Contents 1 Taxonomy 1.1 Phylogenetic relationships 2 Evolution 2.1 Eocene epoch 2.2 Oligocene epoch 2.3 Miocene epoch 2.4 Pliocene epoch 2.5 Pleistocene epoch 3 Characteristics 3.1 Dentition 4 Life history 4.1 Social behavior 4.2 Reproduction 5 Canids and humans 6 Extant and recently extinct species 6.1 Subfamily Caninae 7 Prehistoric Canidae 7.1 Subfamily Caninae 7.2 Subfamily Borophaginae 7.3 Subfamily Hesperocyoninae 8 References 9 External links

Taxonomy[edit] In the history of the carnivores, the family Canidae is represented by the two extinct subfamilies designated as Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae, and the extant subfamily Caninae.[7] This subfamily includes all living canids and their most recent fossil relatives.[6] All living canids as a group form a dental monophyletic relationship with the extinct borophagines with both groups having a bicuspid (two points) on the lower carnassial talonid, which gives this tooth an additional ability in mastication. This together with the development of a distinct entoconid cusp and the broadening of the talonid of the first lower molar, and the corresponding enlargement of the talon of the upper first molar and reduction of its parastyle distinguish these late Cenozoic canids and are the essential differences that identify their clade.[6]:p6 Phylogenetic relationships[edit] Indian Wolf at Velavadar (Blackbuck National Park, Gujarat) Skulls of various canid genera; Vulpes (corsac fox), Nyctereutes (raccoon dog), Cuon (dhole) and Canis (golden jackal) Within the Canidae, the results of allozyme and chromosome analyses have previously suggested several phylogenetic divisions: The wolf-like canids, (genus Canis, Cuon and Lycaon) including the dog (Canis lupus familiaris), gray wolf (Canis lupus), red wolf (Canis rufus), eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), coyote (Canis latrans), golden jackal (Canis aureus), Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis), black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), dhole (Cuon alpinus), and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).[8] The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox (Vulpes velox), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Cape fox (Vulpes chama), Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), and fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).[8] The South American canids, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), hoary fox (Lycalopex uetulus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and maned wolf.[8] Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).[8] DNA analysis shows that the first three form monophyletic clades. The wolf-like canids and the South American canids together form the tribe Canini.[9] Molecular data imply a North American origin of living Canidae some ten million years ago and an African origin of wolf-like canines (Canis, Cuon, and Lycaon), with the jackals being the most basal of this group. The South American clade is rooted by the maned wolf and bush dog, and the fox-like canids by the fennec fox and Blanford's fox. The grey fox and island fox are basal to the other clades; however, this topological difference is not strongly supported.[10] The cladogram below is based on the phylogeny of Lindblad-Toh et al. (2005),[10] modified to incorporate recent findings on Canis[11] and Vulpes[12] species. Canidae Canini Canina Canis familiaris (domestic dog) Canis lupus (gray wolf) Canis latrans (coyote) Canis anthus (African golden wolf) Canis simensis (Ethiopian wolf) Canis aureus (golden jackal) Cuon alpinus (dhole or Asiatic wild dog) Lycaon pictus (African wild dog) Canis mesomelas (black-backed jackal) Canis adustus (side-striped jackal) Cerdocyonina Speothos venaticus (bush dog) Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf) Lycalopex Lycalopex vetulus (hoary fox) Lycalopex fulvipes (Darwin's fox) Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox or chilla) Lycalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox) Lycalopex culpaeus (culpeo or Andean fox) Lycalopex sechurae (Sechuran fox or Peruvian desert fox) Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox) Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog) Vulpini Otocyon megalotis (bat-eared fox) Nyctereutes procyonoides (raccoon dog) Vulpes Vulpes zerda (fennec fox) Vulpes cana (Blanford's fox) Vulpes chama (Cape fox) Vulpes vulpes (red fox) Vulpes rueppellii (Ruppell's fox) Vulpes corsac (corsac fox) Vulpes ferrilata (Tibetan sand fox) Vulpes macrotis (Kit fox) Vulpes lagopus (Arctic fox) Urocyon Urocyon littoralis (island fox) Urocyon cinereoargenteus (gray fox)

Evolution[edit] The Canidae today includes a diverse group of some 34 species ranging in size from the maned wolf with its long limbs to the short-legged bush dog. Modern canids inhabit forests, tundra, savannahs and deserts throughout tropical and temperate parts of the world. The evolutionary relationships between the species have been studied in the past using morphological approaches but more recently, molecular studies have enabled the investigation of phylogenetic relationships. In some species, genetic divergence has been suppressed by the high level of gene flow between different populations and where the species have hybridized, large hybrid zones exist.[13] Eocene epoch[edit] Carnivorans evolved from miacoids about 55 million years ago (Mya) during the late Paleocene.[14] Some five million years later, the carnivorans split into two main divisions: caniforms (dog-like) and feliforms (cat-like). By 40 Mya, the first member of the dog family proper had arisen. Called Prohesperocyon wilsoni, its fossilized remains have been found in what is now the southwestern part of Texas. The chief features which identify it as a canid include the loss of the upper third molar (part of a trend toward a more shearing bite), and the structure of the middle ear which has an enlarged bulla (the hollow bony structure protecting the delicate parts of the ear). Prohesperocyon probably had slightly longer limbs than its predecessors, and also had parallel and closely touching toes which differ markedly from the splayed arrangements of the digits in bears.[15] The canid family soon subdivided into three subfamilies, each of which diverged during the Eocene: Hesperocyoninae (about 39.74–15 Mya), Borophaginae (about 34–2 Mya), and Caninae (about 34–0 Mya). Caninae is the only surviving subfamily and all present-day canids including wolves, foxes, coyotes, jackals, and domestic dogs belong to it. Members of each subfamily showed an increase in body mass with time, and some exhibited specialized hypercarnivorous diets that made them prone to extinction.[16]:Fig. 1 Evolution of the canids view • discuss • edit -65 — – -60 — – -55 — – -50 — – -45 — – -40 — – -35 — – -30 — – -25 — – -20 — – -15 — – -10 — – -5 — – 0 —       Cretaceous   Quaternary Palæocene Eocene Oligocene Pliocene Miocene       ← K-P mass extinction ← First Hesperocyoninae ← First Borophaginae ← Caninae ← Modern-looking dogs ← Canine radiation P a l æ o g e n e N e o g e n e  Cenozoic  Mesozoic An approximate timescale of key events in canid evolution. For precise dates, see text. Axis scale: millions of years ago. PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K Pg N ↓ Oligocene epoch[edit] By the Oligocene, all three subfamilies of canids (Hesperocyoninae, Borophaginae, and Caninae) had appeared in the fossil records of North America. The earliest and most primitive branch of the Canidae was the Hesperocyoninae lineage, which included the coyote-sized Mesocyon of the Oligocene (38–24 Mya). These early canids probably evolved for the fast pursuit of prey in a grassland habitat; they resembled modern civets in appearance. Hesperocyonines eventually became extinct in the middle Miocene. One of the early members of the Hesperocyonines, the genus Hesperocyon, gave rise to Archaeocyon and Leptocyon. These branches led to the borophagine and canine radiations.