Contents 1 Taxonomy 1.1 Cladogram 2 Morphology 3 Endosymbiosis 4 Fossil record 5 References 6 External links


Taxonomy[edit] The consensus in 2005, when the group consisting of the glaucophytes and red and green algae and land plants was named 'Archaeplastida',[1] was that it was a clade, i.e. was monophyletic. Many studies published since then have provided evidence in agreement.[11][12][13][14] Other studies, though, have suggested that the group is paraphyletic.[15][6] To date, the situation appears unresolved, but a strong signal for Plantae (Archaeplastida) monophyly has been demonstrated in a recent study (with an enrichment of red algal genes).[16] The assumption made here is that Archaeplastida is a valid clade. See also: Eukaryote § Phylogeny Various names have been given to the group. Some authors have simply referred to the group as plants or Plantae.[17][18] However, the name Plantae is ambiguous, since it has also been applied to less inclusive clades, such as Viridiplantae and embryophytes. To distinguish, the larger group is sometimes known as Plantae sensu lato ("plants in the broad sense"). To avoid ambiguity, other names have been proposed. Primoplantae, which appeared in 2004, seems to be the first new name suggested for this group.[3] Another name applied to this node is Plastida, defined as the clade sharing "plastids of primary (direct prokaryote) origin [as] in Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus 1753".[19] Although many studies have suggested the Archaeplastida form a monophyletic group,[20] a 2009 paper argues that they are in fact paraphyletic.[15] The enrichment of novel red algal genes in a recent study demonstrates a strong signal for Plantae (Archaeplastida) monophyly and an equally strong signal of gene sharing history between the red/green algae and other lineages.[16] This study provides insight on how rich mesophilic red algal gene data are crucial for testing controversial issues in eukaryote evolution and for understanding the complex patterns of gene inheritance in protists. The name Archaeplastida was proposed in 2005 by a large international group of authors (Adl et al.), who aimed to produce a classification for the eukaryotes which took into account morphology, biochemistry, and phylogenetics, and which had "some stability in the near term." They rejected the use of formal taxonomic ranks in favour of a hierarchical arrangement where the clade names do not signify rank. Thus, the phylum name 'Glaucophyta' and the class name 'Rhodophyceae' appear at the same level in their classification. The divisions proposed for the Archaeplastida are shown below in both tabular and diagrammatic form.[1] The glaucophyte Glaucocystis Archaeplastida: Glaucophyta Skuja, 1954 (Glaucocystophyta Kies & Kremer, 1986) – glaucophytes Glaucophytes are a small group of freshwater single-celled algae. Their chloroplasts, called cyanelles, have a peptidoglycan layer, making them more similar to cyanobacteria than those of the remaining Archaeplastida. The rhodophyte Laurencia Rhodophyceae Thuret, 1855, emend. Rabenhorst, 1863, emend. Adl et al., 2005 (Rhodophyta Wettstein 1901) – red algae Red algae form one of the largest groups of algae. Most are seaweeds, being multicellular and marine. Their red colour comes from phycobiliproteins, used as accessory pigments in light capture for photosynthesis. Chloroplastida Adl et al., 2005 (Viridiplantae Cavalier-Smith 1981; Chlorobionta Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis and McCourt 2004; Chlorobiota Kendrick and Crane 1997) Chloroplastida is the term chosen by Adl et al. for the group made up of the green algae and land plants (embryophytes). Except where lost secondarily, all have chloroplasts without a peptidoglycan layer and lack phycobiliproteins. The chlorophyte Stigeoclonium Chlorophyta Pascher, 1914, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004 – green algae (part) Adl et al. employ a narrow definition of the Chlorophyta; other sources include the Chlorodendrales and Prasinophytae, which may themselves be combined. Ulvophyceae Mattox & Stewart, 1984 Trebouxiophyceae Friedl, 1995 (Pleurastrophyceae Mattox et al. 1984; Microthamniales Melkonian 1990) Chlorophyceae Christensen, 1994 Chlorodendrales Fritsch, 1917 – green algae (part) Prasinophytae Cavalier-Smith, 1998, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004 – green algae (part) Mesostigma Lauterborn, 1894, emend. McCourt in Adl et al., 2005 (Mesostigmata Turmel, Otis, and Lemieux 2002) Charophyta Karol et al., 2001, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004 (Charophyceae Smith 1938, emend. Mattox and Stewart 1984) – green algae (part) and land plants Charophyta sensu lato, as used by Adl et al., is a monophyletic group which is made up of some green algae, including the stoneworts (Charophyta sensu stricto), as well as the land plants (embryophytes). Sub-divisions other than Streptophytina (below) were not given by Adl et al. Other sources would include the green algal groups Chlorokybales, Klebsormidiales, Zygnematales and Coleochaetales.