Contents 1 Lithology and facies 1.1 Wilmcote Limestone 2 Occurrence 3 Use in construction 4 Paleofauna 4.1 Dinosaurs 4.2 Pterosaurs 4.3 Plesiosaurs 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


Lithology and facies[edit] The Blue Lias comprises decimetre scale alternations of argillaceous limestone and mudstone. These alternations are caused by short-term climatic variations during the Early Jurassic attributed to orbital forcing (Milankovitch cycles). These limestone-mudstone alternations pass up into a clay member formerly known as the Lower Lias Clay now the Charmouth Mudstone. This lithology consists of monotonous mudstones weathering to clay at the surface. Sparse thin limestone and nodule bands are seen where the rocks are exposed. The deposition of a clay-rich mudstone member normally indicates deposition in a deeper marine environment. Wilmcote Limestone[edit] In certain restricted parts of Britain, the lowermost member of the Blue Lias is the Wilmcote Limestone. It lies above the Cotham Member of the Lilstock Formation and beneath the Saltford Shale Member.[2] The Wilmcote Limestone of central England was formerly quarried close to Stratford-upon-Avon, for example at Wilmcote, Temple Grafton and Binton. It is roughly 200 million years old, dating back to the dawn of the Jurassic Period. Much of the Wilmcote Limestone is very fine-grained, blue-grey when fresh, and very finely layered. Fossils are quite rare, except in the lowest beds. It was formerly used for a variety of purposes, including walling, building, paving, gravestones, cement-making and as a source of agricultural lime. It is no longer quarried, and most of the old quarries are either infilled or overgrown. Geologists think that the Wilmcote Limestone originated as layers of fine-grained mud on the floor of a sheltered, shallow muddy sea or lagoon that covered parts of central England at the dawn of the Jurassic Period. Very little life could tolerate the stagnant conditions on the seabed. As a consequence the mud was seldom disturbed, which is why the fine, paper-like layering is preserved. Above the sea bed, the shallower waters supported ammonites, fish, and marine reptiles (ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs). Their remains were discovered in the Wilmcote Limestone quarries during the nineteenth century. The Warwickshire Museum[3] houses a collection of these fossils and some are on display at the Market Hall Museum in Warwick.[4][5]


Occurrence[edit] The Blue Lias is a prevalent feature of the cliffs around Lyme Regis and Charmouth, on the Jurassic Coast in Dorset, where it exists in layers of limestone interspersed with softer clay. It is also notable for its presence in Somerset, particularly around the Polden Hills, Keinton Mandeville and Glastonbury area, and it forms a broad plain across the East Midlands. It also appears near Whitby in Yorkshire and Southam in Warwickshire where a pub is named after it. There are outcrops along the coast of South Wales, notably that of the Vale of Glamorgan.[6] The type section of the Blue Lias is at Saltford near Bath.


Use in construction[edit] Lytes Cary, Somerset, built of Blue Lias with Ham stone dressings around the windows Blue Lias is useful as a building stone, and as a source of lime for making lime mortar. Because it is argillaceous, the lime is hydraulic. Since the mid-nineteenth century, it has been used as a raw material for cement, in South Wales, Somerset, Warwickshire, and Leicestershire. The cement plant quarry at Rugby, Warwickshire is probably the best exposure of the formation: more than 100 layers can be seen. In areas where Blue Lias is quarried it has been used in buildings and churches as well as tombstones in cemeteries. An example of a Blue Lias town is Street, near Glastonbury. Other examples of Blue Lias buildings can be found in the nearby towns of Somerton and Ilchester. It remains popular in more modern-day surroundings where it is used in the construction of new housing developments and extensions for existing buildings in conservation areas. Blue Lias is mainly used in flooring, walling and paving slabs – both coursed and layered. It is also used in the making of flagstones and cobbles. There are only four quarries in Somerset quarrying Blue Lias at present. AR Purnell at Ashen Cross Quarry in Somerton have been mining blue lias stone since 1996. Hadspen Quarry Ltd. Hadspen Quarry operate one in Keinton Mandeville. Ham & Doulting Stone Co Ltd. operate one of these, Tout Quarry near Somerton.[7]


Paleofauna[edit] The rock is rich in fossil remains from the Jurassic period. The blue-grey colour is provided by its iron content, enclosed to a large extent in pyrites.[8] Dinosaurs[edit] Dinosaurs of the Blue Lias Taxa Presence Notes Images Infraorder: Ceratosauria[8] Indeterminate remains.[8] Geographically present in Warwickshire, England.[8] "(= Sarcosaurus andrewsi)"[8] - "Tibia."[9] Scelidosaurus Scelidosaurus Scelidosaurus Genus: Sarcosaurus[8] S. woodi[8] Geographically present in Leicestershire, England.[8] Genus: Scelidosaurus[8] S. harrisonii[8] Geographically present in Dorset, England.[8] "Nearly complete skull with associated postcrania, articulated postcranial skeleton, partial skull and associated postcrania, juvenile and adult."[10] Suborder: Theropoda[8] Indeterminate remains.[8] Indeterminate remains.[8] Geographically present in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.[8] Geographically present in Dorset, England.[8] Paceholder. "(=Megalosaurus woodwardi)"[8] - "Tooth."[11] Suborder: Thyreophora[8] Indeterminate remains.[8] Geographically present in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.[8] Pterosaurs[edit] Pterosaurs of the Blue Lias Taxa Presence Notes Images Genus: Dimorphodon[12] D. macronyx[12] Found around the town of Lyme Regis in Dorset, England.[12] Dimorphodon Plesiosaurs[edit] Plesiosaurs of the Blue Lias Taxa Presence Notes Images Genus: Anningasaura A. lymense[13] Found around the town of Lyme Regis in Dorset, England. Genus: Archaeonectrus A. rostratus Found in Dorset. Genus: Attenborosaurus A. conybeari Found in Dorset, England. Genus: Atychodracon A. megacephalus Somerset, England. Leicestershire, England. Genus: Avalonnectes A. arturi Found at Street in Somerset, England.[14] Genus: Eoplesiosaurus E. antiquior Found in Somerset Genus: Eretmosaurus E. rugosus Found in Leicestershire Genus: Eurycleidus E. arcuatus Found in Dorset, Bristol, etc. Genus: Plesiosaurus P. dolichodeirus Found at Lyme Regis, Dorset Genus: Stratesaurus S. taylori Found at Street, Somerset Genus: Thalassiodracon T. hawkinsii Found in Somerset