[17] Miocene epoch[edit] Around 9–10 Mya during the Late Miocene, Canis, Urocyon, and Vulpes genera expanded from southwestern North America, where the canine radiation began. The success of these canines was related to the development of lower carnassials that were capable of both mastication and shearing.[17] Around 8 Mya, the Beringian land bridge allowed members of the genus Eucyon a means to enter Asia and they continued on to colonize Europe.[18] Pliocene epoch[edit] During the Pliocene, around 4–5 Mya, Canis lepophagus appeared in North America. This was small and sometimes coyote-like. Others were wolf-like in characteristics. Canis latrans (the coyote) is theorized to have descended from Canis lepophagus.[19] The formation of the Isthmus of Panama, about 3 Mya, joined South America to North America, allowing canids to invade South America, where they diversified. However, the most recent common ancestor of the South American canids lived in North America some 4 Mya and the likelihood is that there were more than one incursion across the new land bridge. One of the resulting lineages consisted of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargentus) and the now extinct dire wolf (Canis dirus). The other lineage consisted of the so-called South American endemic species; the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis), the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and the South American foxes (Lycalopex spp.). The monophyly of this group has been established by molecular means.[18] Pleistocene epoch[edit] Restoration of two Borophagus preying on a camel During the Pleistocene, the North American wolf line appeared, with Canis edwardii, clearly identifiable as a wolf, and Canis rufus appeared, possibly a direct descendent of Canis edwardii. Around 0.8 Mya, Canis ambrusteri emerged in North America. A large wolf, it was found all over North and Central America, and was eventually supplanted by its descendant, the dire wolf, which then spread into South America during the late Pleistocene.[20] By 0.3 Mya, a number of subspecies of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) had developed and had spread throughout Europe and northern Asia.[21] The gray wolf colonized North America during the late Rancholabrean era across the Bering land bridge, there being at least three separate invasions, with each one consisting of one or more different Eurasian gray wolf clades.[22] MtDNA studies have shown that there are at least four extant C. lupus lineages.[23] The dire wolf shared its habitat with the gray wolf but became extinct in a large-scale extinction event that occurred around 11,500 years ago. It may have been more of a scavenger than a hunter; its molars appear to be adapted for crushing bones and it may have died out as a result of the extinction of the large herbivorous animals on whose carcasses it relied.[20] In 2015, a study of mitochondrial genome sequences and whole genome nuclear sequences of African and Eurasian canids indicated that extant wolf-like canids have colonized Africa from Eurasia at least 5 times throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, which is consistent with fossil evidence suggesting that much of African canid fauna diversity resulted from the immigration of Eurasian ancestors, likely coincident with Plio-Pleistocene climatic oscillations between arid and humid conditions. When comparing the African and Eurasian golden jackals, the study concluded that the African specimens represented a distinct monophyletic lineage that should be recognized as a separate species, Canis anthus (African golden wolf). According to a phylogeny derived from nuclear sequences, the Eurasian golden jackal (Canis aureus) diverged from the wolf/coyote lineage 1.9 million years ago but the African golden wolf separated 1.3 million years ago. Mitochondrial genome sequences indicated the Ethiopian wolf diverged from the wolf/coyote lineage slightly prior to that.[11]:S1

Characteristics[edit] Comparative illustration of the paws of grey wolf, golden jackal and dhole by A. N. Komarov Wild canids are found on every continent except Antarctica, and inhabit a wide range of different habitats, including deserts, mountains, forests, and grasslands. They vary in size from the fennec fox, which may be as little as 24 cm (9.4 in) in length and weigh 0.6 kg (1.3 lb),[24] to the gray wolf, which may be up to 160 cm (5.2 ft) long, and can weigh up to 79 kg (174 lb).[25] Only a few species are arboreal – the North American gray fox, the closely related Channel Island fox,[26] and the raccoon dog habitually climb trees.[27][28][29] All canids have a similar basic form, as exemplified by the grey wolf, although the relative length of muzzle, limbs, ears and tail vary considerably between species. With the exceptions of the bush dog, raccoon dog, and some domestic breeds of Canis lupus, canids have relatively long legs and lithe bodies, adapted for chasing prey. The tails are bushy and the length and quality of the pelage varies with the season. The muzzle portion of the skull is much more elongated than that of the cat family. The zygomatic arches are wide, there is a transverse lambdoidal ridge at the rear of the cranium and in some species, a sagittal crest running from front to back. The bony orbits around the eye never form a complete ring and the auditory bullae are smooth and rounded.[30] All canids are digitigrade, meaning they walk on their toes. The tip of the nose is always naked, as are the cushioned pads on the soles of the feet. These latter consist of a single pad behind the tip of each toe and a more-or-less three-lobed central pad under the roots of the digits. Hairs grow between the pads and in the Arctic fox, the sole of the foot is densely covered with hair at some times of year. With the exception of the four-toed African hunting dog (Lycaon pictus), there are five toes on the forefeet but the pollex (thumb) is reduced and does not reach the ground. On the hind feet, there are four toes, but in some domestic dogs, a fifth vestigial toe, known as a dewclaw, is sometimes present but has no anatomical connection to the rest of the foot. The slightly curved nails are non-retractile and more-or-less blunt.[30] The penis in male canids is supported by a bone called the baculum. It also contains a structure at the base called the bulbus glandis which helps to create a copulatory tie during mating, locking the animals together for up to an hour.[31] Young canids are born blind, with their eyes opening a few weeks after birth.[32] All living canids (Caninae) have a ligament analogous to the nuchal ligament of ungulates used to maintain the posture of the head and neck with little active muscle exertion; this ligament allows them to conserve energy while running long distances following scent trails with their nose to the ground. However, based on skeletal details of the neck, at least some Borophaginae (such as Aelurodon) are believed to have lacked this ligament.[33]:97–98 Dentition[edit] Diagram of a wolf skull with key features labelled Eurasian wolf skull Dentition relates to the arrangement of teeth in the mouth, with the dental notation for the upper-jaw teeth using the upper-case letters I to denote incisors, C for canines, P for premolars, and M for molars, and the lower-case letters i, c, p and m to denote the mandible teeth. Teeth are numbered using one side of the mouth and from the front of the mouth to the back. In carnivores, the upper premolar P4 and the lower molar m1 form the carnassials that are used together in a scissor-like action to shear the muscle and tendon of prey.