[21] Streptophytina Lewis & McCourt, 2004 – stoneworts and land plants Charales Lindley 1836 (Charophytae Engler, 1887) – stoneworts Plantae Haeckel 1866 (Cormophyta Endlicher, 1836; Embryophyta Endlicher, 1836, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004) – land plants (embryophytes) Cladogram[edit] Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] Diaphoretickes Archaeplastida Glaucophyta (algae) Rhodophyta (red algae) Viridiplantae/ Chlorophyta Streptophyta/ Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae 'filamentous' streptophytes Klebsormidiophyceae Phragmoplastophyta Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Embryophytes (land plants) Charophyta (incl. Embryophyta) green algae (incl. Embryophyta) Hacrobia Cryptista Haptista SAR Halvaria Stramenopiles Alveolata Rhizaria However, there is a lot of contention near the Archaeplastida root, e.g. whether Glaucophyta or Rhodophyta are basal, or whether e.g. Cryptista emerged within the Archaeplastida. While the Glaucophyta are typically figured as deepest rooting Archeaplastida[32][33][34][35][36], some genomic research points to Rhodophyta as basal, possibly with Cryptista intruding in Archaeplastida.[37][38][39]. In 2014 a thorough review was published on these inconsistencies.[40] The position of Telonemia and Picozoa are not clear. Also Hacrobia may be associated with the SAR clade. The SAR are often seen as eukaryote-eukaryote hybrids, contributing to the confusion in the genetic analyses.


Morphology[edit] All archaeplastidans have plastids (chloroplasts) that carry out photosynthesis and are believed to be derived from captured cyanobacteria. In glaucophytes, perhaps the most primitive members of the group, the chloroplast is called a cyanelle and shares several features with cyanobacteria, including a peptidoglycan cell wall, that are not retained in other members of the group. The resemblance of cyanelles to cyanobacteria supports the endosymbiotic theory. The cells of most archaeplastidans have walls, commonly but not always made of cellulose. The Archaeplastida vary widely in the degree of their cell organization, from isolated cells to filaments to colonies to multi-celled organisms. The earliest were unicellular, and many groups remain so today. Multicellularity evolved separately in several groups, including red algae, ulvophyte green algae, and in the green algae that gave rise to stoneworts and land plants.


Endosymbiosis[edit] Main article: Endosymbiotic theory Because the ancestral archaeplastidan is hypothesized to have acquired its chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria, the event is known as a primary endosymbiosis (as reflected in the name chosen for the group 'Archaeplastida' i.e. 'ancient plastid'). Evidence for primary endosymbosis includes the presence of a double membrane around the chloroplasts; one membrane belonged to the bacterium, and the other to the eukaryote that captured it. Over time, many genes from the chloroplast have been transferred to the nucleus of the host cell. The presence of such genes in the nuclei of eukaryotes without chloroplasts suggests this transfer happened early in the evolution of the group.[41] Other eukaryotes with chloroplasts appear to have gained them by engulfing a single-celled archaeplastidan with its own bacterially-derived chloroplasts. Because these events involve endosymbiosis of cells that have their own endosymbionts, the process is called secondary endosymbiosis. The chloroplasts of such eukaryotes are typically surrounded by more than two membranes, reflecting a history of multiple engulfment. The chloroplasts of euglenids and chlorarachniophytes appear to be captured green algae, whereas those of other photosynthetic eukaryotes, such as heterokont algae, cryptophytes, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates, appear to be captured red algae.


