Contents 1 History and scope 2 Relationship to taxonomy 3 See also 3.1 General 3.2 Botany 4 References 5 Bibliography


History and scope[edit] Botanical nomenclature has a long history, going back beyond the period when Latin was the scientific language throughout Europe, to Theophrastus (c. 370–287 BC), Dioscorides (c. 40 – 90 AD) and other Greek writers. Many of these works have come down to us in Latin translations. The principal Latin writer on botany was Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD). From Mediaeval times, Latin became the universal scientific language (lingua franca) in Europe. Most written plant knowledge was the property of monks, particularly Benedictine, and the purpose of those early herbals was primarily medicinal rather than plant science per se. It would require the invention of the printing press (1450) to make such information more widely available.[1][2][3] Leonhart Fuchs, a German physician and botanist is often considered the originator of Latin names for the rapidly increasing number of plants known to science. For instance he coined the name Digitalis in his De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes (1542). A key event was Linnaeus’ adoption of binomial names for plant species in his Species Plantarum (1753).[4] In the nineteenth century it became increasingly clear that there was a need for rules to govern scientific nomenclature, and initiatives were taken to refine the body of laws initiated by Linnaeus. These were published in successively more sophisticated editions. For plants, key dates are 1867 (lois de Candolle) and 1906 (International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, 'Vienna Rules'). The most recent is the Melbourne Code, adopted in 2011.[5] Another development was the insight into the delimitation of the concept of 'plant'. Gradually more and more groups of organisms are being recognised as being independent of plants. Nevertheless, the formal names of most of these organisms are governed by the (ICN), even today. Some protists that do not fit easily into either plant or animal categories are treated under either or both of the ICN and the ICZN. A separate Code was adopted to govern the nomenclature of Bacteria, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.


Relationship to taxonomy[edit] Botanical nomenclature is closely linked to plant taxonomy, and botanical nomenclature serves plant taxonomy, but nevertheless botanical nomenclature is separate from plant taxonomy. Botanical nomenclature is merely the body of rules prescribing which name applies to that taxon (see correct name) and if a new name may (or must) be coined. Plant taxonomy is an empirical science, a science that determines what constitutes a particular taxon (taxonomic grouping, plural: taxa): e.g. "What plants belong to this species?" and "What species belong to this genus?". The definition of the limits of a taxon is called its 'circumscription'. For a particular taxon, if two taxonomists agree exactly on its circumscription, rank and position (i.e. the higher rank in which it is included) then there is only one name which can apply under the ICN.[6] Where they differ in opinion on any of these issues, one and the same plant may be placed in taxa with different names. As an example, consider Siehe's Glory-of-the-Snow, Chionodoxa siehei: Flowers of Chionodoxa siehei, which can also be called Scilla siehei, or included in Chionodoxa forbesii or in Scilla forbesii Taxonomists can disagree as to whether two groups of plants are sufficiently distinct to be put into one species or not. Thus Chionodoxa siehei and Chionodoxa forbesii have been treated as a single species by some taxonomists or as two species by others.[7] If treated as one species, the earlier published name must be used,[8] so plants previously called Chionodoxa siehei become Chionodoxa forbesii. Taxonomists can disagree as to whether two genera are sufficiently distinct to be kept separate or not. While agreeing that the genus Chionodoxa is closely related to the genus Scilla, nevertheless the bulb specialist Brian Mathew considers that their differences warrant maintaining separate genera.[7] Others disagree, and would refer to Chionodoxa siehei as Scilla siehei. The earliest published genus name must be used when genera are merged;[8] in this case Scilla was published earlier and is used (not Chionodoxa). Taxonomists can disagree as to the limits of families. When the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) first published its classification of the flowering plants in 1998, Chionodoxa siehei would have been placed in the family Hyacinthaceae.[9] In the 2009 revision of their classification, the APG no longer recognize the Hyacinthaceae as a separate family, merging it into a greatly enlarged family Asparagaceae.[10] Thus Chionodoxa siehei moves from the Hyacinthaceae to the Asparagaceae. Taxonomists can disagree as to the rank of a taxon. Rather than allow the Hyacinthaceae to disappear altogether, Chase et al. suggested that it be treated as a subfamily within the Asparagaceae.[11] The ICN requires family names to end with "-aceae" and subfamily names to end with "-oideae".[12] Thus a possible name for the Hyacinthaceae when treated as a subfamily would be 'Hyacinthoideae'. However, the name Scilloideae had already been published in 1835 as the name for a subfamily containing the genus Scilla, so this name has priority and must be used.[11] Hence for those taxonomists who accept the APG system of 2009, Chionodoxa siehei can be placed in the subfamily Scilloideae of the family Asparagaceae. However, a taxonomist is perfectly free to continue to argue that Hyacinthaceae should be maintained as a separate family from the other families which were merged into the Asparagaceae. In summary, if a plant has different names or is placed in differently named taxa: If the confusion is purely nomenclatural, i.e. it concerns what to call a taxon which has the same circumscription, rank and position, the ICN provides rules to settle the differences, typically by prescribing that the earliest published name must be used, although names can be conserved. If the confusion is taxonomic, i.e. taxonomists differ in opinion on the circumscription, rank or position of taxa, then only more scientific research can settle the differences, and even then only sometimes.