[33]:74 Canids use their premolars for cutting and crushing except for the upper fourth premolar P4 (the upper carnassial) that is only used for cutting. They use their molars for grinding except for the lower first molar m1 (the lower carnassial) that has evolved for both cutting and grinding depending on the candid's dietary adaptation. On the lower carnassial the trigonid is used for slicing and the talonid is used for grinding. The ratio between the trigonid and the talonid indicates a carnivore's dietary habits, with a larger trigonid indicating a hypercarnivore and a larger talonid indicating a more omnivorous diet.[34][35] Because of its low variability, the length of the lower carnassial is used to provide an estimate of a carnivore's body size.[34] A study of the estimated bite force at the canine teeth of a large sample of living and fossil mammalian predators, when adjusted for their body mass, found that for placental mammals the bite force at the canines (in Newtons/kilogram of body weight) was greatest in the extinct dire wolf (163), followed among the modern canids by the four hypercarnivores that often prey on animals larger than themselves: the African hunting dog (142), the gray wolf (136), the dhole (112), and the dingo (108). The bite force at the carnassials showed a similar trend to the canines. A predator's largest prey size is strongly influenced by its biomechanical limits.[36] Most canids have 42 teeth, with a dental formula of: The bush dog has only one upper molar with two below, the dhole has two above and two below, and the bat-eared fox has three or four upper molars and four lower ones.[30] The molar teeth are strong in most species, allowing the animals to crack open bone to reach the marrow. The deciduous, or baby teeth, formula in canids is, molars being completely absent.[30]

Life history[edit] Social behavior[edit] Dholes attacking a sambar, Bandipur National Park See also: Gray wolf § Behaviour, Dog behavior, Red fox § Behaviour, and African wild dog § Behaviour Almost all canids are social animals and live together in groups. In general, they are territorial or have a home range and sleep in the open, using their dens only for breeding and sometimes in bad weather.[37] In most foxes, and in many of the true dogs, a male and female pair work together to hunt and to raise their young. Gray wolves and some of the other larger canids live in larger groups called packs. African wild dogs have packs which may consist of twenty to forty animals, and packs of fewer than about seven individuals may be incapable of successful reproduction.[38] Hunting in packs has the advantage that larger prey items can be tackled. Some species form packs or live in small family groups depending on the circumstances, including the type of available food. In most species, some individuals live on their own. Within a canid pack, there is a system of dominance so that the strongest, most experienced animals lead the pack. In most cases, the dominant male and female are the only pack members to breed.[39] Canids communicate with each other by scent signals, by visual clues and gestures, and by vocalizations such as growls, barks, and howls. In most cases, groups have a home territory from which they drive out other conspecifics. The territory is marked by leaving urine scent marks, which warn trespassing individuals.[40] Social behaviour is also mediated by secretions from glands on the upper surface of the tail near its root and from the anal glands.[39] Reproduction[edit] Main article: Canine reproduction Gray wolves and red foxes mating A feral dog from Sri Lanka nursing her puppies Canids as a group exhibit several reproductive traits that are uncommon among mammals as a whole. They are typically monogamous, provide paternal care to their offspring, have reproductive cycles with lengthy proestral and dioestral phases and have a copulatory tie during mating. They also retain adult offspring in the social group, suppressing the ability of these to breed while making use of the alloparental care they can provide to help raise the next generation of offspring.[41] During the proestral period, increased levels of oestradiol make the female attractive to the male. There is a rise in progesterone during the oestral phase and the female is now receptive. Following this, the level of oestradiol fluctuates and there is a lengthy dioestrous phase during which the female is pregnant. Pseudo-pregnancy frequently occurs in canids that have ovulated but failed to conceive. A period of anoestrus follows pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy, there being only one oestral period during each breeding season. Small and medium-sized canids mostly have a gestation period of fifty to sixty days while larger species average sixty to sixty-five days. The time of year in which the breeding season occurs is related to the length of day, as has been demonstrated in the case of several species that have been translocated across the equator to the other hemisphere and experiences a six-month shift of phase. Domestic dogs and certain small canids in captivity may come into oestrus more frequently, perhaps because the photoperiod stimulus breaks down under conditions of artificial lighting.[41] The size of a litter varies, with from one to sixteen or more pups being born. The young are born small, blind and helpless and require a long period of parental care. They are kept in a den, most often dug into the ground, for warmth and protection.[30] When the young begin eating solid food, both parents, and often other pack members, bring food back for them from the hunt. This is most often vomited up from the adult's stomach. Where such pack involvement in the feeding of the litter occurs, the breeding success rate is higher than is the case where females split from the group and rear their pups in isolation.[42] Young canids may take a year to mature and learn the skills they need to survive.[43] In some species, such as the African wild dog, male offspring usually remain in the natal pack, while females disperse as a group, and join another small group of the opposite sex to form a new pack.[44]

Canids and humans[edit] Traditional English fox hunt Further information: domestic dog One canid, the domestic dog, entered into a partnership with humans a long time ago. The archaeological record shows the first undisputed dog remains buried beside humans 14,700 years ago,[45] with disputed remains occurring 36,000 years ago.[46] These dates imply that the earliest dogs arose in the time of human hunter-gatherers and not agriculturists.[47][48] The dog was the first domesticated species.[49][50][51][52] The fact that wolves are pack animals with cooperative social structures may have been the reason that the relationship developed. Humans benefited from the canid's loyalty, cooperation, teamwork, alertness and tracking abilities while the wolf may have benefited from the use of weapons to tackle larger prey and the sharing of food. Humans and dogs may have evolved together.[53] Among canids, only the gray wolf has widely been known to prey on humans.[54] Nonetheless, at least two records have coyotes killing humans,[55] and two have golden jackals killing children.[56] Human beings have trapped and hunted some canid species for their fur and, especially the gray wolf, coyote and the red fox, for sport.[57] Canids such as the dhole are now endangered in the wild because of persecution, habitat loss, a depletion of ungulate prey species and transmission of diseases from domestic dogs.[58]