Fossil record[edit] Perhaps the most ancient remains of Archaeplastida are putative red algae (Rafatazmia) within stromatolites in 1600 Ma (million years ago) rocks in India.[42] Somewhat more recent are microfossils from the Roper group in northern Australia. The structure of these single-celled fossils resembles that of modern green algae. They date to the Mesoproterozoic Era, about 1500 to 1300 Ma.[43] These fossils are consistent with a molecular clock study that calculated that this clade diverged about 1500 Ma.[44] The oldest fossil that can be assigned to a specific modern group is the red alga Bangiomorpha, from 1200 Ma.[45] In the late Neoproterozoic Era, algal fossils became more numerous and diverse. Eventually, in the Paleozoic Era, plants emerged onto land, and have continued to flourish up to the present.


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External links[edit] Wikispecies has information related to Archaeplastida Tree of Life Eukaryotes v t e Eukaryota Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) Diaphoretickes Archaeplastida Glaucophyta Rhodophyta Viridiplantae Plantae s.s. Chlorophyta Streptophyta Cryptista Corbihelia Cryptophyta Haptista Centroheliozoa Haptophyta SAR Halvaria Alveolata Ciliates Miozoa Acavomonadia Colponemidia Myzozoa Stramenopiles (heterokonts) Bicosoecea Developea Hyphochytrea Ochrophyta Peronosporomycota Pirsoniomycota Placidozoa Platysulcea Sagenista Rhizaria Filosa Phytomyxea Retaria Ectoreta Marimyxia Vampyrellidea Incertae sedis Kamera lens Excavata Ancyromonadida Malawimonadea Metamonada (Anaeromonada, Trichozoa) Discoba Jakobea Tsukubea Discicristata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Podiata Amorphea Amoebozoa Conosa (Archamoebae, Semiconosia) Lobosa (Cutosea, Discosea, Tubulinea) Obazoa Apusomonadida Breviatea Opisthokonta Holomycota Cristidiscoidea Opisthosporidia Aphelida Cryptomycota Microsporidia True fungi Holozoa Choanoflagellates Filasterea Metazoa or Animals Teretosporea Mesomycetozoea Corallochytrea Varisulca (paraphyletic) Diphyllatea Discocelida Mantamonadida Micronucleariida Rigifilida Incertae sedis Ancoracysta twista Parakaryon myojinensis †Acritarcha †Charnia †Gakarusia †Galaxiopsis †Grypania †Leptoteichos Major kingdoms are underlined. See also: protist. Sources and alternative views: Wikispecies. v t e Classification of Archaeplastida / Plantae sensu lato Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Animal Fungi) Rhodophyta (red algae) Cyanidiophyceae Porphyridiophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Stylonematophyceae Rhodellophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae Glaucocystophyta (glaucophytes) Glaucocystophyceae Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete Viridiplantae (green algae & land plants) Chlorophyta Palmophyllales Nephroselmidophyceae Prasinophyceae Pseudoscourfieldiales Pyramimonadophyceae Scourfieldiales Pedinophyceae Chlorodendrophyceae UTC clade Ulvophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Chlorophyceae Streptophyta (charophytes, & land plants) Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Phragmo- plastophyta Charophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Zygnematophyceae Embryophyta (land plants) Bryophytes (non-vascular) Marchantiophyta Anthocerotophyta Bryophyta "Moss" †Horneophytopsida Tracheophyta (vascular) Lycopodiophyta (microphylls) †Zosterophyllopsida †Sawdoniales Isoetopsida Lycopodiopsida Euphyllophyta (megaphylls) Moniliformopses (ferns) †Cladoxylopsida †Stauropteridales †Zygopteridales Equisetopsida Psilotopsida Marattiopsida Filicopsida Spermatophyta (seed plants) †Seed ferns