyclin partners, Cdk1 phosphorylation leads to cell cycle progression. Cdk1 activity is best understood in S. cerevisiae, so Cdk1 S. cerevisiae activity is described here. In the budding yeast, initial cell cycle entry is controlled by two regulatory complexes, SBF (SCB-binding factor) and MBF (MCB-binding factor). These two complexes control G1/S gene transcription; however, they are normally inactive. SBF is inhibited by the protein Whi5; however, when phosphorylated by Cln3-Cdk1, Whi5 is ejected from the nucleus, allowing for transcription of the G1/S regulon, which includes the G1/S cyclins Cln1,2.[11] G1/S cyclin-Cdk1 activity leads to preparation for S phase entry (e.g., duplication of centromeres or the spindle pole body), and a rise in the S cyclins (Clb5,6 in S. cerevisiae). Clb5,6-Cdk1 complexes directly lead to replication origin initiation;[12] however, they are inhibited by Sic1, preventing premature S phase initiation. Cln1,2 and/or Clb5,6-Cdk1 complex activity leads to a sudden drop in Sic1 levels, allowing for coherent S phase entry. Finally, phosphorylation by M cyclins (e.g., Clb1, 2, 3 and 4) in complex with Cdk1 leads to spindle assembly and sister chromatid alignment. Cdk1 phosphorylation also leads to the activation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase APCCdc20, an activation which allows for chromatid segregation and, furthermore, degradation of M-phase cyclins. This destruction of M cyclins leads to the final events of mitosis (e.g., spindle disassembly, mitotic exit).

Regulation[edit] Given its essential role in cell cycle progression, Cdk1 is highly regulated. Most obviously, Cdk1 is regulated by its binding with its cyclin partners. Cyclin binding alters access to the active site of Cdk1, allowing for Cdk1 activity; furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to Cdk1 activity. At least some cyclins contain a hydrophobic patch which may directly interact with substrates, conferring target specificity.[13] Furthermore, cyclins can target Cdk1 to particular subcellular locations. In addition to regulation by cyclins, Cdk1 is regulated by phosphorylation. A conserved tyrosine (Tyr15 in humans) leads to inhibition of Cdk1; this phosphorylation is thought to alter ATP orientation, preventing efficient kinase activity. In S. pombe, for example, incomplete DNA synthesis may lead to stabilization of this phosphorylation, preventing mitotic progression.[14] Wee1, conserved among all eukaryotes phosphorylates Tyr15, whereas members of the Cdc25 family are phosphatases, counteracting this activity. The balance between the two is thought to help govern cell cycle progression. Wee1 is controlled upstream by Cdr1, Cdr2, and Pom1. Cdk1-cyclin complexes are also governed by direct binding of Cdk inhibitor proteins (CKIs). One such protein, already discussed, is Sic1. Sic1 is a stoichiometric inhibitor that binds directly to Clb5,6-Cdk1 complexes. Multisite phosphorylation, by Cdk1-Cln1/2, of Sic1 is thought to time Sic1 ubiquitination and destruction, and by extension, the timing of S-phase entry. Only until Sic1 inhibition is overcome can Clb5,6 activity occur and S phase initiation may begin.