Extant and recently extinct species[edit] The genus Canis: gray wolf, coyote, African golden wolf, Ethiopian wolf, golden jackal, black-backed jackal and side-striped jackal The genus Lycalopex: culpeo, pampas fox, chilla and Darwin's fox The genus Vulpes: red fox, Rüppell's fox, corsac fox, Bengal fox, Arctic fox, Blanford's fox, Cape fox and fennec fox Dhole African wild dog Short-eared dog Maned wolf Bush dog Gray fox Bat-eared fox Raccoon dog All extant species of family Canidae are in subfamily Caninae. Subfamily Caninae[edit] True dogs – Tribe Canini Genus Canis (see also List of Canis species and subspecies which also includes some varieties) Gray wolf, Canis lupus (2.723 Mya to present) Domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris Dingo, most often classified as Canis lupus dingo many other subspecies Red wolf, Canis rufus (sometimes considered a subspecies of gray wolf, but including several subtaxa of its own including the Florida black wolf) Coyote, Canis latrans (also called prairie wolf) Canis dirus (dire wolf), (0.25 mya) † African golden wolf, Canis anthus Golden jackal, Canis aureus Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis (also called Abyssinian wolf, simien fox and simien jackal) Side-striped jackal, Canis adustus Black-backed jackal, Canis mesomelas Genus Cuon Dhole, Cuon alpinus or Canis alpinus (also called Asian or Indian wild dog) Genus Cynotherium † Sardinian dhole, Cynotherium sardous † Genus Lycaon African wild dog, Lycaon pictus (also called African hunting dog) Genus Atelocynus Short-eared dog, Atelocynus microtis Genus Cerdocyon Crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous Genus Dusicyon † Falklands wolf, Dusicyon australis † Dusicyon avus † Genus Lycalopex (Pseudalopex) Culpeo, Lycalopex culpaeus Darwin's fox, Lycalopex fulvipes South American gray fox, Lycalopex griseus Pampas fox, Lycalopex gymnocercus Sechuran fox, Lycalopex sechurae Hoary fox, Lycalopex vetulus Genus Chrysocyon Maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus Genus Speothos Bush dog, Speothos venaticus True foxes – Tribe Vulpini Genus Vulpes Arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus Red fox, Vulpes vulpes (1 Mya to present) including a domesticated silver fox Swift fox, Vulpes velox Kit fox, Vulpes macrotis Corsac fox, Vulpes corsac Cape fox, Vulpes chama Pale fox, Vulpes pallida Bengal fox, Vulpes bengalensis Tibetan sand fox, Vulpes ferrilata Blanford's fox, Vulpes cana Rüppell's fox, Vulpes rueppelli Fennec fox, Vulpes zerda Genus Urocyon (2 Mya to present) Gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus Island fox, Urocyon littoralis Cozumel fox, Urocyon sp. Basal Caninae Genus Otocyon (probably a vulpine close to Urocyon) Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis Genus Nyctereutes Raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides Fluctuation of species within Canidae over 40 million years

Prehistoric Canidae[edit] Except where otherwise stated, the following classification is based on a 1994 paper by Xiaoming Wang, curator of terrestrial mammals at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County on the systematics of the subfamily Hesperocyoninae,[59] a 1999 paper by Wang, together with the zoologists Richard H. Tedford and Beryl E. Taylor on the subfamily Borophaginae,[60] and a 2009 paper by Tedford, Wang and Taylor on the North American fossil Caninae.[61] Subfamily Caninae[edit] Tribe Canini[61] Genus Canis Canis adoxus † Canis ameghinoi † Canis apolloniensis (1.1 mya) † Canis armbrusteri (1.5 mya) † Canis arnensis (1.9-1.6 Mya) †) Canis cautleyi † Canis cedazoensis (4.6 mya) † Canis donnezani (4.0–3.1 Ma † Canis edwardii (4.6 mya) † Canis (Eucyon) cipio (8.2 Mya † Canis etruscus ((1.9-1.6 Mya) † Canis ferox (5 mya) † Canis gezi † Canis lepophagus (8 mya)† Canis michauxi † Canis mosbachensis (0.787 Mya †) Canis nehringi † Canis variabilis † Genus Theriodictis (1.19 mya)† Theriodictis platensis (1.8 Mya †) Theriodictis tarijensis (1.8 Mya †) Theriodictis (Canis) proplatensis (2.1 Ma † ) Genus Protocyon † Protocyon orcesi † Protocyon scagliarum † Protocyon troglodytes † Genus Cerdocyon Cerdocyon avius † Cerdocyon ensenadensis † Genus Speothos Speothos pacivorus † Genus Nurocyon † Nurocyon chonokhariensis † Genus Xenocyon † Xenocyon falconeri ((1.9-1.6 Mya) † Xenocyon lycaonoides (1.69 mya) † Tribe Vulpini Genus Vulpes (7 Mya to present) Vulpes alopecoides (2.6 Mya †) Vulpes cf. alopecoides (2.6 Mya †) Vulpes cf. vulpes (0.1275 Mya †) Vulpes galaticus (4.2 Mya †) Vulpes riffautae (7 Mya †) Basal Caninae Genus Nyctereutes (7.1 Mya to present) Nyctereutes cf. donnezani (7.1 Mya †) Nyctereutes cf. megamastoides (3.158 Mya †) Nyctereutes donnezani (3.4 Mya †) Nyctereutes megamostoides (2.6 Mya †) Nyctereutes sinensis (3.4 Mya †) First Caninae Genus Eucyon (8 Mya †) Eucyon davisi (8.3 Mya †, probably ancestor of Canis) Eucyon minor (8 Mya †) Eucyon zhoui (8 Mya †) Eucyon monticinensis (8 Mya †) Eucyon odessanus † Genus Leptocyon (24–16 Mya †) Leptocyon vafer (16 Mya †) Leptocyon vulpinus (24 Mya †) Subfamily Borophaginae[edit] † (Mya = million years ago) (million years = in existence) Genus Archaeocyon (7 million years) † Archaeocyon falkenbachi (10.2 million years) † Archaeocyon leptodus (7 million years) † Archaeocyon pavidus (7 million years) † Genus Otarocyon (7.6 million years) † Otarocyon cooki (4.5 million years) † Otarocyon macdonaldi (0.6 million years) † Genus Oxetocyon (2.5 million years) † Oxetocyon cuspidatus (2.5 million years) † Genus Rhizocyon (30 Mya) Rhizocyon oregonensis (30 Mya) Tribe Phlaocyonini (27.2 million years) † Genus Cynarctoides (16.7 million years) † Cynarctoides acridens (11 million years) † Cynarctoides emryi (4 million years) † Cynarctoides gawnae (4 million years) † Cynarctoides harlowi (4 million years) † Cynarctoides lemur (30 Mya) † Cynarctoides luskensis (4.2 million years) † Cynarctoides roii (4.5 million years) † Genus Phlaocyon (30–19 Mya) Phlaocyon achoros Phlaocyon annectens (22 Mya) Phlaocyon latidens (30 Mya) Phlaocyon leucosteus (22 Mya) Phlaocyon mariae Phlaocyon marslandensis (19 Mya) Phlaocyon minor (30 Mya) Phlaocyon multicuspus Phlaocyon taylori[62] Phlaocyon yakolai (19 Mya) Tribe Borophagini (16.7 million years) † Genus Cormocyon (10.2 million years) † Cormocyon copei (10.2 million years) † Cormocyon haydeni (4.2 million years) † Genus Desmocyon (9 million years) † Desmocyon matthewi (4.3 million years) † Desmocyon thompsoni † Genus Metatomarctus (4.3 million years) † Metatomarctus canavus (4.3 million years) † Metatomarctus sp. A (16 Mya) Metatomarctus sp. B (16 Mya) Genus Euoplocyon (18–16 Mya) Euoplocyon brachygnathus (16 Mya) Euoplocyon spissidens (18 Mya) Genus Psalidocyon (16 Mya) Psalidocyon marianae (16 Mya) Genus Microtomarctus (4 million years) † Microtomarctus conferta (17.67 million years) † Genus Protomarctus (18 Mya) Protomarctus optatus (18 Mya) Genus Tephrocyon (16 Mya) Tephrocyon rurestris (16 Mya) Subtribe Cynarctina † Genus Paracynarctus (6.7 million years) † Paracynarctus kelloggi (6.7 million years) † Paracynarctus sinclairi (7 million years) † Genus Cynarctus (5.6 million years) † Cynarctus crucidens (1.3 million years) † Cynarctus galushai (2.7 million years) † Cynarctus marylandica (2.3 million years) † Cynarctus saxatilis (2.7 million years) † Cynarctus voorhiesi (3.3 million years) † Cynarctus wangi (1 million years) †[63] Subtribe Aelurodontina (15 million years) † Genus Tomarctus (7 million years) † Tomarctus brevirostris (6.8 million years) † Tomarctus hippophaga (7 million years) † Genus Aelurodon (15.7 million years) † Aelurodon asthenostylus (7 million years) † Aelurodon ferox (6 mya) † Aelurodon mcgrewi (2.7 mya) † Aelurodon montanensis (2.7 mya) †[64] Aelurodon stirtoni (6 million years) † Aelurodon taxoides (8.3 million years) † Subtribe Borophagina (17 million years) † Genus Paratomarctus (6 million years) † Paratomarctus euthos (13 Mya) Paratomarctus temerarius (16 Mya) Genus Carpocyon (19.7 million years) † Carpocyon compressus (2.7 million years) † Carpocyon limosus (5 million years) † Carpocyon robustus (3.3 million years) † Carpocyon webbi (6 million years) † Genus Protepicyon (16 Mya) Protepicyon raki (16 Mya) Genus Epicyon (2 million years) † Epicyon aelurodontoides (5.4 million years) † Epicyon haydeni (5.4 million years) † Epicyon saevus (11.4 million years) † Genus Borophagus (7 million years) † Borophagus diversidens (5 Mya) † Borophagus dudleyi (1.7 million years) † Borophagus hilli (6.7 million years) † Borophagus littoralis (0.6 million years) † Borophagus orc (0.4 million years) † Borophagus parvus (5.4 million years) † Borophagus pugnator (8.3 million years) † Borophagus secundus (8.3 million years) † Subfamily Hesperocyoninae[edit] † (Mya = million years ago) Genus Cynodesmus (32–29 Mya) Cynodesmus martini (29 Mya) Cynodesmus thooides (32 Mya)  ?Genus Caedocyon Caedocyon tedfordi Genus Ectopocynus (32–19 Mya) Ectopocynus antiquus (32 Ma) Ectopocynus intermedius (29 Mya) Ectopocynus siplicidens (19 Mya) Genus Enhydrocyon (29–25 Mya) Enhydrocyon basilatus (25 Mya) Enhydrocyon crassidens (25 Mya) Enhydrocyon pahinsintewkpa (29 Mya) Enhydrocyon stenocephalus (29 Mya) Genus Hesperocyon (39.74–34 Mya) Hesperocyon coloradensis Hesperocyon gregarius (37 Mya) Genus Mesocyon (34–29 Mya) Mesocyon brachyops (29 Mya) Mesocyon coryphaeus (29 Mya) Mesocyn temnodon Genus Osbornodon (32–18 Mya) Osbornodon brachypus Osbornodon fricki (18 Mya) Osbornodon iamonensis (21 Mya) Osbornodon renjiei (33 Mya) Osbornodon scitulus[65] Osbornodon sesnoni (32 Mya) Osbornodon wangi[62] Genus Paraenhydrocyon (30–25 Mya) Paraenhydrocyon josephi (30 Mya) Paraenhydrocyon robustus (25 Mya) Genus Philotrox (29 Mya) Philotrox condoni (29 Mya) Genus Prohesperocyon (36 Mya) Prohesperocyon wilsoni (36 Mya) Genus Sunkahetanka (29 Mya) Sunkahetanka geringensis (29 Mya)

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External links[edit] Wikispecies has information related to Canidae Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canidae. "Canidae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).  v t e Extinct members of the family Canidae Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia †Hesperocyoninae Hesperocyon Mesocyon Cynodesmus Sunkahetanka Philotrox Enhydrocyon Paraenhydrocyon Osbornodon Caedocyon Ectopocynus †Borophaginae Archaeocyon Oxetocyon Otarocyon Rhizocyon Phlaocyonini Cynarctoides Phlaocyon Borophagini Cormocyon Desmocyon Metatomarctus Euoplocyon Psalidocyon Microtomarctus Protomarctus Tephrocyon Cynarctina Paracynarctus Cynarctus Aelurodontina Tomarctus Aelurodon Borophagina Paratomarctus Carpocyon Protepicyon Epicyon Borophagus Caninae Chailicyon Cynotherium Dusicyon Eucyon Gobicyon Leptocyon Neocynodesmus Nurocyon Prototocyon Theriodictis Urocyon U. progressus Cuon C. alpinus europaeus Vulpes V. qiuzhudingi V. riffautae V. skinneri Canis C. apolloniensis C. armbrusteri C. arnensis C. cedazoensis C. dirus C. edwardii C. etruscus C. ferox C. lepophagus C. latrans C. l. orcutti C. lupus C. l. hattai C. l. hodophilax C. (Xenocyon) C. (X.) africanus C. (X.) antonii C. (X.) falconeri C. (X.) lycanoides Category v t e Extant Carnivora species Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria Suborder Feliformia Nandiniidae Nandinia African palm civet (N. binotata) Herpestidae (Mongooses) Atilax Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus) Bdeogale Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes) Crossarchus Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse (C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus) Cynictis Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata) Dologale Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii) Galerella Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens) Black mongoose (G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea) Helogale Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula) Herpestes Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso) Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis) Ichneumia White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda) Liberiictus Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni) Mungos Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus) Banded mongoose (M. mungo) Paracynictis Selous' mongoose (P. selousi) Rhynchogale Meller's mongoose (R. melleri) Suricata Meerkat (S. suricatta) Hyaenidae (Hyenas) Crocuta Spotted hyena (C. crocuta) Hyaena Brown hyena (H. brunnea) Striped hyena (H. hyaena) Proteles Aardwolf (P. cristatus) Felidae Large family listed below Viverridae Large family listed below Eupleridae Small family listed below Family Felidae Felinae Acinonyx Cheetah (A. jubatus) Caracal Caracal (C. caracal) African golden cat (C. aurata) Catopuma Bay cat (C. badia) Asian golden cat (C. temminckii) Felis Wildcat (F. silvestris) Jungle cat (F. chaus) Black-footed cat (F. nigripes) Sand cat (F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus) Leopardus Pantanal cat (L. braccatus) Colocolo (L. colocolo) Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi) Kodkod (L. guigna) Southern tigrina (L. guttulus) Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita) Pampas cat (L. pajeros) Ocelot (L. pardalis) Oncilla (L. tigrinus) Margay (L. wiedii) Leptailurus Serval (L. serval) Lynx Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) Iberian lynx (L. pardinus) Bobcat (L. rufus) Otocolobus Pallas's cat (O. manul) Pardofelis Marbled cat (P. marmorata) Prionailurus Fishing cat (P. viverrinus) Leopard cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus) Puma Cougar (P. concolor) Jaguarundi (P. yagouaroundi) Pantherinae Panthera Lion (P. leo) Jaguar (P. onca) Leopard (P. pardus) Tiger (P. tigris) Snow leopard (P. uncia) Neofelis Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi) Family Viverridae (includes Civets) Paradoxurinae Arctictis Binturong (A. binturong) Arctogalidia Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata) Macrogalidia Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii) Paguma Masked palm civet (P. larvata) Paradoxurus Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis) Hemigalinae Chrotogale Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni) Cynogale Otter civet (C. bennettii) Diplogale Hose's palm civet (D. hosei) Hemigalus Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus) Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs) Prionodon Banded linsang (P. linsang) Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor) Viverrinae Civettictis African civet (C. civetta) Genetta (Genets) Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica) Angolan genet (G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet (G. cristata) Common genet (G. genetta) Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata) Pardine genet (G. pardina) Aquatic genet (G. piscivora) King genet (G. poensis) Servaline genet (G. servalina) Haussa genet (G. thierryi) Cape genet (G. tigrina) Giant forest genet (G. victoriae) Poiana African linsang (P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni) Viverra Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina) Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila) Malayan civet (V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet (V. zibetha) Viverricula Small Indian civet (V. indica) Family Eupleridae Euplerinae Cryptoprocta Fossa (C. ferox) Eupleres Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major) Fossa Malagasy civet (F. fossana) Galidiinae Galidia Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans) Galidictis Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri) Mungotictis Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata) Salanoia Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli) Suborder Caniformia (cont. below) Ursidae (Bears) Ailuropoda Giant panda (A. melanoleuca) Helarctos Sun bear (H. malayanus) Melursus Sloth bear (M. ursinus) Tremarctos Spectacled bear (T. ornatus) Ursus American black bear (U. americanus) Brown bear (U. arctos) Polar bear (U. maritimus) Asian black bear (U. thibetanus) Mephitidae Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks) Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus) Mephitis Hooded skunk (M. macroura) Striped skunk (M. mephitis) Mydaus Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger (M. marchei) Spilogale (Spotted skunks) Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea) Procyonidae Bassaricyon (Olingos) Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni) Northern olingo (B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo (B. medius) Olinguito (B. neblina) Bassariscus Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus) Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti) Nasua (Coatis inclusive) White-nosed coati (N. narica) South American coati (N. nasua) Nasuella (Coatis inclusive) Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis) Potos Kinkajou (P. flavus) Procyon Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus) Raccoon (P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus) Ailuridae Ailurus Red panda (A. fulgens) Suborder Caniformia (cont. above) Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) (Pinniped inclusive) Arctocephalus South American fur seal (A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii) Brown fur seal (A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis) Callorhinus Northern fur seal (C. ursinus) Eumetopias Steller sea lion (E. jubatus) Neophoca Australian sea lion (N. cinerea) Otaria South American sea lion (O. flavescens) Phocarctos New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri) Zalophus California sea lion (Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki) Odobenidae (Pinniped inclusive) Odobenus Walrus (O. rosmarus) Phocidae (Earless seals) (Pinniped inclusive) Cystophora Hooded seal (C. cristata) Erignathus Bearded seal (E. barbatus) Halichoerus Gray seal (H. grypus) Histriophoca Ribbon seal (H. fasciata) Hydrurga Leopard seal (H. leptonyx) Leptonychotes Weddell seal (L. weddellii) Lobodon Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus) Mirounga (Elephant seals) Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal (M. leonina) Monachus Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi) Ommatophoca Ross seal (O. rossi) Pagophilus Harp seal (P. groenlandicus) Phoca Spotted seal (P. largha) Harbor seal (P. vitulina) Pusa Caspian seal (P. caspica) Ringed seal (P. hispida) Baikal seal (P. sibirica) Canidae Large family listed below Mustelidae Large family listed below Family Canidae (includes dogs) Atelocynus Short-eared dog (A. microtis) Canis Side-striped jackal (C. adustus) African golden wolf (C. anthus) Golden jackal (C. aureus) Coyote (C. latrans) Gray wolf (C. lupus) Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas) Red wolf (C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis) Cerdocyon Crab-eating fox (C. thous) Chrysocyon Maned wolf (C. brachyurus) Cuon Dhole (C. alpinus) Lycalopex Culpeo (L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes) South American gray fox (L. griseus) Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox (L. sechurae) Hoary fox (L. vetulus) Lycaon African wild dog (L. pictus) Nyctereutes Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides) Otocyon Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis) Speothos Bush dog (S. venaticus) Urocyon Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox (U. littoralis) Vulpes (Foxes) Bengal fox (V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox (V. cana) Cape fox (V. chama) Corsac fox (V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata) Arctic fox (V. lagopus) Kit fox (V. macrotis) Pale fox (V. pallida) Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli) Swift fox (V. velox) Red fox (V. vulpes) Fennec fox (V. zerda) Family Mustelidae Lutrinae (Otters) Aonyx African clawless otter (A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea) Enhydra Sea otter (E. lutris) Hydrictis Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis) Lontra North American river otter (L. canadensis) Marine otter (L. felina) Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis) Southern river otter (L. provocax) Lutra Eurasian otter (L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana) Lutrogale Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata) Pteronura Giant otter (P. brasiliensis) Mustelinae (including badgers) Arctonyx Hog badger (A. collaris) Eira Tayra (E. barbara) Galictis Lesser grison (G. cuja) Greater grison (G. vittata) Gulo Wolverine (G. gulo) Ictonyx Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca) Striped polecat (I. striatus) Lyncodon Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus) Martes (Martens) American marten (M. americana) Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula) Beech marten (M. foina) Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten (M. martes) Japanese marten (M. melampus) Fisher (M. pennanti) Sable (M. zibellina) Meles Japanese badger (M. anakuma) Asian badger (M. leucurus) European badger (M. meles) Mellivora Honey badger (M. capensis) Melogale (Ferret-badgers) Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata) Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets) Amazon weasel (M. africana) Mountain weasel (M. altaica) Stoat (M. erminea) Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel (M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata) Japanese weasel (M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah) European mink (M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes) Least weasel (M. nivalis) Malayan weasel (M. nudipes) European polecat (M. putorius) Siberian weasel (M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata) Neovison (Minks) American mink (N. vison) Poecilogale African striped weasel (P. albinucha) Taxidea American badger (T. taxus) Vormela Marbled polecat (V. peregusna) Taxon identifiers Wd: Q25324 ADW: Canidae EoL: 7676 Fauna Europaea: 12634 Fossilworks: 41189 GBIF: 9701 ITIS: 180594 MSW: 14000691 NCBI: 9608 WoRMS: 404128 Authority control GND: 4398917-2 BNF: cb119403115 (data) NDL: 00564183 Retrieved from "" Categories: CanidsMammal familiesBartonian first appearancesExtant Eocene first appearancesTaxa named by Gotthelf Fischer von WaldheimHidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses authors parameterGood articlesArticles with 'species' microformatsWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers

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Canidae - Photos and All Basic Informations

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This Is A Good Article. Follow The Link For More Information.MegaannumPrecambrianCambrianOrdovicianSilurianDevonianCarboniferousPermianTriassicJurassicCretaceousPaleogeneNeogeneEoceneHoloceneCanisCuonLycaon (genus)CerdocyonChrysocyonSpeothosVulpesNyctereutesOtocyonUrocyonTaxonomy (biology)EAnimalChordateMammalCarnivoraCaniformiaJohann Fischer Von WaldheimFamily (biology)Help:IPA/EnglishCarnivoraDogGray WolfCoyotesFoxJackalDingoExtant TaxonExtinctionHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/EnglishFeliformiaCaniformiaCarnivoramorphaLeptocyonVulpesCanisAntarcticaGray WolfFennec FoxSocial AnimalsSubfamilyHesperocyoninaeBorophaginaeCaninaeMonophyleticBicuspidCarnassialTalonidMasticationGlossary Of Mammalian Dental TopographyMolar (tooth)Glossary Of Mammalian Dental TopographyCenozoicEnlargeEnlargeVulpesCorsac FoxNyctereutesRaccoon DogCuonDholeCanisGolden JackalAllozymeChromosomePhylogeneticsDogGray WolfRed WolfEastern WolfCoyoteGolden JackalEthiopian WolfBlack-backed JackalSide-striped JackalDholeAfrican Wild DogKit FoxRed FoxCape FoxArctic FoxFennec FoxBush DogHoary FoxCrab-eating FoxManed WolfMonotypic TaxonBat-eared FoxGray FoxRaccoon DogDNAMonophylyCladisticsBasal (phylogenetics)CaninaeCanis FamiliarisDomestic DogCanis LupusGray WolfCanis LatransCoyoteCanis AnthusAfrican Golden WolfCanis