See also[edit] General[edit] Scientific classification Binomial nomenclature Nomenclature Codes Botany[edit] Botanical name International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants Correct name (botany) Author citation (botany) Hybrid name (botany) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants International Plant Names Index: lists names of seed plants and ferns International Association for Plant Taxonomy Paleobotany


References[edit] ^ Stearn 1992. ^ Stearn 2002. ^ Pavord 2005. ^ Barkworth, M. (2004), Botanical Nomenclature (Nomenclature, Names, and Taxonomy), University of Utah, archived from the original on 2011-02-20, retrieved 2011-02-20  ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6.  ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Principle IV ^ a b Dashwood, Melanie & Mathew, Brian (2005), Hyacinthaceae – little blue bulbs (RHS Plant Trials and Awards, Bulletin Number 11), Royal Horticultural Society, archived from the original on 20 February 2011, retrieved 19 February 2011 , p. 5 ^ a b McNeill et al. 2012, Principle III ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998), "An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants" (PDF), Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 85 (4): 531–553, doi:10.2307/2992015, retrieved 2011-02-19  ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x  ^ a b Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009), "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 132–136, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x  ^ McNeill et al. 2012, Article 19.1


Bibliography[edit] Pavord, Anna (2005). The naming of names the search for order in the world of plants. New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781596919655. Retrieved 18 February 2015.  Stearn, William T. (1992) [1966]. Botanical Latin : history, grammar, syntax, terminology and vocabulary (4 ed.). Portland, Or.: Timber Press. ISBN 9780881923216. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  Stearn, William T. (2002) [1992]. Stearn's dictionary of plant names for gardeners : a handbook on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. Portland, Or.: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0881925562. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  Bernhardt, Peter (2008). Gods and goddesses in the garden : Greco-Roman mythology and the scientific names of plants. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813542669. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  Morgan, Michelle (October 2005). "Botanical Latin: The Poetry of Herb Names" (PDF). Number 89. MediHerb. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  Fuchs, Leonhart (1642). De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes. Basileae: In officina Isingriniana. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Botanical_nomenclature&oldid=799268141" Categories: Botanical nomenclatureBotanyScientific terminology


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Glossary Of Plant MorphologyAlpha TaxonomyCarl LinnaeusSpecies PlantarumInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsFossil PlantInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsCultivarCultigenTheophrastusDioscoridesAncient GreekLatinPliny The ElderLingua FrancaBenedictineHerbalsPrinting PressLeonhart FuchsDigitalisDe Historia Stirpium Commentarii InsignesCarl LinnaeusBinomial NomenclatureProtistInternational Code Of Zoological NomenclatureInternational Code Of Nomenclature Of BacteriaCorrect Name (botany)Alpha TaxonomyTaxonCircumscription (taxonomy)Rank (taxonomy)Chionodoxa SieheiEnlargeChionodoxa SieheiChionodoxa ForbesiiChionodoxaScillaBrian MathewAngiosperm Phylogeny GroupAsparagaceaeScilloideaeConservation (botany)Lumpers And SplittersScientific ClassificationBinomial NomenclatureNomenclature CodesBotanical NameInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsCorrect Name (botany)Author Citation (botany)Hybrid Name (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsInternational Plant Names IndexInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyPaleobotanyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-87429-425-6Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierAnna PavordInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781596919655WT StearnInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780881923216WT StearnInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0881925562International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780813542669Template:BotanyTemplate Talk:BotanyBotanyHistory Of BotanyBranches Of BotanyHistory Of Plant SystematicsEthnobotanyPaleobotanyPlant AnatomyPlant EcologyPhytogeographyGeobotanical ProspectingFloraPhytochemistryPlant PathologyBryologyPhycologyFloristicsDendrologyPlantAlgaeArchaeplastidaBryophyteNon-vascular PlantVascular PlantSpermatophytePteridophyteGymnospermFlowering PlantPlant MorphologyGlossary Of Plant MorphologyPlant CellCell WallPhragmoplastPlastidPlasmodesmaVacuoleTissue (biology)MeristemVascular TissueVascular BundleGround TissueLeafCork CambiumWoodStorage OrganRootRhizoidBulbRhizomeShootPlant StemLeafPetiole (botany)CataphyllBudSessility (botany)Plant Reproductive MorphologyABC Model Of Flower DevelopmentInflorescenceUmbelRacemeBractPedicel (botany)FlowerWhorl (botany)Floral SymmetryFloral DiagramFloral FormulaReceptacle (botany)HypanthiumPerianthTepalPetalSepalSporophyllGynoeciumOvary (botany)OvuleStigma (botany)ArchegoniumStamenStamenStaminodePollenTapetum (botany)Column (botany)GametophyteSporophyteEmbryoFruitFruit AnatomyBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)SeedSeed DispersalEndospermEpicuticular WaxPlant CuticleEpidermis (botany)StomaNectarTrichomeThorns, Spines, And PricklesPlant PhysiologyPlant NutritionPhotosynthesisChlorophyllPlant HormoneTranspirationTurgor PressureBulk MovementAleuronePhytomelaninSugarSapStarchCelluloseSecondary GrowthWoody PlantHerbaceous PlantHabit (biology)VineLianaShrubSubshrubTreeSucculent PlantPlant ReproductionPlant EvolutionPlant EcologyAlternation Of GenerationsSporangiumSporeMicrosporangiaMicrosporeSporangiumMegasporePollinationPollinatorPollen TubeDouble FertilizationGerminationPlant Evolutionary Developmental BiologyEvolutionary History Of PlantsTimeline Of Plant EvolutionHardiness ZonePlant TaxonomyHistory Of Plant SystematicsHerbariumTaxonomy (biology)Botanical NameCorrect NameAuthor Citation (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsTaxonomic RankInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyList Of Systems Of Plant TaxonomyCultivated Plant TaxonomyCitrus TaxonomyCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupGrex (horticulture)AgronomyFloricultureForestryHorticultureGlossary Of Botanical TermsList Of BotanistsList Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (W–Z)Botanical ExpeditionCategory:BotanyPortal:PlantsWikipedia:WikiProject PlantsHelp:CategoryCategory:Botanical NomenclatureCategory:BotanyCategory:Scientific TerminologyDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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