Contents 1 Type specimens and circumscription 2 Forms of plant names 3 Components of plant names 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links


Type specimens and circumscription[edit] The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, which is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon. The usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size; a taxon may have a varying circumscription, depending on the taxonomic system, thus, the group that a particular botanical name refers to can be quite small according to some people and quite big according to others. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were formerly considered to be several closely related families. Some botanical names refer to groups that are very stable (for example Equisetaceae, Magnoliaceae) while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used (for example Fabaceae, Amygdaloideae, Taraxacum officinale).


Forms of plant names[edit] Depending on rank, botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (various situations below the rank of genus) or three parts (below the rank of species). The names of cultivated plants are not necessarily similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may also have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae (the plants) Marchantiophyta (the liverworts) Magnoliopsida (class including the family Magnoliaceae) Liliidae (subclass including the family Liliaceae) Pinophyta (the conifers) Fagaceae (the beech family) Betula (the birch genus) in two parts Acacia subg. Phyllodineae (the wattles) lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) a species name, i.e., a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa 'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop 'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithet in three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. americana (American hedge bindweed), a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica (a Mediterranean hawthorn) Bellis perennis 'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithet in four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata 'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts.


Components of plant names[edit] A botanical name in three parts, i.e., an infraspecific name (a name for a taxon below the rank of species) needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies. In botany there are many ranks below that of species (in zoology there is only one such rank, subspecies, so that this "connecting term" is not used in zoology). A name of a "subdivision of a genus" also needs a connecting term (in the Acacia example above, this is "subg.", subgenus). The connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." but this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch. (ICN Art 24: Ex 1). Generic, specific, and infraspecific botanical names are usually printed in italics. The example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, and non-botanical scientific publications do not, which is in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial (viral names above genus are italicized, a new policy adopted in the early 1990s). For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, and including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part (infraspecific name). A binary name consists of the name of a genus and an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet: Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved, to indicate the rank. In the case of a subdivision of a genus (subgenus, section, subsection, series, subseries, etc.) the name consists of the name of a genus and a subdivisional epithet. A connecting term should be placed before the subdivisional epithet to indicate the rank: Paraserianthes sect. Falcataria In the case of cultivated plants, there is an additional epithet which is an often non-Latin part, not written in italics. For cultivars, it is always given in single quotation marks. The cultivar, Group, or grex epithet may follow either the botanical name of the species, or the name of the genus only, or the unambiguous common name of the genus or species. The generic name, followed by a cultivar name, is often used when the parentage of a particular hybrid cultivar is not relevant in the context, or is uncertain.


See also[edit] (specific to botany) Author citation (botany) Botanical nomenclature Correct name (botany) Hybrid name (botany) International Association for Plant Taxonomy International Plant Names Index The Plant List Validly published name (botany) World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (more general) Biological classification Binomial nomenclature Nomenclature codes Open nomenclature Plant epithet Taxonomy Undescribed species


References[edit] ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04.  ^ Ecological Flora of the British Isles Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Bellis perennis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2011-06-05.  ^ L. B. McCarty (15 January 2001). Color Atlas of Turfgrass Weeds. John Wiley & Sons. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-57504-142-1. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. 


Bibliography[edit] Pavord, Anna (2005). The naming of names the search for order in the world of plants. New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781596919655. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 


External links[edit] Brickell, C.D.; Alexander, C.; David, J.C.; Hetterscheid, W.L.A.; Leslie, A.C.; Malecot, V.; Jin, X.; Editorial committee; Cubey, J.J. (2009). International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP or Cultivated Plant Code), incorporating the Rules and Recommendations for naming plants in cultivation (PDF) (8th ed.). International Association for Plant Taxonomy and International Society for Horticultural Science.  Adopted by the International Union of Biological Sciences International Commission for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants. Plant botanical definition list. Retrieved 12 November 2016. v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Botanical_name&oldid=814998905" Categories: Botanical nomenclaturePlant taxonomyHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages العربيةCatalàDanskEspañolFrançaisहिन्दीBahasa IndonesiaItalianoBasa JawaBahasa MelayuNederlandsPortuguêsSimple Englishతెలుగు中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 12 December 2017, at 03:49. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.188","walltime":"0.238","ppvisitednodes":{"value":738,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":51618,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":481,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":13,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":0,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 167.791 1 -total"," 69.93% 117.342 1 Template:Reflist"," 40.04% 67.184 4 Template:Cite_book"," 23.22% 38.963 1 Template:GRIN"," 23.21% 38.944 1 Template:Botany"," 23.09% 38.741 2 Template:Navbox"," 21.44% 35.978 1 Template:Citation"," 9.91% 16.627 1 Template:If_empty"," 5.57% 9.347 4 Template:Str_number"," 5.06% 8.491 3 Template:Hlist"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.076","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":3314524,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1336","timestamp":"20180116151001","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":98,"wgHostname":"mw1263"});});