Interactions[edit] Cdk1 has been shown to interact with: BCL2,[15][16] CCNB1,[17][18][19] CCNE1,[17][20] CDKN3[21][22] DAB2,[23] FANCC,[24][25] GADD45A,[26][27][28][29] LATS1,[30] LYN,[31][32] P53,[33][34] and UBC.[35]

See also[edit] E2F#E2F.2FpRb complexes Hyperphosphorylation cdc25 Maturation promoting factor CDK cyclin A cyclin B cyclin D cyclin E Wee (cell cycle) Mastl

References[edit] ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170312 - Ensembl, May 2017 ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000019942 - Ensembl, May 2017 ^ "Human PubMed Reference:".  ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:".  ^ a b Morgan, David L. (2007). The cell cycle: principles of control. London: New Science Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-19-920610-4.  ^ Nasmyth K (April 1993). "Control of the yeast cell cycle by the Cdc28 protein kinase". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 5 (2): 166–179. doi:10.1016/0955-0674(93)90099-C. PMID 8507488.  ^ a b Lee, Melanie; Nurse, Paul (Jun 1987). "Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2". Nature. 327 (6117): 31–35. doi:10.1038/327031a0. PMID 3553962.  ^ Enserink JM, Kolodner RD (May 2010). "An overview of Cdk1-controlled targets and processes". Cell Division. 5 (11): 1–41. doi:10.1186/1747-1028-5-11. PMC 2876151 . PMID 20465793.  ^ De Bondt HL, Rosenblatt J, Jancarik J, Jones HD, Morgan DO, Kim SH (June 1993). "Crystal structure of cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Nature. 363 (6430): 595–602. doi:10.1038/363595a0. PMID 8510751.  ^ Jeffrey PD, Russo AA, Polyak K, Gibbs E, Hurwitz J, Massagué J, Pavletich NP (July 1995). "Mechanism of CDK activation revealed by the structure of a cyclinA-CDK2 complex". Nature. 376 (6538): 313–320. doi:10.1038/376313a0. PMID 7630397.  ^ Skotheim JM, Di Talia S, Siggia ED, Cross FR (July 2008). "Positive feedback of G1 cyclins ensures coherent cell cycle entry". Nature. 454 (7202): 291–296. doi:10.1038/nature07118. PMC 2606905 . PMID 18633409.  ^ Cross FR, Yuste-Rojas M, Gray S, Jacobson MD (July 1999). "Specialization and targeting of B-type cyclins". Mol Cell. 4 (1): 11–19. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80183-5. PMID 10445023.  ^ Brown NR, Noble ME, Endicott JA, Johnson LN (November 1999). 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"Cyclin E associates with BAF155 and BRG1, components of the mammalian SWI-SNF complex, and alters the ability of BRG1 to induce growth arrest". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (2): 1460–9. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.2.1460. PMC 116074 . PMID 9891079.  ^ Pines J, Hunter T (September 1989). "Isolation of a human cyclin cDNA: evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2". Cell. 58 (5): 833–846. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90936-7. PMID 2570636.  ^ Kong M, Barnes EA, Ollendorff V, Donoghue DJ (March 2000). "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a cyclin-cyclin interaction". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1378–1388. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1378. PMC 305678 . PMID 10716937.  ^ Koff A, Giordano A, Desai D, Yamashita K, Harper JW, Elledge S, Nishimoto T, Morgan DO, Franza BR, Roberts JM (September 1992). "Formation and activation of a cyclin E-cdk2 complex during the G1 phase of the human cell cycle". Science. 257 (5077): 1689–1694. doi:10.1126/science.1388288. PMID 1388288.  ^ Hannon GJ, Casso D, Beach D (March 1994). "KAP: a dual specificity phosphatase that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (5): 1731–1735. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.5.1731. PMC 43237 . PMID 8127873.  ^ Gyuris J, Golemis E, Chertkov H, Brent R (November 1993). "Cdi1, a human G1 and S phase protein phosphatase that associates with Cdk2". Cell. 75 (4): 791–803. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90498-F. PMID 8242750.  ^ He J, Xu J, Xu XX, Hall RA (July 2003). "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of Disabled-2 by cdc2". Oncogene. 22 (29): 4524–4530. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206767. PMID 12881709.  ^ Reuter TY, Medhurst AL, Waisfisz Q, Zhi Y, Herterich S, Hoehn H, Gross HJ, Joenje H, Hoatlin ME, Mathew CG, Huber PA (October 2003). "Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport". Exp. 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"Identification of a functional domain in a GADD45-mediated G2/M checkpoint". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (47): 36892–36898. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005319200. PMID 10973963.  ^ Vairapandi M, Balliet AG, Hoffman B, Liebermann DA (September 2002). "GADD45b and GADD45g are cdc2/cyclinB1 kinase inhibitors with a role in S and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints induced by genotoxic stress". J. Cell. Physiol. 192 (3): 327–338. doi:10.1002/jcp.10140. PMID 12124778.  ^ Tao W, Zhang S, Turenchalk GS, Stewart RA, St John MA, Chen W, Xu T (February 1999). "Human homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster lats tumour suppressor modulates CDC2 activity". Nat. Genet. 21 (2): 177–181. doi:10.1038/5960. PMID 9988268.  ^ Kharbanda S, Yuan ZM, Rubin E, Weichselbaum R, Kufe D (August 1994). "Activation of Src-like p56/p53lyn tyrosine kinase by ionizing radiation". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (32): 20739–43. PMID 8051175.  ^ Pathan NI, Geahlen RL, Harrison ML (November 1996). 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Further reading[edit] Draetta G, Eckstein J (1997). "Cdc25 protein phosphatases in cell proliferation". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1332 (2): M53–63. doi:10.1016/S0304-419X(96)00049-2. PMID 9141461.  Kino T, Pavlakis GN (2004). "Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 193–205. doi:10.1089/104454904773819789. PMID 15142377.  Kino T, Chrousos GP (2004). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related insulin resistance/lipodystrophy syndrome?". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1024: 153–167. doi:10.1196/annals.1321.013. PMID 15265780.  Zhao LJ, Zhu H (2005). "Structure and function of HIV-1 auxiliary regulatory protein Vpr: novel clues to drug design". Curr. Drug Targets Immune Endocr. Metabol. Disord. 4 (4): 265–275. doi:10.2174/1568008043339668. PMID 15578977.  Le Rouzic E, Benichou S (2006). "The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle". Retrovirology. 2: 11. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-11. PMC 554975 . PMID 15725353.  Zhao RY, Elder RT (2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation". Cell Res. 15 (3): 143–149. doi:10.1038/ PMID 15780175.  Zhao RY, Bukrinsky M, Elder RT (2005). "HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) & host cellular responses". Indian J. Med. Res. 121 (4): 270–86. PMID 15817944.  Kaldis P, Aleem E (2007). "Cell cycle sibling rivalry: Cdc2 vs. Cdk2". Cell Cycle. 4 (11): 1491–1494. doi:10.4161/cc.4.11.2124. PMID 16258277.  Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M, Zhao RY (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Res. 15 (11–12): 923–934. doi:10.1038/ PMID 16354571.  Rietbrock N, Keller F (1977). "[Biologic availability and "1st pass" effect of drugs]". Fortschr. Med. 95 (28): 1765–6, 1774–80. PMID 914146.  Azzi L, Meijer L, Reed SI, Pidikiti R, Tung HY (1992). "Interaction between the cell-cycle-control proteins p34cdc2 and p9CKShs2. Evidence for two cooperative binding domains in p9CKShs2". Eur. J. Biochem. 203 (3): 353–360. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1992.tb16557.x. PMID 1310466.  Dutta A, Stillman B (1992). "cdc2 family kinases phosphorylate a human cell DNA replication factor, RPA, and activate DNA replication". EMBO J. 11 (6): 2189–99. PMC 556686 . PMID 1318195.  Koff A, Giordano A, Desai D, Yamashita K, Harper JW, Elledge S, Nishimoto T, Morgan DO, Franza BR, Roberts JM (1992). "Formation and activation of a cyclin E-cdk2 complex during the G1 phase of the human cell cycle". Science. 257 (5077): 1689–1694. doi:10.1126/science.1388288. PMID 1388288.  Russo GL, Vandenberg MT, Yu IJ, Bae YS, Franza BR, Marshak DR (1992). "Casein kinase II phosphorylates p34cdc2 kinase in G1 phase of the HeLa cell division cycle". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (28): 20317–25. PMID 1400350.  Rubinfeld B, Crosier WJ, Albert I, Conroy L, Clark R, McCormick F, Polakis P (1992). "Localization of the rap1GAP catalytic domain and sites of phosphorylation by mutational analysis". Mol. Cell. Biol. 12 (10): 4634–42. PMC 360390 . PMID 1406653.  van der Sluijs P, Hull M, Huber LA, Mâle P, Goud B, Mellman I (1992). "Reversible phosphorylation--dephosphorylation determines the localization of rab4 during the cell cycle". EMBO J. 11 (12): 4379–89. PMC 557012 . PMID 1425574.  Seth A, Alvarez E, Gupta S, Davis RJ (1992). "A phosphorylation site located in the NH2-terminal domain of c-Myc increases transactivation of gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (35): 23521–4. PMID 1748630.  Lees JA, Buchkovich KJ, Marshak DR, Anderson CW, Harlow E (1992). "The retinoblastoma protein is phosphorylated on multiple sites by human cdc2". EMBO J. 10 (13): 4279–90. PMC 453181 . PMID 1756735.  Nazarenko SA, Ostroverhova NV, Spurr NK (1991). "Regional assignment of the human cell cycle control gene CDC2 to chromosome 10q21 by in situ hybridization". Hum. Genet. 87 (5): 621–2. doi:10.1007/BF00209025. PMID 1916766.  Nissen MS, Langan TA, Reeves R (1991). "Phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase modulates DNA binding activity of high mobility group I nonhistone chromatin protein". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (30): 19945–52. PMID 1939057.  v t e Cell cycle proteins Cyclin A (A1, A2) B (B1, B2, B3) D (D1, D2, D3) E (E1, E2) CDK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CDK-activating kinase CDK inhibitor INK4a/ARF (p14arf/p16, p15, p18, p19) cip/kip (p21, p27, p57) P53 p63 p73 family p53 p63 p73 Other Cdc2 Cdc25 Cdc42 Cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein E2F Maturation promoting factor Wee Cullin (CUL7) Phases and checkpoints Interphase G1 phase S phase G2 phase M phase Mitosis (Preprophase Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase) Cytokinesis Cell cycle checkpoints Restriction point Spindle checkpoint Postreplication checkpoint Other cellular phases Apoptosis G0 phase Meiosis v t e Kinases: Serine/threonine-specific protein kinases (EC 2.7.11-12) Serine/threonine-specific protein kinases (EC Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinases (EC LATS1 LATS2 MAST1 MAST2 STK38 STK38L CIT ROCK1 SGK SGK2 SGK3 Protein kinase B AKT1 AKT2 AKT3 Ataxia telangiectasia mutated Mammalian target of rapamycin EIF-2 kinases PKR HRI EIF2AK3 EIF2AK4 Wee1 WEE1 Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (EC PDK1 PDK2 PDK3 Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC AMP-activated protein kinase α PRKAA1 PRKAA2 β PRKAB1 PRKAB2 γ PRKAG1 PRKAG2 PRKAG3 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase (EC BCKDK BCKDHA BCKDHB (isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)) kinase (EC IDH2 IDH3A IDH3B IDH3G (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) kinase (EC STK4 Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC Aurora kinase Aurora A kinase Aurora B kinase Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (EC FASTK STK10 Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC - IκB kinase (EC CHUK IKK2 TBK1 IKBKE IKBKG IKBKAP cAMP-dependent protein kinase (EC Protein kinase A PRKACG PRKACB PRKACA PRKY cGMP-dependent protein kinase (EC Protein kinase G PRKG1 Protein kinase C (EC Protein kinase C Protein kinase Cζ PKC alpha PRKCB1 PRKCD PRKCE PRKCH PRKCG PRKCI PRKCQ Protein kinase N1 PKN2 PKN3 Rhodopsin kinase (EC Rhodopsin kinase Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (EC Beta adrenergic receptor kinase Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 G-protein coupled receptor kinases (EC GRK4 GRK5 GRK6 Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent (EC BRSK2 CAMK1 CAMK2A CAMK2B CAMK2D CAMK2G CAMK4 MLCK CASK CHEK1 CHEK2 DAPK1 DAPK2 DAPK3 STK11 MAPKAPK2 MAPKAPK3 MAPKAPK5 MARK1 MARK2 MARK3 MARK4 MELK MKNK1 MKNK2 NUAK1 NUAK2 OBSCN PASK PHKG1 PHKG2 PIM1 PIM2 PKD1 PRKD2 PRKD3 PSKH1 SNF1LK2 KIAA0999 STK40 SNF1LK SNRK SPEG TSSK2 Kalirin TRIB1 TRIB2 TRIB3 TRIO Titin DCLK1 Myosin light-chain kinase (EC MYLK MYLK2 MYLK3 MYLK4 Phosphorylase kinase (EC PHKA1 PHKA2 PHKB PHKG1 PHKG2 Elongation factor 2 kinase (EC EEF2K STK19 Polo kinase (EC PLK1 PLK2 PLK3 PLK4 Serine/threonine-specific protein kinases (EC Polo kinase (EC PLK1 PLK2 PLK3 PLK4 Cyclin-dependent kinase (EC CDK1 CDK2 CDKL2 CDK3 CDK4 CDK5 CDKL5 CDK6 CDK7 CDK8 CDK9 CDK10 CDK12 CDC2L5 PCTK1 PCTK2 PCTK3 PFTK1 CDC2L1 (RNA-polymerase)-subunit kinase (EC RPS6KA5 RPS6KA4 P70S6 kinase P70-S6 Kinase 1 RPS6KB2 RPS6KA2 RPS6KA3 RPS6KA1 RPS6KC1 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (EC Extracellular signal-regulated MAPK1 MAPK3 MAPK4 MAPK6 MAPK7 MAPK12 MAPK15 C-Jun N-terminal MAPK8 MAPK9 MAPK10 P38 mitogen-activated protein MAPK11 MAPK13 MAPK14 MAP3K (EC MAP kinase kinase kinases MAP3K1 MAP3K2 MAP3K3 MAP3K4 MAP3K5 MAP3K6 MAP3K7 MAP3K8 RAFs ARAF BRAF KSR1 KSR2 MLKs MAP3K12 MAP3K13 MAP3K9 MAP3K10 MAP3K11 MAP3K7 ZAK CDC7 MAP3K14 Tau-protein kinase (EC TPK1 TTK GSK-3 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) kinase (EC - Tropomyosin kinase (EC - Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase (EC - Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC Bone morphogenetic protein receptors BMPR1 BMPR1A BMPR1B BMPR2 ACVR1 ACVR1B ACVR1C ACVR2A ACVR2B ACVRL1 Anti-Müllerian hormone receptor Dual-specificity kinases (EC 2.7.12) MAP2K MAP2K1 MAP2K2 MAP2K3 MAP2K4 MAP2K5 MAP2K6 MAP2K7 v t e Enzymes Activity Active site Binding site Catalytic triad Oxyanion hole Enzyme promiscuity Catalytically perfect enzyme Coenzyme Cofactor Enzyme catalysis Regulation Allosteric regulation Cooperativity Enzyme inhibitor Classification EC number Enzyme superfamily Enzyme family List of enzymes Kinetics Enzyme kinetics Eadie–Hofstee diagram Hanes–Woolf plot Lineweaver–Burk plot Michaelis–Menten kinetics Types EC1 Oxidoreductases (list) EC2 Transferases (list) EC3 Hydrolases (list) EC4 Lyases (list) EC5 Isomerases (list) EC6 Ligases (list) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal Retrieved from "" Categories: Genes on human chromosome 10Cell cycleProteinsEC 2.7.11