Gymnosperms Gnetopsida Pinopsida Cycadopsida Ginkgoopsida Angiosperms or flowering plants Amborellales Nymphaeales Austrobaileyales Magnoliids Monocots Eudicots Other †Trimerophytopsida †Progymnosperm Other †Rhyniopsida † = extinct. See also the list of plant orders. v t e Botany History of botany Subdisciplines Plant systematics Ethnobotany Paleobotany Plant anatomy Plant ecology Phytogeography Geobotany Flora Phytochemistry Plant pathology Bryology Phycology Floristics Dendrology Plant groups Algae Archaeplastida Bryophyte Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Spermatophytes Pteridophyte Gymnosperm Angiosperm Plant morphology (glossary) Plant cells Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole Tissues Meristem Vascular tissue Vascular bundle Ground tissue Mesophyll Cork Wood Storage organs Vegetative Root Rhizoid Bulb Rhizome Shoot Stem Leaf Petiole Cataphyll Bud Sessility Reproductive (Flower) Flower development Inflorescence Umbel Raceme Bract Pedicellate Flower Whorl Floral symmetry Floral diagram Floral formula Receptacle Hypanthium (Floral cup) Perianth Tepal Petal Sepal Sporophyll Gynoecium Ovary Ovule Stigma Archegonium Androecium Stamen Staminode Pollen Tapetum Gynandrium Gametophyte Sporophyte Plant embryo Fruit Fruit anatomy Berry Capsule Seed Seed dispersal Endosperm Surface structures Epicuticular wax Plant cuticle Epidermis Stoma Nectary Trichome Prickle Plant physiology Materials Nutrition Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Plant hormone Transpiration Turgor pressure Bulk flow Aleurone Phytomelanin Sugar Sap Starch Cellulose Plant growth and habit Secondary growth Woody plants Herbaceous plants Habit Vines Lianas Shrubs Subshrubs Trees Succulent plants Reproduction Evolution Ecology Alternation of generations Sporangium Spore Microsporangia Microspore Megasporangium Megaspore Pollination Pollinators Pollen tube Double fertilization Germination Evolutionary development Evolutionary history timeline Hardiness zone Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Herbarium Biological classification Botanical nomenclature Botanical name Correct name Author citation International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) - for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) Taxonomic rank International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Plant taxonomy systems Cultivated plant taxonomy Citrus taxonomy cultigen cultivar Group grex Practice Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture Lists Related topics Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition Category Portal WikiProject Taxon identifiers Wd: Q879246 EoL: 10551484 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Archaeplastida&oldid=820194145" Categories: ArchaeplastidaBikont unranked cladesHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from July 2015Articles with 'species' microformats


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Archaeplastida - Photos and All Basic Informations

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CalymmianHoloceneHadeanArcheanProterozoicPhanerozoicSprague River (Oregon)Taxonomy (biology)EEukaryoteDiaphoretickesRhodophytaGlaucophyteViridiplantaeGreen AlgaeLand PlantCryptistaPicozoaSynonym (taxonomy)Wikipedia:Citation NeededPlantSensuEukaryoteRed AlgaeGreen AlgaeEmbryophyteGlaucophyteChloroplastEndosymbioticCyanobacteriaPaulinellaCentrioleMitochondrionCristaCell WallCelluloseStarchMonophyleticBrown AlgaeChlorophyll APhycobiliproteinViridiplantaeChlorophyll BCyanobacteriaCladeMonophyleticParaphyleticEukaryoteCladeViridiplantaeEmbryophyteMagnolia VirginianaMonophylyParaphylyEukaryoteDiagrammatic