Contents 1 Origins and structure 2 Dehiscence 3 Specialised capsules 4 Nuts 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography


Origins and structure[edit] The capsule (Latin: capsula, small box) is derived from a compound (multicarpeled) ovary.[2] A capsule is a structure composed of two or more carpels. In (flowering plants), the term locule (or cell) is used to refer to a chamber within the fruit. Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruit can be classified as uni-locular (unilocular), bi-locular, tri-locular or multi-locular. The number of locules present in a gynoecium may be equal to or less than the number of carpels. The locules contain the ovules or seeds and are separated by septa.


Dehiscence[edit] Main article: Dehiscence (botany) In most cases the capsule is dehiscent, i.e. at maturity, it splits apart (dehisces) to release the seeds within. A few capsules are indehiscent, for example those of Adansonia digitata, Alphitonia, and Merciera. Capsules are often classified into four types, depending on the type and location of dehiscence (see Simpson Fig 9.41[2] and Hickey & King [3]). Lilium candidum dehiscing Loculicidal capsules possess longitudinal lines of dehiscence radially aligned with the locules, i.e. not at the septa, along the midrib or dorsal suture (seam) of the locules. If septa are absent, the dehiscence lines lie between the placentae. This type is common among many members of the Liliaceae such as Lilium (see illustrstion). Septicidal capsules have dehiscence lines aligned with the sutures of the ovary septa or placentae, that is between the carpels. Both loculocidal and septicidal capsules split into distinguishable segments called valves. The valves are a part of the pericarp (fruit wall) that has split away, without enclosing the seed or seeds. The borders of the valves may or may not coincide with the borders of carpels. These valves may remain attached to the fruit or fall off. In septicidal capsules the valves remain in place. In some capsules, the split occurs between carpels, and in others each carpel splits open. Circumscissile capsules (pyxide, pyxis, pyxidium or lid capsule) have a transverse, rather than longitudinal, dehiscence line, so that the upper part of the capsule dehisces, usually forming a terminal lid (operculum) that opens (see illustration). An example is Plantago. A variant is the Septifragal capsule (valvular capsule) in which the outer walls break away from the septa and (usually axile) placentae as valves. Poricidal capsules dehisce through pores (openings) in the capsule, as in Papaver, the seeds escaping through these pores. Flowers and developing fruit capsules of the ground orchid Spathoglottis plicata Examples of other plants that produce capsules include nigella, orchid, willow, cotton, and jimson weed.[2][4]


Specialised capsules[edit] Dehiscence of the follicular capsule of Asclepias syriaca Some dry dehiscent fruits form specialised capsule-like structures. A follicle is derived from a single carpel that splits along a suture, as in Magnolia, while a legume splits along two sutures, and are a defining feature of the Fabaceae. Some variants of legumes that have retained vestigial sutures include loments that split transversly into segments, each with a single seed, and indehiscent legumes, such as Arachis hypogaea (peanuts). Capsules derived from two carpels include silicles and siliques that dehisce along two suture lines but retain a partition called the replum, which is a septum with attached seeds. While both are characteristic of Brassicaceae, silicles is at least as broad as it is long, and vice a versa. A schizocarp is derived from a compound ovary with two or more locules which then separate radially as one of the above types, such as a schizocarp of follicles, as in Asclepias (Asclepiadoideae) (see illustration). A mericarp is a portion of the fruit that separates from the ovary to form a distinct locule unit which encloses the seed, usually-nut-like, as in Apiaceae in which the mericarps are joined by a stalk (carpophore). Thus a schizocarp of mericarps is a structure in which the carpels of a single ovary split to form mericarps. A schizocarp of nutlets is derived from a carpel that becomes lobed, and the lobes become nutlets that split apart. Examples include Boraginaceae and most Lamiaceae, where the styles are attached between the ovary lobes.[2][4]


Nuts[edit] Capsules are sometimes mislabeled as nuts, as in the example of the Brazil nut or the Horse-chestnut. A capsule is not a nut because it releases its seeds and it splits apart. Nuts, on the other hand, do not release seeds as they are a compound ovary containing both a single seed and the fruit. Nuts also do not split. In the Brazil nut, a lid on the capsule opens, but is too small to release the dozen or so seeds (the actual "Brazil nut" of commerce) within. These germinate inside the capsule after it falls to the ground.


See also[edit] Fruit


References[edit] ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Capsule". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ a b c d e Simpson 2011, Simple fruit types pp.384–386 ^ Hickey & King 2000, Capsule dehiscence p. 136 ^ a b Dahlgren, Clifford & Yeo 1985, Fruit p. 15.


Bibliography[edit] Simpson, Michael G. (2011). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 0-08-051404-9.  Dahlgren, R.M.; Clifford, H.T.; Yeo, P.F. (1985). The families of the monocotyledons. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-64903-5. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  Hickey, Michael; King, Clive (2000). The Cambridge illustrated glossary of botanical terms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79401-5.  Encyclopædia Britannica online The seed site Wikimedia Commons has media related to Capsule (fruit). v t e Types of fruits Types of fruits Achene Berry (modified berries: Hesperidium Pepo) Capsule Caryopsis Drupe Follicle Legume Loment Nut Pome Samara Schizocarp Silique Syconium Categories of fruits Accessory fruit Simple fruit Compound fruit Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Dehiscent fruit Function Diaspore Drift fruit v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Capsule_(fruit)&oldid=812643492" Categories: Fruit morphologyOrchid morphologyHidden categories: Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource referenceUse dmy dates from April 2017


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