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Protein Data BankGene NomenclatureMendelian Inheritance In ManMouse Genome InformaticsHomoloGeneGeneCardsChromosome 10 (human)ChromosomeChromosome 10 (human)Chromosome 10 (human)Genomic Location For CDK1Genomic Location For CDK1Locus (genetics)Base PairBase PairChromosome 10 (mouse)ChromosomeChromosome 10 (mouse)Genomic Location For CDK1Genomic Location For CDK1Locus (genetics)Base PairBase PairGene ExpressionGene OntologyEntrezEnsemblUniProtPubMedWikidataProteinKinaseCell CycleSaccharomyces CerevisiaeSchizosaccharomyces PombeGeneCyclinPhosphorylationEnlargeAdenosine TriphosphateHydroxylCyclin-dependent KinaseEnlargeRegulonSic1Wee1Wee1Pom1Protein-protein InteractionBcl-2Cyclin B1Cyclin E1CDKN3DAB2Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group CGADD45ALATS1LYNP53Ubiquitin CE2FHyperphosphorylationCdc25Maturation Promoting FactorCyclin-dependent KinaseCyclin ACyclin BCyclin DCyclin EWee (cell Cycle)Ensembl Genome Database ProjectEnsembl Genome Database ProjectInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-19-920610-4Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierMelanie LeePaul NurseDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPubMed IdentifierTemplate:Cell Cycle ProteinsTemplate Talk:Cell Cycle ProteinsCell CycleProteinCyclinCyclin ACyclin A1Cyclin A2Cyclin BCyclin B1Cyclin B2Cyclin DCyclin D1Cyclin D2Cyclin D3Cyclin ECyclin E1Cyclin E2Cyclin-dependent KinaseCyclin-dependent Kinase 2Cyclin-dependent Kinase 3Cyclin-dependent Kinase 4Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5Cyclin-dependent Kinase 6Cyclin-dependent Kinase 7Cyclin-dependent Kinase 8Cyclin-dependent Kinase 9Cyclin-dependent Kinase 10CDK-activating KinaseCyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor ProteinCell CycleP14arfP16CDKN2BCDKN2CCDKN2DCell CycleP21CDKN1BCyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1CP53 P63 P73 FamilyP53TP63P73Cdk1Cdc25CDC42Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility ProteinE2FMaturation Promoting FactorWee1CullinCUL7InterphaseG1 PhaseS PhaseG2 PhaseCell DivisionMitosisPreprophaseProphasePrometaphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophaseCytokinesisCell Cycle CheckpointRestriction PointSpindle CheckpointPostreplication CheckpointApoptosisG0 PhaseMeiosisTemplate:Serine/threonine-specific Protein KinasesTemplate Talk:Serine/threonine-specific Protein KinasesKinaseSerine/threonine-specific Protein KinaseEnzyme Commission NumberSerine/threonine-specific Protein KinaseNon-specific Serine/threonine Protein KinaseLATS1LATS2MAST1MAST2STK38STK38LCIT (gene)ROCK1SGKSGK2SGK3AKTAKT1AKT2AKT3Ataxia Telangiectasia MutatedMammalian Target Of RapamycinEIF-2 KinaseProtein Kinase REIF2AK1EIF2AK3EIF2AK4Wee1Wee1-like Protein KinasePyruvate Dehydrogenase KinasePyruvate Dehydrogenase Lipoamide Kinase Isozyme 1PDK2PDK3Dephospho-(reductase Kinase) KinaseAMP-activated Protein KinaseProtein Kinase, AMP-activated, Alpha 1PRKAA2PRKAB1PRKAB2PRKAG1PRKAG2PRKAG33-methyl-2-oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) KinaseBCKDKBCKDHABCKDHB(isocitrate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)) KinaseIDH2IDH3AIDH3BIDH3G(tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) KinaseSTK4Myosin-heavy-chain