See also[edit] White Lias List of dinosaur-bearing rock formations


References[edit] ^ Ambrose, K.; 2001: The lithostratigraphy of the Blue Lias Formation (Late Rhaetian–Early Sinemurian) in the southern part of the English Midlands, Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 112(2), pp. 97-110. ^ "Wilmcote Limestone Member". The BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units. British Geological Survey. Retrieved 20 April 2014.  ^ http://heritage.warwickshire.gov.uk/museum-service/ ^ Ambrose, K., 2001. The lithostratigraphy of the Blue Lias Formation (Late Rhaetian - Early Sinemurian) in the southern part of the English Midlands. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association vol. 112, 97-110. ^ Williams, B.J. & Whittaker, A., 1974. Geology of the Country around Stratford-upon-Avon and Evesham. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. HMSO, London. ^ Wilson et al., 1990 Geology of the South Wales Coalfield, Part VI, the country around Bridgend Mem Br Geol Surv sheet 261 & 262 (England and Wales) ^ "Strategic Stone Study: A Building Stone Atlas of Somerset and Exmoor" (PDF). English Heritage. p. 11. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Weishampel, David B; et al. (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Early Jurassic, Europe)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 532–534. ISBN 0-520-24209-2. ^ "Table 3.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 50. ^ "Table 15.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 336. ^ "Table 4.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 78. ^ a b c Wellnhofer, Peter (1991). "Summary of Lower Jurassic Pterosaurs." The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Pterosaurs. London, UK: Salamander Books Limited. p. 79. ISBN 0-86101-566-5. ^ Peggy Vincent & Roger B. J. Benson (2012). "Anningasaura, a basal plesiosaurian (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Lower Jurassic of Lyme Regis, United Kingdom". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (5): 1049–1063. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.686467.  ^ Roger B. J. Benson; Mark Evans & Patrick S. Druckenmiller (2012). "High Diversity, Low Disparity and Small Body Size in Plesiosaurs (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e31838. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031838. PMC 3306369 . PMID 22438869. 


External links[edit] "Explore the Jurassic Coast" at the National Trust The Philpot Museum website Geology of Whitby Geology of Lyme Regis Area Geology of the Wessex Coast Ham & Doulting Stone Co Ltd Conservation of Blue lias article Fossils of the Blue Lias Formation -- A quick guide Hadspen Quarry Ltd AR Purnell Ltd Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blue_Lias&oldid=806495236" Categories: Jurassic WalesTriassic WalesLimestone formationsShale formationsGeologic formations of the United KingdomStratigraphy of the United Kingdom


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Blue_Lias - Photos and All Basic Informations

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EnlargeFormation (stratigraphy)EnglandSouth WalesLias GroupLimestoneShaleTriassicJurassicFossilAmmoniteRhaetianSinemurianGeologic TimescaleHettangianLower JurassicLower LiasStratigraphyGeological UnitWilmcote LimestoneClayLimestoneMudstoneMilankovitch CycleCharmouth MudstoneLilstockStratford-upon-AvonWilmcoteJurassicAmmoniteIchthyosaurPlesiosaursWarwickLyme RegisCharmouthJurassic CoastDorsetLimestoneClaySomersetPolden HillsGlastonburyWhitbyYorkshireSouthamPubSouth WalesVale Of GlamorganType SectionSaltfordBath, SomersetEnlargeLytes Cary ManorHam StoneLime (mineral)Lime MortarArgillaceousHydraulic LimePortland CementAberthawRugby, WarwickshireStreet, SomersetGlastonburySomertonIlchesterFlagstonesCobblesSomertonHadspen QuarrySomertonFossilJurassicIronPyritesDinosaurCeratosauriaWarwickshireEnlargeScelidosaurusEnlargeScelidosaurusEnlargeScelidosaurusSarcosaurusLeicestershireScelidosaurusDorsetTheropodaCounty AntrimDorsetThyreophoraCounty AntrimPterosaurDimorphodonLyme RegisEnlargeDimorphodonPlesiosaurAnningasauraLyme RegisArchaeonectrusAttenborosaurusAtychodraconAvalonnectesStreetSomersetEoplesiosaurusEretmosaurusLeicestershireEurycleidusPlesiosaurusStratesaurusThalassiodraconWhite LiasList Of Dinosaur-bearing Rock FormationsEnglish HeritageInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-520-24209-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-86101-566-5Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierHelp:CategoryCategory:Jurassic WalesCategory:Triassic WalesCategory:Limestone FormationsCategory:Shale FormationsCategory:Geologic Formations Of The United KingdomCategory:Stratigraphy Of The United KingdomDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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