Contents 1 Variants 2 Bracteole 3 Involucral bracts 4 Epicalyx 5 Spathe 6 References


Variants[edit] Some bracts are brightly colored and serve the function of attracting pollinators, either together with the perianth or instead of it. Examples of this type of bract include Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia) and Bougainvillea: both of these have large colourful bracts surrounding much smaller, less colourful flowers. In grasses, each floret (flower) is enclosed in a pair of papery bracts, called the lemma (lower bract) and palea (upper bract), while each spikelet (group of florets) has a further pair of bracts at its base called glumes. These bracts form the chaff removed from cereal grain during threshing and winnowing. Bats may detect acoustic signals from dish-shaped bracts such as those of Marcgravia evenia.[3] A prophyll is a leaf-like structure, such as a bracteole, subtending (extending under) a single flower or pedicel. The term can also mean the lower bract on a peduncle. The frequently showy pair of bracts of Euphorbia species in subgenus Lacanthis are the cyathophylls. Bracts subtend the cone scales in the seed cones of many conifers, and in some cases, such as Pseudotsuga, they extend beyond the cone scales. Bracts of Bougainvillea glabra, differ in colour from the non-bract leaves, and attract pollinators. Bracts along a banana flower stalk surround the rows of flowers Euphorbia milii var. vulcanii cyathia bearing a pair of pinkish cyathophylls. Colourful bracts of Ananas bracteatus. Bracts, Taraxacum officinale. Dogwood species Cornus florida inflorescence showing four large white bracts and central flower cluster. Cornus Florida dogwood with pink bracts surrounding small flower cluster.


Bracteole[edit] A small bract is called a bracteole or bractlet. Technically this is any bract that arises on a pedicel instead of subtending it.


Involucral bracts[edit] Beggar-tick (Bidens comosa) Bracts that appear in a whorl subtending an inflorescence are collectively called an involucre. An involucre is a common feature beneath the inflorescences of many Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Dipsacaceae and Polygonaceae. Each flower in an inflorescence may have its own whorl of bracts, in this case called an involucel. In this case they may be called chaff, paleas, or receptacular bracts and are usually minute scales or bristles. Many asteraceous plants have bracts at the base of each inflorescence. The term involucre is also used for a highly conspicuous bract or bract pair at the base of an inflorescence. In the family Betulaceae, notably in the genera Carpinus and Corylus, the involucre is a leafy structure that protects the developing nuts. Beggar-tick (Bidens comosa) has narrow involucral bracts surrounding each inflorescence, each of which also has a single bract below it. There is then a pair of leafy bracts on the main stem and below those a pair of leaves.


Epicalyx[edit] Epicalyx of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis An epicalyx, which forms an additional whorl around the calyx of a single flower, is a modification of bracteoles[4] In other words, the epicalyx is a group of bracts resembling a calyx or bracteoles forming a whorl outer to the calyx.[5] It is a calyx-like extra whorl of floral appendages. Each individual segment of the epicalyx is called an episepal because they resemble the sepals.[6] They are present in family Malvaceae, the Hibiscus family. Fragaria (strawberries) may or may not have an epicalyx.


Spathe[edit] Anthurium scherzerianum inflorescence with spathe and spadix A spathe is a large bract or pair of bracts forming a sheath to enclose the flower cluster of such plants as palms, arums, Irises,[7] Crocuses,[8] and dayflowers. In many arums (Araceae family), the spathe is petal-like, attracting pollinators to the flowers arranged on a type of spike called a spadix.


References[edit] ^ "the definition of bracteate". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2017-04-27.  ^ "Definition of Ebractate". www.greengonzo.com. Retrieved 2017-04-27.  ^ Ralph Simon; Marc W. Holderied; Corinna U. Koch; Otto von Helversen. "Floral acoustics: Conspicuous echoes of a dish-shaped leaf attract bat pollinators". Science. 333 (6042): 631–633. doi:10.1126/science.1204210. PMID 21798950.  ^ Darpan, Pratiyogita (June 2006). Competition Science Vision. Pratiyogita Darpan. p. 136.  ^ http://www.textbooksonline.tn.nic.in/books/12/std12-botany-em.pdf ^ "epicalyx - Dictionary of botany". Botanydictionary.org. Retrieved 2012-04-29.  ^ Richard Lynch The Book of the Iris, p. 203, at Google Books ^ Alex Casha Flora of the Maltese Islands, p. 287, at Google Books v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bract&oldid=808734789" Categories: Plant morphologyLeavesHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from July 2011All articles needing additional references


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