KinaseAurora KinaseAurora A KinaseAurora B KinaseFas-activated Serine/threonine KinaseFASTKSTK10Goodpasture-antigen-binding Protein KinaseIκB KinaseCHUKIKK2TANK-binding Kinase 1IKBKEIKBKGIKBKAPProtein Kinase AProtein Kinase APRKACGPRKACBPRKACAPRKYCGMP-dependent Protein KinaseCGMP-dependent Protein KinasePRKG1Protein Kinase CProtein Kinase CProtein Kinase C Zeta TypePKC AlphaPRKCB1PRKCDPRKCEPRKCHPRKCGPRKCIPRKCQProtein Kinase N1PKN2PKN3 (gene)Rhodopsin KinaseRhodopsin KinaseBeta Adrenergic Receptor KinaseBeta Adrenergic Receptor KinaseBeta Adrenergic Receptor Kinase-2G Protein-coupled Receptor KinaseGRK4GRK5GRK6Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent Protein KinaseBRSK2CAMK1CAMK2ACAMK2BCAMK2DCAMK2GCAMK4Myosin Light-chain KinaseCASKCHEK1CHEK2DAPK1DAPK2DAPK3STK11MAPKAPK2MAPKAPK3MAPKAPK5MARK1MARK2MARK3MARK4MELKMKNK1MKNK2NUAK1NUAK2OBSCNPASKPHKG1PHKG2PIM1PIM2 (gene)Protein Kinase D1PRKD2PRKD3PSKH1SNF1LK2KIAA0999STK40SNF1LKSNRKSPEGTSSK2KalirinTRIB1TRIB2TRIB3TRIO (gene)TitinDCLK1Myosin Light-chain KinaseMYLKMYLK2MYLK3MYLK4Phosphorylase KinasePhosphorylase Kinase, Alpha 1PHKA2PHKBPHKG1PHKG2Elongation Factor 2 KinaseEEF2KSTK19Polo KinasePLK1PLK2PLK3PLK4Serine/threonine-specific Protein KinasePolo KinasePLK1PLK2PLK3PLK4Cyclin-dependent KinaseCdk1Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2CDKL2Cyclin-dependent Kinase 3Cyclin-dependent Kinase 4Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5CDKL5Cyclin-dependent Kinase 6Cyclin-dependent Kinase 7Cyclin-dependent Kinase 8CDK9Cyclin-dependent Kinase 10CDK12CDC2L5PCTK1PCTK2PCTK3PFTK1CDC2L1(RNA-polymerase)-subunit KinaseRPS6KA5RPS6KA4P70S6 KinaseP70-S6 Kinase 1RPS6KB2RPS6KA2RPS6KA3RPS6KA1RPS6KC1Mitogen-activated Protein KinaseExtracellular Signal-regulated KinasesMAPK1MAPK3MAPK4MAPK6MAPK7MAPK12MAPK15C-Jun N-terminal KinasesMAPK8Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 9MAPK10P38 Mitogen-activated Protein KinasesMAPK11MAPK13MAPK14MAP Kinase Kinase KinaseMAP Kinase Kinase KinaseMAP3K1MAP3K2MAP3K3MAP3K4ASK1MAP3K7MAP3K8C-RafARAFBRAF (gene)KSR1KSR2MAP3K12MAP3K13MAP3K9MAP3K10MAP3K11MAP3K7ZAKCell Division Cycle 7-related Protein KinaseMAP3K14Tau-protein KinaseTPK1TTK (gene)GSK-3(acetyl-CoA Carboxylase) KinaseTropomyosin KinaseLow-density-lipoprotein Receptor KinaseReceptor Protein Serine/threonine KinaseBone Morphogenetic Protein ReceptorsBone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor, Type 1BMPR1ABMPR1BBMPR2ACVR1ACVR1BACVR1CACVR2AACVR2BACVRL1Anti-Müllerian Hormone ReceptorDual-specificity KinaseMitogen-activated Protein Kinase KinaseMAP2K1MAP2K2MAP2K3MAP2K4MAP2K5MAP2K6MAP2K7Template:EnzymesTemplate Talk:EnzymesEnzymeActive SiteBinding SiteCatalytic TriadOxyanion HoleEnzyme PromiscuityCatalytically Perfect EnzymeCoenzymeCofactor (biochemistry)Enzyme CatalysisAllosteric RegulationCooperativityEnzyme InhibitorEnzyme Commission NumberEnzyme SuperfamilyEnzyme FamilyList Of EnzymesEnzyme KineticsEadie–Hofstee DiagramHanes–Woolf PlotLineweaver–Burk PlotMichaelis–Menten KineticsOxidoreductaseList Of EC Numbers (EC 1)TransferaseList Of EC Numbers (EC 2)HydrolaseList Of EC Numbers (EC 3)LyaseList Of EC Numbers (EC 4)IsomeraseList Of EC Numbers (EC 5)LigaseList Of EC Numbers (EC 6)Portal:Molecular And Cellular BiologyHelp:CategoryCategory:Genes On Human Chromosome 10Category:Cell CycleCategory:ProteinsCategory:EC 2.7.11Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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