Contents 1 Etymology 2 Forms of cataphylls 2.1 Cotyledons as cataphylls 2.2 Spines as cataphylls 2.3 Corm-scales 3 See also 4 References

Etymology[edit] From the Greek Ancient Greek: κατά, down, Ancient Greek: φύλλον, leaf.[6]

Forms of cataphylls[edit] Some kinds of cataphylls perform a transient function, after which they die and may be shed. Those that are shed early are said to be caducous, but that term can apply to any organ that is shed early, not only leaves; for example, many Geraniums have caducous stamens. The sepals of Papaver species are shed during the very opening of the petals, and as such they are a dramatic example of caducous leaves. Many other forms of cataphylls, such as some spines, are persistent, but cannot perform their major function until they die, whether they physically get shed or not. Examples of various kinds of cataphylls include bud-scales, bulb-scales, corm-scales, rhizome-scales, cotyledons, scaly bracts, spines.[2] Each of these occurs in various forms and contexts; for example, bud-scales occur on various kinds of leaf or branch buds as well as on flower buds. Protective masses of dead leaves encircle the stems of some species of palm trees or aloes, but those are not usually regarded as cataphylls because their primary function while alive was photosynthesis, as is usual for true leaves. Cotyledons as cataphylls[edit] Acer pseudoplatanus seedling showing cotyledons that supplied the first photosynthetic function for the growing plant. They will soon drop off after the young leaves grow large enough to take over. Cotyledons are widely regarded as a class of cataphyll,[citation needed] though many kinds of cotyledon function as living tissue and remain alive till the end of their function at least, at which time they wither and may drop off. They begin as leaf rudiments and many kinds accumulate nutrient materials for storage, starting to give up their stored material as the plant begins to germinate. Some, such as the cotyledons of many legumes, conifers, and cucurbits, even develop chlorophyll and perform the first photosynthesis for the germinating plant. Spines as cataphylls[edit] This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Opuntia compressa, showing a so-called spiny cactus. Each areole contains one or more fixed, large spines as well as a sheaf of glochidia. The spines are examples of cataphylls.[citation needed] It also is a matter of context and preference whether one regards any particular kind of spine as a cataphyll or not.[citation needed] The terminology for glochids in particular is confusing, as they are variously and arbitrarily referred to as spines, bristles and more. Morphologically only spines could strictly speaking be cataphylls, because the others are not leaves, but in the current context the point is hardly worth pursuing. Corm-scales[edit] Crocosmia corm with tunic stripped partly off to show its constitution of the basal parts of leaves arising from nodes on the corm. Such leaves, especially early leaves that never performed much photosynthesis, amount to true cataphylls Corm of Crocosmia, split to show tunic and leaves, as well as a new corm growing from a bud on the cortex of the old corm Like bulb-scales, corm-scales are largely the basal parts of the photosynthetic leaves that show above ground. Some species of cormous plants, such as some Lapeirousias also produce cataphyllous leaves that act as practically nothing more than tunic leaves for the corm.[7] Unlike bulb-scales however, the corm tunic has no significant storage function; that task is left to the parenchyma of the cortex of the corm.

See also[edit] Leaf shape Leaf size

References[edit] ^ Stearn, W.T. (1992), Botanical Latin: History, grammar, syntax, terminology and vocabulary (4th ed.), David and Charles, ISBN 0-7153-0052-0  ^ a b Jackson, Benjamin, Daydon; A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accent; Published by Gerald Duckworth & Co. London, 4th ed 1928 ^ a b Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001), The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms, Cambridge University Press  ^ a b Beentje, H.; Williamson, J. (2010), The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew Publishing  ^ Bell, A.D. (1997), Plant form: an illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology, Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cataphyll". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Goldblatt,Peter; Manning, John (2008). The Iris Family. Portland: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-897-6.  v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "" Categories: Plant morphologyHidden categories: Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource referenceArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2016Articles needing additional references from January 2016All articles needing additional references

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