Botanical_name - Photos and All Basic Informations

Botanical_name More Links

EnlargeBellis PerennisScientific NameInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsFungusCyanobacteriaChytridiomycotaOomyceteSlime MouldsPhotosynthesisProtistMicrosporidiaBellis PerennisEuropeMiddle EastType (botany)Circumscription (taxonomy)MalvaceaeEquisetaceaeMagnoliaceaeFabaceaeAmygdaloideaeTaraxacum OfficinaleRank (botany)GenusInfraspecific Name (botany)PlantMarchantiophytaDicotyledonMagnoliaceaeLiliidaeLiliaceaePinophytaConifersFagaceaeBeechBirchBirchAcaciaBerberis ThunbergiiSyringaCalystegia SepiumCrataegus AzarolusBellis PerennisInfraspecific Name (botany)SubspeciesSubgenusItalicsScientific NameZoological NomenclatureInternational Code Of Nomenclature Of BacteriaVirus ClassificationRank (botany)Infraspecific Name (botany)GenusBellis PerennisAuthor Citation (botany)Botanical NomenclatureCorrect Name (botany)Hybrid Name (botany)International Association For Plant TaxonomyInternational Plant Names IndexThe Plant ListValidly Published Name (botany)World Checklist Of Selected Plant FamiliesBiological ClassificationBinomial NomenclatureNomenclature CodesOpen NomenclaturePlant EpithetTaxonomy (biology)Undescribed SpeciesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-87429-425-6Wayback MachineGermplasm Resources Information NetworkAgricultural Research ServiceUnited States Department Of AgricultureInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-57504-142-1Anna PavordInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781596919655International Union Of Biological SciencesTemplate:BotanyTemplate Talk:BotanyBotanyHistory Of BotanyBranches Of BotanyHistory Of Plant SystematicsEthnobotanyPaleobotanyPlant AnatomyPlant EcologyPhytogeographyGeobotanical ProspectingFloraPhytochemistryPlant PathologyBryologyPhycologyFloristicsDendrologyPlantAlgaeArchaeplastidaBryophyteNon-vascular PlantVascular PlantSpermatophytePteridophyteGymnospermFlowering PlantPlant MorphologyGlossary Of Plant MorphologyPlant CellCell WallPhragmoplastPlastidPlasmodesmaVacuoleTissue (biology)MeristemVascular TissueVascular BundleGround TissueLeafCork CambiumWoodStorage OrganRootRhizoidBulbRhizomeShootPlant StemLeafPetiole (botany)CataphyllBudSessility (botany)Plant Reproductive MorphologyABC Model Of Flower DevelopmentInflorescenceUmbelRacemeBractPedicel (botany)FlowerWhorl (botany)Floral SymmetryFloral DiagramFloral FormulaReceptacle (botany)HypanthiumPerianthTepalPetalSepalSporophyllGynoeciumOvary (botany)OvuleStigma (botany)ArchegoniumStamenStamenStaminodePollenTapetum (botany)Column (botany)GametophyteSporophyteEmbryoFruitFruit AnatomyBerry (botany)Capsule (fruit)SeedSeed DispersalEndospermEpicuticular WaxPlant CuticleEpidermis (botany)StomaNectarTrichomeThorns, Spines, And PricklesPlant PhysiologyPlant NutritionPhotosynthesisChlorophyllPlant HormoneTranspirationTurgor PressureBulk MovementAleuronePhytomelaninSugarSapStarchCelluloseSecondary GrowthWoody PlantHerbaceous PlantHabit (biology)VineLianaShrubSubshrubTreeSucculent PlantPlant ReproductionPlant EvolutionPlant EcologyAlternation Of GenerationsSporangiumSporeMicrosporangiaMicrosporeSporangiumMegasporePollinationPollinatorPollen TubeDouble FertilizationGerminationPlant Evolutionary Developmental BiologyEvolutionary History Of PlantsTimeline Of Plant EvolutionHardiness ZonePlant TaxonomyHistory Of Plant SystematicsHerbariumTaxonomy (biology)Botanical NomenclatureCorrect NameAuthor Citation (botany)International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And PlantsInternational Code Of Nomenclature For Cultivated PlantsTaxonomic RankInternational Association For Plant TaxonomyList Of Systems Of Plant TaxonomyCultivated Plant TaxonomyCitrus TaxonomyCultigenCultivarCultivar GroupGrex (horticulture)AgronomyFloricultureForestryHorticultureGlossary Of Botanical TermsList Of BotanistsList Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (W–Z)Botanical ExpeditionCategory:BotanyPortal:PlantsWikipedia:WikiProject PlantsHelp:CategoryCategory:Botanical NomenclatureCategory:Plant TaxonomyCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link