SimensisEthiopian WolfCanis AureusGolden JackalCuon AlpinusDholeLycaon PictusAfrican Wild DogCanis MesomelasBlack-backed JackalCanis AdustusSide-striped JackalSpeothos VenaticusBush DogChrysocyon BrachyurusManed WolfLycalopexLycalopex VetulusHoary FoxLycalopex FulvipesDarwin's FoxLycalopex GriseusSouth American Gray FoxLycalopex GymnocercusPampas FoxLycalopex CulpaeusCulpeoLycalopex SechuraeSechuran FoxCerdocyon ThousCrab-eating FoxAtelocynus MicrotisShort-eared DogOtocyon MegalotisBat-eared FoxNyctereutes ProcyonoidesRaccoon DogVulpesVulpes ZerdaFennec FoxVulpes CanaBlanford's FoxVulpes ChamaCape FoxVulpes VulpesRed FoxVulpes RueppelliiRuppell's FoxVulpes CorsacCorsac FoxVulpes FerrilataTibetan Sand FoxVulpes MacrotisKit FoxVulpes LagopusArctic FoxUrocyonUrocyon LittoralisIsland FoxUrocyon CinereoargenteusGray FoxEdit Section: EvolutionManed WolfBush DogMorphology (biology)PhylogeneticsGenetic DivergenceGene FlowHybrid ZoneCarnivoranMiacoidMya (unit)PaleoceneCaniformsFeliformsProhesperocyon WilsoniAuditory BullaHesperocyoninaeBorophaginaeCaninaeCope's RuleHypercarnivorousTemplate:Canidae Graphical TimelineCretaceousQuaternaryPalæoceneEoceneOligocenePlioceneMioceneCretaceous–Paleogene Extinction EventHesperocyoninaeBorophaginaeCaninaePaleogeneNeogeneCenozoicMesozoicPrecambrianCambrianOrdovicianSilurianDevonianCarboniferousPermianTriassicJurassicCretaceousPaleogeneNeogeneOligoceneMesocyonCivetHesperocyonArchaeocyonLeptocyonEvolutionary RadiationLate MioceneCanisUrocyonVulpesNorth AmericaCarnassialMasticationBeringiaEucyonPlioceneCanis LepophagusIsthmus Of PanamaSouth AmericaGreat American InterchangeGray FoxDire WolfManed WolfShort-eared DogBush DogCrab-eating FoxSouth American FoxEnlargeCamelPleistoceneCanis EdwardiiCanis RufusCanis AmbrusteriRancholabreanCladeCanis AnthusEnlargeGrey WolfGolden JackalDholeDesertsMountainsForestsGrasslandGray WolfArboreal LocomotionDog BreedZygomatic ArchLambdoidalCraniumSagittal CrestDigitigradeRhinariumLycaon PictusDewclawCanine PenisBaculumBulbus GlandisCopulatory TieNuchal LigamentUngulatesAelurodonEnlargeEnlargeEurasian WolfDentitionDentitionIncisorsCanine ToothPremolarsMolarsMandibleCarnivoresCarnassialsCanidsTrigonidTalonidHypercarnivoreOmnivorePlacentalNewton (unit)Dire WolfCanidsToothDentitionBone MarrowEnlargeDholeSambar (deer)Bandipur National ParkGray WolfDog BehaviorRed FoxAfrican Wild DogBreeding PairPack (canine)Scent MarkingConspecificRaised-leg UrinationAnal GlandCanine ReproductionWolves MatingRed FoxEnlargeMonogamyEstrous CycleEstrous CycleAlloparentingOestradiolProgesteroneEstrous CycleFalse PregnancyGestationPhotoperiodEnlargeFox HuntDomestic DogOrigin Of The Domestic DogHunter-gatherersAgriculturistsCoyote Attacks On HumansDholeEndangered SpeciesEnlargeCanisGray WolfCoyoteAfrican Golden WolfEthiopian WolfGolden JackalBlack-backed JackalSide-striped JackalEnlargeLycalopexCulpeoPampas FoxSouth American Gray FoxDarwin's FoxEnlargeVulpesRed FoxRüppell's FoxCorsac FoxBengal FoxArctic FoxBlanford's FoxCape FoxFennec FoxEnlargeDholeEnlargeAfrican Wild DogEnlargeShort-eared DogEnlargeManed WolfEnlargeBush DogEnlargeGray FoxEnlargeBat-eared FoxEnlargeRaccoon DogCanisList Of Canis Species And SubspeciesGray WolfDogDingoSubspecies Of Canis LupusRed WolfCanis Rufus FloridanusCoyoteCanis DirusExtinctionAfrican Golden WolfGolden JackalEthiopian WolfSide-striped JackalBlack-backed JackalDholeCynotheriumExtinctionSardinian DholeExtinctionLycaon (genus)African Wild DogShort-eared DogCrab-eating FoxExtinctionFalkland Island WolfExtinctionExtinctionLycalopexCulpeoDarwin's FoxSouth American Gray FoxPampas FoxSechuran FoxHoary FoxManed WolfBush DogVulpesArctic FoxRed FoxDomesticated Silver FoxSwift FoxKit FoxCorsac FoxCape FoxPale FoxBengal FoxTibetan Sand FoxBlanford's FoxRüppell's FoxFennec FoxUrocyonGray FoxIsland FoxCozumel FoxBat-eared FoxNyctereutesRaccoon DogEnlargeXiaoming WangNatural History Museum Of Los Angeles CountySystematicsRichard H. TedfordCanisExtinctionExtinctionCanis ApolloniensisExtinctionCanis ArmbrusteriExtinctionCanis ArnensisExtinctionExtinctionCanis CedazoensisExtinctionExtinctionCanis EdwardiiExtinctionExtinctionCanis EtruscusExtinctionCanis FeroxExtinctionCanis NehringiExtinctionCanis LepophagusExtinctionExtinctionCanis VariabilisExtinctionCanis NehringiExtinctionCanis VariabilisExtinctionTheriodictisExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionProtocyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionCerdocyonCerdocyon AviusExtinctionExtinctionSpeothosSpeothos PacivorusExtinctionNurocyonExtinctionExtinctionXenocyonExtinctionCanis FalconeriExtinctionXenocyon LycaonoidesExtinctionVulpesExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionVulpes RiffautaeExtinctionNyctereutesExtinctionExtinctionNyctereutes DonnezaniExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionEucyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionLeptocyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionAnnumArchaeocyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionOtarocyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionOxetocyonExtinctionExtinctionRhizocyonPhlaocyoniniExtinctionCynarctoidesExtinctionCynarctoides AcridensExtinctionCynarctoides EmryiExtinctionCynarctoides GawnaeExtinctionCynarctoides HarlowiExtinctionCynarctoides LemurExtinctionCynarctoides LuskensisExtinctionCynarctoides RoiiExtinctionPhlaocyonPhlaocyon AchorosPhlaocyon AnnectensPhlaocyon LatidensPhlaocyon MariaeBorophaginiExtinctionCormocyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionDesmocyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionMetatomarctusExtinctionExtinctionEuoplocyonPsalidocyonMicrotomarctusExtinctionExtinctionProtomarctusTephrocyonCynarctinaExtinctionParacynarctusExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionCynarctusExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionAelurodontinaExtinctionTomarctusExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionAelurodonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionBorophaginaExtinctionParatomarctusExtinctionCarpocyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionProtepicyonEpicyonExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionExtinctionBorophagusExtinctionBorophagus DiversidensExtinctionBorophagus DudleyiExtinctionBorophagus HilliExtinctionBorophagus LittoralisExtinctionBorophagus OrcExtinctionBorophagus ParvusExtinctionBorophagus PugnatorExtinctionBorophagus SecundusExtinctionExtinctionCynodesmusCaedocyonEctopocynusEnhydrocyonEnhydrocyon BasilatusHesperocyonMesocyonOsbornodonOsbornodon IamonensisParaenhydrocyonParaenhydrocyon JosephiPhilotroxProhesperocyonSunkahetankaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8018-8221-0OCLCBulletin Of The American Museum Of Natural HistoryDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0199545667Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-84593-188-9Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7614-2237-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-886106-81-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8014-8493-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-87196-871-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-231-13529-0Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-906282-65-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8018-2525-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-88977-154-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-84593-188-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-937548-08-1Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierPLOS GeneticsDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-81410-3IUCN Red ListInternational Union For Conservation Of NatureHandle SystemHandle SystemDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierWikispeciesNational Center For Biotechnology InformationTemplate:Canidae Extinct