FormEnlargeGlaucophyteGlaucocystisGlaucophytePeptidoglycanEnlargeRhodophytaLaurenciaRhodophytaPhycobiliproteinAccessory PigmentViridiplantaeEnlargeChlorophytaStigeocloniumChlorophytaUlvophyceaeTrebouxiophyceaeChlorophyceaeChlorodendralesPrasinophyteMesostigmaCharophytaChlorokybalesKlebsormidialesZygnematalesColeochaetalesStreptophytinaCharalesPlantaeDiaphoretickesGlaucophytaRhodophytaViridiplantaeChlorophytaStreptophytaMesostigmatophyceaeChlorokybophyceaeKlebsormidiophyceaePhragmoplastophytaCharophyceaeColeochaetophyceaeZygnematophyceaeEmbryophyteCharophytaEmbryophytaGreen AlgaeEmbryophytaHacrobiaCryptistaHaptistaSAR SupergroupHalvariaStramenopilesAlveolataRhizariaTelonemiaPicozoaEndosymbiotic TheoryUlvophyceaeStonewortEndosymbiotic TheoryEuglenidChlorarachniophyteHeterokontCryptomonadHaptophyteDinoflagellateRafatazmiaStromatolitesMicrofossilMesoproterozoicMolecular ClockBangiomorphaNeoproterozoicPaleozoicDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed 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(biology)Template:Archaea ClassificationTemplate:Bacteria ClassificationTemplate:EukaryotaKingdom (biology)Template:Plant ClassificationTemplate:HacrobiaTemplate:HeterokontTemplate:AlveolataTemplate:RhizariaTemplate:ExcavataTemplate:AmoebozoaTemplate:Opisthokont ProtistsTemplate:AnimaliaTemplate:Fungi ClassificationPlants+HC+SAR MegagroupPlantGlaucophyteRed AlgaeViridiplantaePlantGreen AlgaeStreptophytaCryptistaCorbiheliaCryptophytaHaptistaCentroheliozoaHaptophytaSAR SupergroupHalvariaAlveolateCiliateMyzozoaHeterokontBicosoecidHyphochytriomycotaOchrophytaOomycotaPirsonialesPlacidozoaSagenistaRhizariaFilosaPhytomyxeaRetariaIncertae SedisKamera LensExcavataAncyromonadidaMalawimonadeaMetamonadaAnaeromonadaTrichozoaDiscobaJakobeaTsukubeaDiscicristataEuglenozoaPercolozoaPodiataAmorpheaAmoebozoaConosaArchamoebaeSemiconosiaLobosaCutoseaDiscoseaTubulineaObazoaApusomonadidaBreviateaOpisthokontHolomycotaCristidiscoideaOpisthosporidiaAphelidaCryptomycotaMicrosporidiaFungusHolozoaChoanoflagellateFilastereaAnimalTeretosporeaMesomycetozoeaCorallochytreaVarisulcaMantamonadidaRigifilidaIncertae SedisAncoracysta TwistaParakaryon MyojinensisAcritarchCharniaGrypaniaKingdom (biology)ProtistTemplate:Plant ClassificationTemplate Talk:Plant ClassificationPlantDomain (biology)Template:Archaea ClassificationTemplate:Bacteria ClassificationTemplate:EukaryotaKingdom (biology)Template:Plant ClassificationTemplate:HacrobiaTemplate:HeterokontTemplate:AlveolataTemplate:RhizariaTemplate:ExcavataTemplate:AmoebozoaTemplate:Opisthokont ProtistsTemplate:AnimaliaTemplate:Fungi ClassificationRed AlgaeCyanidiophyceaePorphyridiophyceaeCompsopogonophyceaeStylonematophyceaeRhodellophyceaeBangiophyceaeFlorideophyceaeGlaucophyteGlaucophyteGlaucocystisCyanophoraGloeochaeteViridiplantaeGreen AlgaeChlorophytaPalmophyllalesNephroselmidophyceaePrasinophyceaePseudoscourfieldialesPyramimonadalesScourfieldialesPedinomonadaceaeChlorodendralesUTC CladeUlvophyceaeTrebouxiophyceaeChlorophyceaeStreptophytaCharophytesMesostigmaChlorokybusKlebsormidiaceaePhragmoplastophytaCharophyceaeColeochaetalesZygnematophyceaeEmbryophyteBryophyteMarchantiophytaHornwortMossHorneophytopsidaVascular PlantLycopodiophytaMicrophyllZosterophyllopsidaSawdonialesIsoetopsidaLycopodiopsidaEuphyllophyteMegaphyllMoniliformopsesCladoxylopsidaStauropteridalesZygopteridalesEquisetopsidaPsilotopsidaMarattiaceaeFernSpermatophytePteridospermatophytaGymnospermGnetophytaPinophytaCycadGinkgoalesFlowering PlantAmborellalesNymphaealesAustrobaileyalesMagnoliidsMonocotyledonEudicotsTrimerophytopsidaProgymnospermRhyniopsidaExtinctList 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