NavTemplate Talk:Canidae Extinct NavExtinctionAnimalChordataMammaliaCarnivoraCaniformiaHesperocyoninaeHesperocyonMesocyonCynodesmusSunkahetankaPhilotroxEnhydrocyonParaenhydrocyonOsbornodonCaedocyonEctopocynusBorophaginaeArchaeocyonOxetocyonOtarocyonRhizocyonPhlaocyoniniCynarctoidesPhlaocyonBorophaginiCormocyonDesmocyonMetatomarctusEuoplocyonPsalidocyonMicrotomarctusProtomarctusTephrocyonCynarctinaParacynarctusCynarctusAelurodontinaTomarctusAelurodonBorophaginaParatomarctusCarpocyonProtepicyonEpicyonBorophagusCaninaeChailicyonSardinian DholeFalkland Islands WolfEucyonGobicyonLeptocyonNeocynodesmusNurocyonPrototocyonTheriodictisUrocyonUrocyon ProgressusCuonEuropean DholeVulpesVulpes QiuzhudingiVulpes RiffautaeVulpes SkinneriCanisCanis ApolloniensisArmbruster's WolfCanis ArnensisCanis CedazoensisDire WolfCanis EdwardiiCanis EtruscusCanis FeroxCanis LepophagusC. LatransPleistocene CoyoteC. LupusHokkaido WolfJapanese WolfXenocyonXenocyonXenocyonXenocyonXenocyonCategory:Prehistoric CaninesTemplate:CarnivoraTemplate Talk:CarnivoraCarnivoraAnimalChordateMammalEutheriaLaurasiatheriaFeliformiaAfrican Palm CivetAfrican Palm CivetAfrican Palm CivetMongooseMarsh MongooseMarsh MongooseBdeogaleBushy-tailed MongooseJackson's MongooseBlack-footed MongooseCrossarchusAlexander's KusimanseAngolan KusimanseCommon KusimanseFlat-headed KusimanseYellow MongooseYellow MongoosePousargues's MongoosePousargues's MongooseGalerellaAngolan Slender MongooseBlack MongooseSomalian Slender MongooseCape Gray MongooseSlender MongooseHelogaleEthiopian Dwarf MongooseCommon Dwarf MongooseHerpestesShort-tailed MongooseIndian Gray MongooseIndian Brown MongooseEgyptian MongooseSmall Asian MongooseLong-nosed MongooseCollared MongooseRuddy MongooseCrab-eating MongooseStripe-necked MongooseWhite-tailed MongooseWhite-tailed MongooseLiberian MongooseLiberian MongooseMungosGambian MongooseBanded MongooseSelous' MongooseSelous' MongooseMeller's MongooseMeller's MongooseMeerkatMeerkatHyenaSpotted HyenaSpotted HyenaHyenaBrown HyenaStriped HyenaAardwolfAardwolfFelidaeViverridaeEupleridaeFelidaeFelinaeAcinonyxCheetahCaracal (genus)CaracalAfrican Golden CatCatopumaBay CatAsian Golden CatFelisWildcatJungle CatBlack-footed CatSand CatChinese Mountain CatCatLeopardusPantanal CatColocoloGeoffroy's CatKodkodSouthern TigrinaAndean Mountain CatPampas CatOcelotOncillaMargayServalServalLynxCanada LynxEurasian LynxIberian LynxBobcatOtocolobusPallas's CatPardofelisMarbled CatPrionailurusFishing CatLeopard CatPrionailurus JavanensisFlat-headed CatRusty-spotted CatPuma (genus)CougarJaguarundiPantherinaePantheraLionJaguarLeopardTigerSnow LeopardNeofelisClouded LeopardSunda Clouded LeopardViverridaeCivetParadoxurinaeBinturongBinturongSmall-toothed Palm CivetSmall-toothed Palm CivetSulawesi Palm CivetSulawesi Palm CivetMasked Palm CivetMasked Palm CivetParadoxurusParadoxurus AureusAsian Palm CivetBrown Palm CivetGolden Palm CivetHemigalinaeOwston's Palm CivetOwston's Palm CivetOtter CivetOtter CivetHose's Palm CivetHose's Palm CivetBanded Palm CivetBanded Palm CivetAsiatic LinsangAsiatic LinsangBanded LinsangSpotted LinsangViverrinaeAfrican CivetAfrican CivetGenet (animal)Abyssinian GenetAngolan GenetBourlon's GenetCrested Servaline GenetCommon GenetJohnston's GenetRusty-spotted GenetPardine GenetAquatic GenetKing GenetServaline GenetHaussa GenetCape GenetGiant Forest GenetPoiana (genus)African LinsangLeighton's LinsangViverraMalabar Large-spotted CivetLarge-spotted CivetMalayan CivetLarge Indian CivetSmall Indian CivetSmall Indian CivetEupleridaeEuplerinaeFossa (animal)Fossa (animal)EupleresEastern FalanoucEupleres MajorMalagasy CivetMalagasy CivetGalidiinaeRing-tailed MongooseRing-tailed MongooseGalidictisBroad-striped Malagasy MongooseGrandidier's MongooseNarrow-striped MongooseNarrow-striped MongooseSalanoiaBrown-tailed MongooseSalanoia DurrelliCaniformiaBearAiluropodaGiant PandaSun BearSun BearSloth BearSloth BearSpectacled BearSpectacled BearUrsus (genus)American Black BearBrown BearPolar BearAsian Black BearMephitidaeHog-nosed SkunkMolina's Hog-nosed SkunkHumboldt's Hog-nosed SkunkAmerican Hog-nosed SkunkStriped Hog-nosed SkunkMephitis (genus)Hooded SkunkStriped SkunkStink BadgerSunda Stink BadgerPalawan Stink BadgerSpotted SkunkSouthern Spotted SkunkWestern Spotted SkunkEastern Spotted SkunkPygmy Spotted SkunkProcyonidaeBassaricyonEastern Lowland OlingoNorthern OlingoWestern Lowland OlingoOlinguitoBassariscusRing-tailed CatCacomistleNasuaCoatiWhite-nosed CoatiSouth American CoatiNasuellaCoatiNasuella OlivaceaNasuella MeridensisKinkajouKinkajouProcyon (genus)Crab-eating RaccoonRaccoonCozumel RaccoonAiluridaeRed PandaRed PandaCaniformiaEared SealFur SealSea LionPinnipedArctocephalusSouth American Fur SealArctocephalus ForsteriGalápagos Fur SealAntarctic Fur SealJuan Fernández Fur SealBrown Fur SealGuadalupe Fur SealSubantarctic Fur SealNorthern Fur SealNorthern Fur SealSteller Sea LionSteller Sea LionNeophocaAustralian Sea LionSouth American Sea LionSouth American Sea LionNew Zealand Sea LionNew Zealand Sea LionZalophusCalifornia Sea LionGalápagos Sea LionWalrusPinnipedWalrusWalrusEarless SealPinnipedHooded SealHooded SealBearded SealBearded SealGrey SealGrey SealRibbon SealRibbon SealLeopard SealLeopard SealWeddell SealWeddell SealCrabeater SealCrabeater SealElephant SealNorthern Elephant SealSouthern Elephant SealMonk SealMediterranean Monk SealHawaiian Monk SealRoss SealRoss SealHarp SealHarp SealPhocaSpotted SealHarbor SealPusaCaspian SealRinged SealBaikal SealMustelidaeDogShort-eared DogShort-eared DogCanisSide-striped JackalAfrican Golden WolfGolden JackalCoyoteGray WolfBlack-backed JackalRed WolfEthiopian WolfCrab-eating FoxCrab-eating FoxManed WolfManed WolfDholeDholeLycalopexCulpeoDarwin's FoxSouth American Gray FoxPampas FoxSechuran FoxHoary FoxAfrican Wild DogAfrican Wild DogNyctereutesRaccoon DogBat-eared FoxBat-eared FoxSpeothosBush DogUrocyonGray FoxIsland FoxVulpesFoxBengal FoxBlanford's FoxCape FoxCorsac FoxTibetan Sand FoxArctic FoxKit FoxPale FoxRüppell's FoxSwift FoxRed FoxFennec FoxMustelidaeOtterAonyxAfrican Clawless OtterOriental Small-clawed OtterSea OtterSea OtterSpotted-necked OtterSpotted-necked OtterLontraNorth American River OtterMarine OtterNeotropical OtterSouthern River OtterLutraEurasian OtterHairy-nosed OtterLutrogaleSmooth-coated OtterGiant OtterGiant OtterMustelinaeBadgerHog BadgerHog BadgerTayraTayraGalictisLesser GrisonGreater GrisonWolverineWolverineIctonyxSaharan Striped PolecatStriped PolecatPatagonian WeaselPatagonian WeaselMartenAmerican MartenYellow-throated MartenBeech MartenNilgiri MartenEuropean Pine MartenJapanese MartenFisher (animal)SableMeles (genus)Japanese BadgerAsian BadgerEuropean BadgerHoney BadgerHoney BadgerFerret-badgerBornean Ferret-badgerChinese Ferret-badgerJavan Ferret-badgerBurmese Ferret-badgerWeaselWeaselFerretAmazon WeaselMountain WeaselStoatSteppe PolecatColombian WeaselLong-tailed WeaselJapanese WeaselYellow-bellied WeaselEuropean MinkIndonesian Mountain WeaselBlack-footed FerretLeast WeaselMalayan WeaselEuropean PolecatSiberian WeaselBack-striped WeaselEgyptian WeaselAmerican MinkMinkAmerican MinkAfrican Striped WeaselAfrican Striped WeaselAmerican BadgerAmerican BadgerMarbled PolecatMarbled PolecatHelp:Taxon IdentifiersWikidataAnimal Diversity WebEncyclopedia Of LifeFauna EuropaeaFossilworksGlobal Biodiversity Information FacilityIntegrated Taxonomic Information SystemMammal Species Of The WorldNational Center For Biotechnology InformationWorld Register Of Marine SpeciesHelp:Authority ControlIntegrated Authority FileBibliothèque Nationale De FranceNational Diet LibraryHelp:CategoryCategory:CanidsCategory:Mammal FamiliesCategory:Bartonian First AppearancesCategory:Extant Eocene First AppearancesCategory:Taxa Named By Gotthelf Fischer Von WaldheimCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterCategory:Good 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